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Karisch

(706 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[English version] Sprache der Bewohner Kariens (Kares, Karia), bezeugt durch ca. 200 zumeist sehr kurze bzw. fragmentarische, in eigentümlicher Alphabetschrift geschriebene Inschr. des 7.-4. Jh.v.Chr., die abgesehen von einer griech.-k. Bilingue aus Athen zum größeren Teil - von k. Söldnern herrührend und fast nur PN enthaltend - aus Äg. (z.B. Saqqāra, Abydos, Abu Simbel), zum geringeren Teil aus Karien selbst …

Hieroglyphenschriften

(996 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Günter (Würzburg) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[English version] I. Kreta Ein früher auch “piktographisch” gen. (bisher nicht entziffertes) Schriftsystem mit oft bildhaften Zeichen (Körperteile von Mensch und Tieren, Pflanzen, Früchte, Gefäße, Waffen, Musikinstrumente usw.) ist im Rahmen der min. Hochkultur auf Kreta geschaffen und dort v.a. in der ersten Palastzeit (1900-1700 v.Chr.)…

Mirā

(1,453 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[English version] I. Geographische Lage, Grenzen M. (hethit. auch Merā-) ist der Name des Kernlandes des seit dem 16. Jh.v.Chr. v.a. durch die hethit. Überl. (Hethitisch) greifbaren, bedeutenden westkleinasiatischen luw.-sprachigen (Luwisch) Staates Arzawa sowie des ca. 1315 v.Chr. daraus gebildeten hethit. Vasallenstaates. Dieser stieg E. des 13. Jh. zum Großkönigtum auf und überlebte möglicherweise den Zusammenbruch des hethit. Großreiches (kurz nach 1200 v.Chr.; s. Ḫattusa II.). Der westl. Teil von M., mit der arzawischen Hauptstadt Abasa/Ephesos, umfaßte das Gebiet des späteren Ionien, Süd-Lydien und Nord-Karien, wobei das Gebirgsmassiv der Boz Dağları (griech. Tmolos) die Grenze zum nördl. Nachbarstaat Sēḫa bildete (h. definitiv gesichert durch die Neulesung der Inschr. vom Karabel; s.u. II.B.). Im Süden grenzte M. - die Halbinsel Mykale (hethit.

Lydisch

(457 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[English version] Die zu den anatolischen Sprachen gehörende, in einer eigenen, teils links-, teils rechtsläufigen Alphabetschrift (Kleinasien V., mit Karte) überl. Sprache der Lyder. Bekannt sind bis h. ca. 100 Inschr. (einschließlich einiger Graffiti, Siegel- und Mz.-Aufschriften), von denen die Mehrzahl, darunter zwei lyd.-griech. und zwei lyd.-aram. Bilinguen, aus dem 5.-4./3. Jh.v.Chr. stammt, während die Graffiti und Mz. z.T. älter sind (ab E. 8./Anf. 7. Jh.). Haupt-FO ist Sardeis; weitere F…

Palaisch

(282 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[English version] Die zu den anatolischen Sprachen gehörende, aus dem 16.-15. Jh.v.Chr. durch die Hethiter (Ḫattusa II., Hethitisch) überl. Sprache des nordwestl. des Halys in Paphlagonia gelegenen Landes Plā (keilschriftlich Pa-la-a-), das zusammen mit dem benachbarten Tum(m)anna (Ḫattusa II., Karte) in den griech. Landschaftsnamen Blaē̈nḗ und Domanítis fortlebt; die Sprachbenennung, nach hethit. Plaumnili- (Ableitung vom Ethnikon Plaumen-*), sollte also besser “Plaisch” lauten. Über die Ausdehnung des p. Sprachgebietes besteht keine Klarheit, da die be…

Reitkunst

(749 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[English version] A. Einleitung Unter R. ist die im Alt. zur mil. Nutzung des Pferdes (Pf.) entwickelte und bis h. für das europäische Reiten bestimmend gebliebene “klass. Reitweise” zu verstehen. Von anderen (erst neuzeitlich überl. oder entstandenen) Reitweisen unterscheidet sie sich dadurch, daß sie sich in der Ausbildung des Pf. nicht mit bloßer Gewöhnung begnügt, sondern eine systematische, stufenweise gesteigerte Gymnastizierung ve…

