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Karisch

(706 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)

Mirā

(1,453 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[English version] I. Geographische Lage, Grenzen M. (hethit. auch Merā-) ist der Name des Kernlandes des seit dem 16. Jh.v.Chr. v.a. durch die hethit. Überl. (Hethitisch) greifbaren, bedeutenden westkleinasiatischen luw.-sprachigen (Luwisch) Staates Arzawa sowie des ca. 131…

Lydisch

(457 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[English version] Die zu den anatolischen Sprachen gehörende, in einer eigenen, teils links-, teils rechtsläufigen Alphabetschrift (Kleinasien V., mit Karte) überl. Sprache der Lyder. Bekannt sind bis h. ca. 100 Inschr. (einschließlich einiger Graffiti, Siegel- und Mz.-Aufschriften), von denen die Mehrzahl, darunter zwei lyd.-griech. und zwei lyd.-aram. Bilinguen, aus dem 5.-4./3. Jh.v.Chr. stammt, während die Graffiti und Mz. z.T. älter sind (ab E. 8./Anf. 7. Jh.). Haupt-FO ist Sardeis; weitere F…

Palaisch

(282 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[English version] Die zu den anatolischen Sprachen gehörende, aus dem 16.-15. Jh.v.Chr. durch die Hethiter (Ḫattusa II., Hethitisch) überl. Sprache des nordwestl. des Halys in Paphlagonia gelegenen Landes Plā (keilschriftlich Pa-la-a-), das zusammen mit dem benachbarten Tum(m)anna (Ḫattusa II., Karte) in den griech. Landschaftsnamen Blaē̈nḗ und Domanítis fortlebt; die Sprachbenennung, nach hethit. Plaumnili- (Ableitung vom Ethnikon Plaumen-*), sollte also besser “Plaisch” lauten. Über die Ausdehnung des p. Sprachgebietes besteht keine Klarheit, da die be…

Reitkunst

(749 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[English version] A. Einleitung Unter R. ist die im Alt. zur mil. Nutzung des Pferdes (Pf.) entwickelte und bis h. für das europäische R…

Hethitisch

(721 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[English version] A. Überlieferung Die in babylon. Keilschrift überl. Sprache der im 2. Jt. v.Chr. in Kleinasien polit. führenden Hethiter (Kerngebiet etwa der vom Halys/Kızıl İrmak umschriebene geogr. Bereich, Ḫattusa II), von ihnen selbst Nesumnili- “Nesisch” gen., eine Ableitung vom ON Nēsa- (= altassyr. Kaneš, bei Kayseri; die moderne Sprachbezeichnung ist wissenschaftsgesch. bedingt); zugleich der hinsichtlich Umfang und themat. Vielfalt seines Textcorpus sowie im Hinblick auf seine philol. Auf- und Durcharbeitung (seit 1915) wichtigste Vertreter der anatolischen Sprachen. Die ganz überwiegend aus der Hauptstadt Ḫattusa (Boğazköy/Boğazkale; Grabungen: 1906/7, 1911/2, 1931-1939, seit 1952 andauernd, Ḫattusa I), aber auch aus Maşat, Kuşak…

Sēḫa (Seha River Land)

(776 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Geographic location, borders Luwian-speaking (Luwian) state in Northwestern Asia Minor documented in Hittite transmission in the 15th-13th cents. BC. Its core area comprised the valleys of the Hermus [2] and the Caecus [1] (merging near the coast), and its name is derived from one of these two rivers. The Hittite designation is Sēḫas utnē (in Akkadian orthography KUR ÍD ŠE-E-ḪA) 'the land o…

Horsemanship

(884 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Introduction …

Wilusa

(674 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] State recorded in the 14th-13th cents. BC by the Hittite tradition (Hittite U̯ilusa-/ U̯ilussa-) in the northwest of Asia Minor, which was initially known to the Hittites at the end of the 15th cent. under the name Āssuwa (=Ā.). Its geographical location in the Troad (cf. Ḫattusa II, map, and above all the maps in [2. 304-307]), which was pro…

