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Victricius

(190 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[English version] Geb. um 340 n. Chr., beendete zw. 360 und 363 nach seinem Übertritt zum christl. Glauben den Militärdienst (so jedenfalls Paul. Nol. epist. 18,7 mit detaillierter Beschreibung der Umstände) und wurde ca. 380/386 Bischof von Ratomagus (h. Rouen). Aus dieser Zeit sind Briefe des Paulinus [5] von Nola (epist. 18 und 37) und des röm. Bischofs Innocentius I. ([1. Bd. 1, 286]: ein liber regularum) an ihn erhalten. Schwerpunkt seiner Arbeit waren der Kampf gegen die homöische Reichskirchentheologie (Trinität III.; Arianismus), die Förderung des Mö…

Vincentius von Lerinum

(536 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[English version] I. Leben Theologe, gest. vor 450 n. Chr. V. von Lerinum (Lérins) starb vor 450 n. Chr., vielleicht um 435. Nach Gennadius (De viris illustribus 65) und Eucherius [3] (De laude heremi 42; Instructiones I, praef. p. 66,5 Wotke) wurde er in Nordfrankreich geb. und verfolgte einen profanen Lebenslauf, bevor er sich vor 427 als Priestermönch auf der kleineren der beiden Inseln Lerinum/Lérins vor Cannes niederließ (Saint-Honorat), die v. a. adligen Flüchtlingen aus Gallien als “Flüchtlingsklos…

Tertullian

(762 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (ca. 160–ca. 225) was an African church father who wrote primarily in Latin. Texts available for a reconstruction of Tertullian’s biography include, next to his own writings, accounts by Eusebius (ca. 260–ca. 340) and Jerome (ca. 345–420). It has been shown, however, that information from the fourth-century authors should not be used uncritically. From his own writings it appears that Tertullian’s father possibly was in the military, and one could add Jerome’s account that his father was a centurio proconsularis, thus a centurion in the cohors …

Jerome

(956 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
Jerome (ca. 345–420), born Eusebius Hieronymus (perhaps as early as 333), was an outstanding translator, exegete, and theologian of the early church. He was the son of a well-to-do Christian family that owned property in Strido (near Emona, or modern Ljubljana, Slovenia). He was educated in Rome, and his teachers included, until 363, the famous grammarian Aelius Donatus (though not Marius Victorinus, neither does Jerome seem to have been closely acquainted with Ambrose in Rome; he did, however, …

Leo I

(910 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
Leo I (d. 461), known as Leo the Great, was pope beginning in the summer of 440. Not much is known about Leo’s early years. Suggestions that he was born in Tuscany remain improbable as long as other signs point to an urban Roman origin. Before becoming pope, he was (arch)deacon at the papal ¶ court, and as early as 440 Empress Galla Placidia entrusted him with a political mission to Gaul. Leo devoted a great deal of energy to his urban Roman congregation, particularly through his sermons, and encouraged the production of narrative and pictorial cyc…

Sozomenos

(312 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[English version] Salamanes Hermeias (Σῳζομενός, Σαλαμάνης Ἑρμείας), wahrscheinlich in Bethelea bei Gaza (evtl. das h. Bait Lāhiyā) in einer begüterten christl. Familie geb. (vgl. Phot. cod. 30; Soz. 5,15,14). Geburts- und Todesdatum lassen sich nicht ermitteln. Der palaestinische, z. T. auch monastische Kontext seiner Jugend (Mönchtum) prägt noch seine zw. 439 und 450 n. Chr. verfaßte Ἐκκλησιαστικὴ ἱστορία/‘Kirchengeschichte (=‘K.; Soz. 1,1,19). Nach 425 arbeitete S. als Rechtsanwalt (Soz. 2,3,10) bzw. scholastikós (so Phot. l.c. und die Tite…

