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Metallurgie

(2,593 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Giesen, Katharina (Tübingen) | Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
I. Alter Orient [English version] A. Metallgewinnung Metalle (= Met.) werden aus Erzen gewonnen (Verhüttung); Edel-Met.: Gold, Silber, Elektron; Grund-Met.: Kupfer, Zinn, Blei, Eisen. Der Anfang der M. dürfte in mineralogisch günstigen Regionen, vornehmlich in der Nähe der (Kupfer-)Erzlagerstätten Anatoliens zu suchen sein. Elemente der Pyrotechnologie sind schon aus akeramisch-neolithischen Siedlungen des frühen 7. Jt.v.Chr. nachweisbar, insbes. Produkte eines aus Kupfererz erschmolzenen Met. Durch Sc…

Golasecca culture

(265 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] Chronologically, the Golasecca culture (GC) encompasses the 12th to the 4th cents. BC, with the proto-GC (12th-11th cents. BC) regarded as the first stage that was still Bronze Age; spatially the GC stretches from the source region of the Ticino via Lago Maggiore and Lago di Como to the Po. This culture which can mainly be understood through tomb inventories is divided up into three groups that initially all favoured cremation. The western group with the important necropoleis Sest…

Este Culture

(241 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] The term Este culture is applied broadly to the Iron Age population group of the Veneti in the period between 1000 und 300 BC (chronological table in  Golasecca culture), whose material legacy from the area between the Po, Lake Garda, the north-eastern arc of the Alps and the Adriatic indicates a relatively homogeneous group at a similar stage of development. The name is taken from the necropoleis of the most important settlement of the early period, today's Este. Other centres we…

Terramare culture

(182 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] Bronze Age culture in the Po valley, characterised by earth mounds with dark nutrient-rich soil containing the remains of TC settlements and used in modern times as fertiliser. The range of the TC is delineated by modern Emilia and Veneto. In time, it encompassed the middle (16th-14th cents. BC) and late (13th-12th cents. BC) Bronze Age. Few settlements have been examined to date; better known find locations are Poviglio, Tabina and Castione dei Marchesi. The finds show rectangula…

Ausonian Culture

(296 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] The term Ausonian Culture is used to describe the culture of the Liparian Islands and the north-east of Sicily during the Late Bronze Age and at the end of the Bronze Age. The name is a reference to Auson, the father of the mythical founder Liparus (Diod. Sic. 5,7,5-6; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,22,3). The Italian mainland origins of the  Ausones are generally accepted on account of the similarities between archaeological finds from their culture with those from the Subappenine cultur…

Pantalica

(235 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Villanova Culture The ancient settlement of P. lies in the hinterland of Syracusae (Sicily). The plateau of approximately 8 ha in area is naturally protected by deeply incised valleys, and is connected with the surrounding area only by a narrow saddle. It may be identical with the pre-Greek Hybla [2]. All that survives of the ancient settlement are the remains of the so-called anáktoron, considered to be the seat of the ruler of P. In addition to living spaces, this building also contained a bronze worksh…

Hoard finds

(754 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] I. Celto-Germanic area In central Europe from the Byzantine period onwards, hoard finds (HF; storage, treasure, safekeeping, mass, hidden finds, etc.) primarily of metal objects (copper, bronze, iron, precious metals) are an important archaeological group of finds. The diversity of terms reflects the breadth of the discussion of the importance of the HF. The various contexts of the finds, e.g. solid ground, moors, rivers, special places (rocks, crevices, caves, transport routes, etc.…

Tolfa

(213 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] The T. mountain zone lies between the modern towns of Civitavecchia and Bracciano, about 70 km to the north of Rome. On the evidence of the rich hoard finds of Coste del Marano and Monte Rovello and the settlements of Luni sul Mignone, Monte Rovello and several necropoleis it first flourished at the end of the Bronze Age (12th-10th cents. BC). By contrast, it is not until the Etruscan period (from the 7th cent. BC) that there seems to have been a further intensive phase of settlem…
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