Mirā

(1,697 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Geographical site, boundaries M. (Hittite also Merā-) is the name of the core territory of the significant Luwi…

Carian

(845 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] Language of the inhabitants of Caria ( Cares, Caria), documented in c. 200 inscriptions -- from the 7th-4th cents. BC that are mostly very short or fragmentary and written in a characteristic alphabetic script -- which apart from Greek-Carian bilingual inscriptions from Athens that came from Carian mercenaries and almost solely contain personal names, for the most part come from Egypt (e.g. Saqqāra, Abydus, Abu Simbel), and to a lesser extent from Caria itself (e.g. Caunus, Hyllarima, Sinur…

Lydian

(527 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] Lydian, belonging to the Anatolian languages, is the language of the Lydians and is transmitted in its own alphabetical script, which is written either left-to-right or right-to-left ( Asia Minor V., with map). Around 100 inscriptions are known today (including several graffiti and inscriptions on seals and coins), the majority of them, including two Lydian-Greek and two Lydian-Aramaic bilingual inscriptions, stemming from the 5th-4th/3rd cent. BC, while some of the graffiti and coins are older …

Anatolian languages

(472 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] The earliest documented Indo-Germanic language branch, which occurs in Asia Minor; ranged in the 2nd millennium from the Aegean coast to the Euphrates, gradually in the 1st millennium through  Phrygia, later above all through  Greece until it penetrated relatively inaccessible parts of the Taurus mountains (East Pisidia, Lycaonia, Isauria), where Anatolian (Luwian) language carriers remained, probably until the early Byzantine era. To the Anatolian languag…

Lukka

(660 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] Hittite name attested in the 14th-13th cents. BC ( Lu-uk-ka/ ka4-a- [Lukkā-], with a stem ending of prolonged grade and certainly accented. Akkadian

Luwian

(2,869 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Documented period, language area Derived from the Hittite designation Luu̯ili-, Luwian is the term for the most widespread representative of the Anatolian languages in Asia Minor. It is attested in two dialects, both recorded in different writing systems. Cuneiform Luwian (CL, 16th to 13th cent. BC) and Hieroglyphic Luwian (HL, 15th to early 7th cent. BC), as well as in its late successors Pisidian (Pis., 3rd cent. AD), Lycian (5th to 4th cent. BC) and Milyan (Mil.,…

Sidetic

(153 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] One of the  Anatolian languages; written in its own alphabetic script (Asia Minor VI), which runs from right to left, and attested in Side and the surrounding area. In addition to inscriptions on coins (5th/4th cent. BC), six mostly brief dedicatory inscriptions are known today, among them three that are bilingual (Sidetic-Greek; one is from Seleucia/Lyrbe), one voting tablet, and one inscription on a vessel from the 3rd/2nd…

Hittite

(863 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] …

Tarhuntassa

(247 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] Inland country of the Hittite Empire (Ḫattusa II. with map) in southern Asia Minor, which first makes an appearance in history at the time of Muwattalli II ( c. 1290-1272 BC) during the temporary relocation of the Hittite capital to this region's capital of the same name (T.; at modern Karaman or in the upper  Calycadnus valley). After Mursili III Urḫitesub ( c. 1272-1265) was deposed, Ḫattusili II (previously “III”; c.  1265-1240) established in T., as compensation for his brother Kurunta Ulmitesub who had been excluded from the legitimate successi…

Palaic

(335 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] The language of the country of Plā (cuneiform Pa-la-a-) situated northwest of the Halys in Paphlagonia. It belongs to the Anatolian languages and is passed down from the 16th-15th cent. BC by the Hittites (Ḫattusa II, Hittite). The names of Plā and of neighbouring Tum(m)anna (Ḫattusa II , map), survive in the Greek regional names

Lukkā

(525 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
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