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Fibula

(55 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] (Lat. fibula, from figibula; figere, ‘tack’, ‘pin’), a multi-part clasp used in clothing. Because of the wide range of types and decor, fibulae provide one of the most important guides for the differentiation and chronology of prehistoric and primitive cultures. For the various types and cultures, see  Needle. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)

Matunas

(123 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan family name of an important gens from Caere (today Cerveteri; 4th/3rd century BC), known from the inscriptions of two chamber tombs in that place, the Tomba dei Tarquini and the Tomba dei Rilievi. The latter is the most elaborately furnished Etruscan chamber grave in the form of an Atrium with thirteen niches which represent cubicula. The names ascribed to the dead compose a genealogy of four generations, the name of the grave's donor Vel Matunas, son of Lars, being inscribed on a Cippus at the entrance to the grave. Funerary architecture (III. C. 1.) Prayon, Fried…

Alişar

(86 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Hill covered with settlements, located in northern Cappadocia to the south-east of  Boghazki. Excavations in 1930-32 under H. H. von der Osten. These revealed, for the first time in Chalcolithic central Anatolia, continuous settlement histories from into Byzantine times [2]. Chronologically of importance is the post-Hittite-‘Phrygian’ layer of Alişar IV with ceramics in the style of silhouette-like animals [1. 1-10; 3]. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 E. Akurgal, Phryg. Kunst, 1955 2 H. H. v. d. Osten, The Alishar Hüyük, OIP 29-30, 1937 3 G. …

Partunu

(67 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan name of a gens (small clan with a shared ancestor) from Tarquinia. It is found on an elaborately furnished family grave of the 4th/3rd cents. BC; the sarcophagi of the individual family members are identified by their names and offices. Tarquinii Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography H. Rix (Ed.), Etr. Texte, 1991, Ta 1.9, 1.13, 1.15  S. Steingräber, Etrurien. Städte, Heiligtümer, Nekropolen, 1981, 398.

Etruscans: later reception

(1,351 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) In contrast to the reception of Greek and Roman cultures, the reception of Etruscan culture can be considered peripheral and largely indirect. However, during the Renaissance and in the 18th cent. (as a result of a 'misinterpretation', particularly in the field of architecture) it was of some importance, as well as in the modern era.  Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) [German version] B. From the Renaissance to the 17th Century (CT) Even though individual monuments and literary reports of the Etruscans were k…

Tarchna

(80 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Etruscan name for the city of Tarquinia Etruscan name for the city of Tarquinia (Tarquinii) from the 5th cent. BC (Early Etruscan: * tarchuna). Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Etruscan nomen gentile Etruscan nomen gentile, especially in the 'Tomb of Inscriptions' in Caere/Cerveteri. The names of more than seven generations are inscribed there, of which the two last are in the Latinized form Tarquitius. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography M. Cristofani, La Tomba delle Iscrizioni a Cerveteri, 1965.

Liber linteus

(91 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan book type in the form of a written linen cloth folded according to a fixed pattern. The so-called ‘Mummy-wrapping of Agram’ ( liber linteus Zagrabiensis) is preserved in the original with c. 40 cm height and 340 cm preserved length containing a ritual text in calendric form ( Calendar; no earlier than the 3rd cent. BC). There are also pictorial and sculpted copies of libri lintei in Etruscan graves, on sarcophagi and urns. Divination Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography F. Roncalli (ed.), Scrivere etrusco. Exhibition catalogue Perugia, 1985.

Lasa

(73 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Young Etruscan goddess or demon mostly represented as winged; on Hellenistic mirrors she appears together with goddesses, heroes or nymphs. Her name appears frequently with epithets that indicate different functions that are still not clarified in detail. It is also not clear how she is distinguished from Etruscan Vanth. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. L., Dizionario della civiltà etrusca, 1985, 148 R. Lambrechts, s.v. L., LIMC 6, 217-225.

Arimnestus

(60 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan king who, according to  Pausanias (5,12,5), made a votive offering at Olympia as the first foreigner: a throne that was placed in the temple of Zeus. Cf. the throne of the Phrygian king Midas as the oldest votive offering in Delphi made by an outsider. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography M. Cristofani (ed.), Dizionario della civiltà etrusca, 1985.