Reiterei

(2,374 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basel) | Campbell, J. Brian (Belfast)
I. Alter Orient [English version] A. Entwicklungsgeschichte Mit der Entwicklung der Fahrkunst in der 1. H. des 2. Jt. v. Chr. waren auch die methodischen Grundlagen für das Reiten gegeben (Pferd III., Reitkunst). Obwohl der Einsatz berittener Kuriere und Späher bereits ab dem 14./13. Jh. v. Chr. sicher bezeugt ist (Akkadogramm LÚPETḪALLUM “Reiter” in hethit. Texten; äg. Bildzeugnisse [10]), bildete sich die R. als Waffengattung erst im Verlauf des 9./8. Jh. heraus. Ausschlaggebend hierfür war die Schwierigkeit, reitend zu kämpfen. Denn im Unt…

Hethitisch

(721 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[English version] A. Überlieferung Die in babylon. Keilschrift überl. Sprache der im 2. Jt. v.Chr. in Kleinasien polit. führenden Hethiter (Kerngebiet etwa der vom Halys/Kızıl İrmak umschriebene geogr. Bereich, Ḫattusa II), von ihnen selbst Nesumnili- “Nesisch” gen., eine Ableitung vom ON Nēsa- (= altassyr. Kaneš, bei Kayseri; die moderne Sprachbezeichnung ist wissenschaftsgesch. …

Sēḫa (Seha River Land)

(776 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Geographic location, borders Luwian-speaking (Luwian) state in Northwestern Asia Minor documented in Hittite transmission in the 15th-13th cents. BC. Its core area comprised the valleys of the Hermus [2] and the Caecus [1] (merging near the coast), and its name is derived from one of these two rivers. The Hittite designation is Sēḫas utnē (in Akkadian orthography KUR ÍD ŠE-E-ḪA) 'the land of S.,' while the name 'river land of S.', often found in secondary literature, is based on the inappropriate translation of the determinative ÍD 'river.' In the north, S. borde…

Horsemanship

(884 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Introduction Horsemanship refers to the riding style developed in ancient times for military use of the  horse that has remained dominant up to the present time for European riding - the ‘classical riding style’. It is distinguished from other riding styles (that were only passed down or arose in modern times) in that in the training of the horse it is not satisfied with mere habituation but follows a systematic, gradually increased exercise programme that is based on strict obse…

Karchemish

(783 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Bonatz, Dominik (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Urarṭu | Ḫattusa | Asia Minor | Mesopotamia | Aegean Koine North Syrian city at the intersection of important trade routes on the Euphrates, economically and politically advantaged by its position on the border of a fertile plain, with access to mountain regions rich in raw materials. The existence of a settlement is documented as early as the 5th millennium BC through ceramic findings, its name (Akkadian K/Gark/gamis/š; Hittite, Luwian Karkamissa-; Hebrew Karkemiš, among others) as early as 2500-600 BC. In Greek times it was called Europos or Hierapolis (> Arab. Ǧarābulus, Turkish Cerablus). The city-state K. was subject to the kingdom of Ebla in the middle of the 3rd millennium. According to texts from Mari, K. was independent at least during the second half of the 18th cent., but was subsequently subject again to the sovereignty of another state, first of the great kingdom of Jamḫad/Ḫalp…

Miletus

(3,516 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | von Graeve, Volkmar (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Μίλητος; Mílētos). [German version] [1] Mythical founder of the city of Miletus Mythical founder of the city of M. [2]; from Crete; son of Apollo and Areia, daughter of Cleochus whose tomb was in the sanctuary of Didyma [1. 165f.] (Apollod. 3,5f.), or of Apollo and Deione (Ov. Met. 9,443ff.) or of Apollo and Acacallis, daughter of Minos (Antoninus Liberalis 30). Minos fell in love with M., but M. fleed to Caria, establishds M. there [2] and married Eidothea; the children of their union are Byblis and Caunus [1]. According to Ephorus FGrH 70 F 127 M. was founded by Sarpedon. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bi…