Apostles' Creed

(608 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] The received text (T, first attested by Pirmin, Scarapsus §§10/12/28) of the creed known in the modern period as the Symbolum apostolicum or Symbolum Apostolorum goes back to the so-called Old Roman creed (R). The great majority of scholars accept the hypothesis of J. Ussher, archbishop of Armagh (1647), that R is first attested in Greek in Marcellus of Ancyra (Epiphanius, Haer. 72.3.1 = BSGR §17) or in the Psalter of Aethelstan (§18); the Latin text can be reconstructed from Rufinus's Explanatio symboli (§19). From 1910–1916 onward,…

Cappadocian Theology

(542 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] The monastic theologians and bishops, Basil the Great, his brother Gregory of Nyssa and their friend Gregory of Nazianzus came from the province of Cappadocia in Asia Minor and spent most of their lives there. For this reason, they are often referred to by modern historians and theologians as “the three great Cappadocians.” A cousin of Gregory of Nazianzus and colleague of Basil, Amphilochius of Iconium, is sometimes added to their number. The t…

Dionysius of Milan

(138 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] officiated from about 351 as bishop of Milan. On account of his bold stance at the synod held there in 355 (Homoeans), Constantius II banished him to Armenia together with Eusebius of Vercelli and Lucifer of Cagliari; he died there. Perhaps still in the 4th century, his remains were brought back to Milan, though certainly not under his second successor Ambrose of Milan, as a secondary passage in a let-¶ ter of Basil the Great would seem to want to suggest (Bas. Ep. 197.2; cf. BHL 2168–2170). Christoph Markschies Bibliography S. Cavallin, “Die Legendenbildung um den Mai…

Dynamism

(134 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] Traditional terminology in the history of dogma and theology distinguishes between “Dynamic” and a “Modalist” Monarchianism. It thereby subsumes under a common generic term (although see A. v. Harnack) the groups that energetically combatted the Logos theology (Logos) and the doctrine of a plurality of divine hypostases (Hypostasis; in e.g. …

Ptolemy the Gnostic

(406 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] Ptolemy worked in Rome as a freelance Christian teacher around the middle of the 2nd century; he was active in the “school” of the Roman teacher Valentinus (Iren. Haer. I prol. 2), possibly because he was a personal disciple of Valentinus. Only one text survives that can be ascribed to Ptolemy with assurance: an instructional epistle to the Roman matron Flora, preserved by Epiphanius of Salamis ( Haer. 33.3–7). The epistle deals with biblical interpretation, the Old Testament law, and the theory of principles. A brief discussion of Valentinian Gn…

Aquarians

(150 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] The use of water instead of wine in the Lord's Supper is attested esp. in the so-called NT Apocrypha ( Acts Pet. II 2; Acts Paul 7; Acts Thom. 120–21/152/158[?]), but it seems also to have been customary occasionally when wine was unavailable in the mainstream church ( Martyrdom of Pionius 3.1); Irenaeus ascribed a corresponding practice to Jewish Christians ( Haer. V 1.3); Clement of Alexandria to Encratites ( Paedagogus II 32.3–4; Stromata I 96.1); Epiphanius to Marcion ( Haer. 42.3.3); Theodoret to students of Tatian called ῾Υδροπαραστάται/ Hydroparastátai (Thdt. Hae…

Musanus

(117 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] According to Eusebius ( Hist. eccl. IV 28, cf. also 21) Musanus wrote a lost, “very elegant” book against people who had gone over to the so-called Encratites. Both the author's date and his place remain unclear. Suggestions, among others, are (because of the statement of Eusebius) the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161–180), or on the basis of Eusebius, Chronicorum liber ad annum, 2220 the time of Septimius Severus (193–211), and the regions of Egypt or Asia Minor. Christoph Markschies Bibliography A. v. Harnack, Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur bis E…