Templum

(270 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Term in Roman augural theory for an augural temple (Fest. 157) and for the field of observation marked out by the  augur for collecting auspices (cf. Varro Ling. 7,6-10; Liv. 1,18,6-8); everything outside it is described as tescum. In general the term templum referred primarily to sacred buildings (Temple), but also to other locations “in quibus auspicato et publice res administrarentur et senatus haberi posset” (' in which public affairs were regulated by auspices and a meeting of the Senate could be held', Serv. Aen. 1,466) [1]. Because of the spatial divisio…

Olla

(103 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Italian name ('pot') for Etruscan vessels: 1. in the form of clay cauldrons; 2. of round-bellied vessels with handles and base. 'Thina' inscriptions of the 7th/6th cents. BC from Cerveteri (Caere) bear witness not only to the Etruscan name of the vessel type, but also to its linguistic affinity to the dinos of the Hellenic world, whose shape was related. The inscription thina on an amphora of the 5th/4th cent. in Populonia suggests that the name was later also transferred to other restricted vessel shapes. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography G. Colonna, Nomi etru…

Nortia

(156 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan and Roman goddess. According to Liv. 7,3,7, year nails were driven in her temple in Volsinii, in analogy to the custom at the temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline in Rome. The sanctuary has not been localised with certainty. Inscriptions in Bolsena attested to the continuation of the cult until the 3rd cent. AD (CIL VI 537,4: Nortia, te veneror, Lari cretus Vulsiniensi), and there is also an honorary inscription dedicated to a c[ uratori t] empli deae N[ ort] ia[ e] [1]. The Etruscan name of the goddess may have been * Nurti, from which gens names such as Nurtine are der…

Uni

(147 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Supreme Etruscan female deity, etymologically linked with Latin Iuno and perhaps originating in Latium. She was assimilated to Greek Hera at an early stage, e.g. she is the wife of Tinia/Zeus. But U. also had Italic elements (Iono Sospita) with special relationships to Hercle/Heracles [1] and Turan [1]/Aphrodite. U. was a patron goddess of some cities, e.g. Veii, from where the cult and statue were removed to Rome in 396 BC by evocatio (Iuno Regina), and of some sanctuaries (Pyrgi [1], Graviscae, Caere), often in cultic association with other deities,…

Micali Painter

(107 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] An important Etruscan vase-painter of the black-figure style ( Vase painting, black-figured) with a workshop at Vulci (ca. 530-500 BC); attribution by Beazley, refined by Spivey. He displays a penchant for ornamental motifs and winged creatures such as sirens, sphinxes and pegasi. The figures are often elongated and drawn with expressive gestures: they are initially under strong Ionian, later Attic influence. Battle scenes are dominant among motifs of mythical imagery. The workshop continued, at a lower level of achievement, until the early 5th. cent. (Spivey). Pr…

Caput Oli

(95 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] According to Roman tradition, the head ( caput) of the Etruscan hero Aulus Vibenna ( olus), discovered when the foundation stone was laid for the Roman temple of Jupiter in the 6th cent. BC, prophesying the future greatness of Rome (Liv. 1,55,5; 5,54,7; Arnob. 6,7; Serv. Aen. 8,345). The historicity of an Aulus Vibenna from Vulci is evident in Etruscan and Latin inscriptions and grave paintings. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography A. Alföldi, Das frühe Rom und die Latiner, 1977, 200-204 with fn. 162 M. Pallottino, in: F. Buranelli (ed.), La Tomba François d…

Etruscology

(1,330 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Research on the Etruscans as a people and culture did not follow a linear progression, nor was it initially guided by scholarly considerations. Instead it was full of speculation ( Etruscheria) and theories of art. However, since the 19th cent. Etruscology has been a significant element in the development of the methodology and modern questions of Classical Studies. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) [German version] B. Middle Ages and Renaissance (CT) Apart from occasional references in the Tuscan chronicles o…

Leinie

(47 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan nomen gentile from Volsinii/Orvieto, passed down epigraphically and pictorially over several generations in the Tomba Golini I (4th cent. BC) there. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography J. Heurgon, Un legatus à Volsinii, in: MEFRA 86, 1974, 707-721 S. Steingräber (ed.), Etr. Wandmalerei, 1985, 286.

Saties

(88 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Important Etruscan gens, known from the Tomba François in Volci/Vulci, 4th/3rd cent. BC. Several family members are named in inscriptions there, the founder of the tomb, Vel S., is depicted richly robed. An Avele Sataiies, dedicator of an Attic vase of unknown provenance in Heidelberg (end of the 6th cent. BC), and a Fasti S., mentioned by name on an Hellenistic urn from Clusium (modern Chiusi), were probably members of the same gens. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography F. Buranelli (ed.), La Tomba François di Vulci, 1987, 147-161.

Hulchnie

(26 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan gentilicium of aristocratic families, especially in  Volsinii and  Tarquinii (Tomba dell' Orco), possibly synonymous with the Latin Fulginii. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)

Laran

(97 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan god of war, most often depicted as a youth and identified by name. From the 5th cent. BC represented on Etruscan mirrors, frequently in the context with other deities, especially with Turan/Aphrodite; to a large extent equivalent to Greek Ares and Roman Mars, not identical with Etruscan Maris. L. also occurs on vessels and as free-standing sculpture (monumental: ‘Mars of Todi’), but not on the bronze liver of Piacenza ( Divination VII). Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. L., Dizionario della civiltà etrusca, 1985, 147f. E. Simon, s.…
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