Wilusa

(674 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] State recorded in the 14th-13th cents. BC by the Hittite tradition (Hittite U̯ilusa-/ U̯ilussa-) in the northwest of Asia Minor, which was initially known to the Hittites at the end of the 15th cent. under the name Āssuwa (=Ā.). Its geographical location in the Troad (cf. Ḫattusa II, map, and above all the maps in [2. 304-307]), which was proposed as early as 1924 [6] and was able to be proved in 1997 on the basis of new evidence [8; 4], follows from W.'s close connexion with the sea [10. 603…

Mirā

(1,697 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Geographical site, boundaries M. (Hittite also Merā-) is the name of the core territory of the significant Luwian-speaking state of Arzawa in western Asia Minor, which is attested from the 16th cent. BC on, primarily through the Hittite tradition, and of the Hittite vassal state formed out of it in c. 1315 BC. The vassal state grew into a Great Kingdom at the end of the 13th cent., and may have survived the collapse of the Hittite Empire (shortly after 1200 BC; see Ḫattusa II.). The western part of M., with the Arzawan capital of Abasa/Ephesus, encompassed the r…

Ḫattusa

(3,381 words)

Author(s): Seeher, Jürgen (Istanbul) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Mesopotamia | Aegean Koine [German version] I. City, archaeological Capital of the Hittites in central Asia Minor near Boğazkale (earlier Boğazköy), province Çorum, c. 150 km east of Ankara, Turkey. Sporadically settled since the Chalcolithic (6th millennium BC), Ḫ. was the location of an Assyrian trading colony ( kārum;  Kaneš) next to a native Hatti settlement in the 19th/18th cents. BC. The city was destroyed around 1700 BC; from Ḫattusili I (around 1600 BC), it was the sea…

Carian

(845 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] Language of the inhabitants of Caria ( Cares, Caria), documented in c. 200 inscriptions -- from the 7th-4th cents. BC that are mostly very short or fragmentary and written in a characteristic alphabetic script -- which apart from Greek-Carian bilingual inscriptions from Athens that came from Carian mercenaries and almost solely contain personal names, for the most part come from Egypt (e.g. Saqqāra, Abydus, Abu Simbel), and to a lesser extent from Caria itself (e.g. Caunus, Hyllarima, Sinur…

Lydian

(527 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] Lydian, belonging to the Anatolian languages, is the language of the Lydians and is transmitted in its own alphabetical script, which is written either left-to-right or right-to-left ( Asia Minor V., with map). Around 100 inscriptions are known today (including several graffiti and inscriptions on seals and coins), the majority of them, including two Lydian-Greek and two Lydian-Aramaic bilingual inscriptions, stemming from the 5th-4th/3rd cent. BC, while some of the graffiti and c…

Horse

(4,764 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Raepsaet, Georges (Brüssel)
[German version] I. Introduction The outstanding historical and cultural significance which has been attached to horses since the 2nd millennium BC - first to pull  war chariots, later primarily for riding - in the area of the ancient Orient and Graeco-Roman antiquity has meant that archaeologists in the last 100 years have focused on the (esp. early) history of the exploitation of this domestic animal far more than on that of all the others. Scientific discussion in the first half of the 20th cent.…

Hieroglyphic scripts

(1,124 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Günter (Würzburg) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Crete A script that was formerly also described as ‘pictographic’ (but is still undeciphered) with many image-like symbols (human and animal body parts, plants, fruit, vessels, weapons, musical instruments, etc.) was created by the Minoan culture in Crete and especially used during the First Palace Period (1900-1700 BC). However, its origins are much older. The inspiration may have come from Egypt or the Levant, but the ‘Anatolian hieroglyphs’ are later. The evidence comes from 3…

Anatolian languages

(472 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] The earliest documented Indo-Germanic language branch, which occurs in Asia Minor; ranged in the 2nd millennium from the Aegean coast to the Euphrates, gradually in the 1st millennium through  Phrygia, later above all through  Greece until it penetrated relatively inaccessible parts of the Taurus mountains (East Pisidia, Lycaonia, Isauria), where Anatolian (Luwian) language carriers remained, probably until the early Byzantine era. To the Anatolian languages (AL) belong  Hittite. …
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