Encratites

(130 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] The Early Church's heresiologies employ this term (derived from Gk ἐγκράτεια/ enkráteia, “self-control,” “abstinence”) to describe a group of ascestics (Asceticism) and date their origins to the 2nd century. Irenaeus traces them back to Saturninus of Antioch and Marcion ( Haer. I 28.1); he, like Eusebius of Caesarea, names as founder the Syrian Tatian (Eus. Hist. eccl. IV 29.6). Typical ascetic positions are attributed to them, for example the renunciation of marriage and the consumption of …

Montanus

(124 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] was one of the three founders of a 2nd-century prophetic movement in Asia Minor (Maximilla, Priscilla and Quintilla), which since the 4th century has been called Montanism after him. As his Phrygian name indicates, he apparently came from Asia Minor. Later heresiology (Heresy: II, 2) in authors of the 4th century transmits further but probably unhistorical details of his life. Thus he is said to have been originally a priest of Apollo ( Disputatio [in Heine, 123]) or Cybele (Jer. Ep. 41,4), and to have hanged himself. Epiphanius of Salamis records four prophe…

Lietzmann, Hans

(458 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] (Mar 3, 1875, Düsseldorf – Jun 25, 1942, Locarno). After passing his Abitur in Wittenberg, Lietzmann went to Jena in 1893 to study classical philology and theology, but it was his studies at Bonn from 1894 to 1898 that enduringly influenced him. There his real academic mentor was H. Usener, a renowned scholar in classical philology and religious studies, from whom he acquired a love of philological detail, a particular concern for large-scale religio-historical relationships, and a great inte…

Paul Melanos

(230 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] of Bēth Ukkāme (Paul the Black, Paulos Melanos; c. 500 Alexandria – 584 Constantinople). In 564 Jacob Baradaeus consecrated Archimandrite Paul, who had grown up in Alexandria, as the anti-Chalcedonian (Jacobite) patriarch of Antioch (Monophysites), a position he held until 577. His tenure was beset by serious church-political conflicts. A temporary flirtation of the patriarch with the creed of Chalcedon affirming the two natures of Christ (c. 571) was followed by an abrupt dissoci…

Nestorianismus

(870 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[English Version] . Der Begriff N. kann in zweifacher Weise verwendet werden: Erstens bez. er die Theol. (und gelegentlich auch die Kirchenorganisation) der heutigen »Hl. Apostolischen und Kath. Ass. Kirche des Ostens«, deren Glieder auch »Nestorianer« (oder »Ostsyrer« bzw. »Chaldäer«; Apostolische Kirche des Ostens) genannt werden, weil sie 484/486 n.Chr. in bewußtem Gegensatz zur röm. Reichskirche die Christologie des Nestorius annahmen, die auf dem Konzil von Ephesus 431 verurteilt worden war (Nestoriani…

Ptolemaios

(382 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[English Version] (Ptolemaeus), Gnostiker. P. lebte als freier christl. Lehrer um die Mitte des 2.Jh. in Rom und war in der »Schule« des röm. Lehrers Valentinus tätig (Iren.haer. I prol. 2), möglicherweise deswegen, weil er dessen persönlicher Schüler war. Nur noch ein einziger Text kann P. mit Sicherheit zugeschrieben werden: der bei Epiphanius von Salamis überlieferte Lehrbrief an die röm. Matrone Flora über Bibelauslegung, das atl. Gesetz und die Prinzipientheorie (Epiph.haer. 33,3–7). Ein Re…

Paulus

(200 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[English Version] von Bēth Ukkāme (= Paulus, der Schwarze, oder Paulos Melanos; um 500 Alexandrien – 584 Konstantinopel). Der in Alexandrien aufgewachsene Archimandrit P. wurde 564 von Jakob Baradaeus zum antichalcedonensischen (jakobitischen) Patriarch von Antiochien geweiht (Monophysiten/Monophysitismus) und amtierte bis 577. Seine Amtszeit war durch schwere kirchenpolit. Auseinandersetzungen gekennzeichnet: Einer vorübergehenden Annäherung des Patriarchen an das Bekenntnis des Reichskonzils Cha…
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