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(603 words)

Author(s): Ursinus, Michael
[German Version] The Ottomans, sometimes called the Imperial House of Osman (the dynasty’s founder), were the rulers of the Ottoman Empire. In a broader sense, the term denotes the Muslim (and since around the mid-19th cent. officially even the non-Muslim) population of this last Islamic empire. It had arisen from the chaos surrounding the collapse of Mongol rule over the Seljuks, developing from an Anatolian principality into an immediate neighbor and rival of Byzantium, until finally, with the c…

Asia Minor

(5,414 words)

Author(s): Schwemer, Daniel | Schuler, Christof | Rutgers, Leonard V. | Breytenbach, Cilliers | Ursinus, Michael | Et al.
[German Version] I. Geography – II. History – III. Society – IV. Religions – V. Literature I. Geography “Asia Minor” serves as the historical designation of the peninsula between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea; its eastern boundary is marked by the Amanus, the Anti-Taurus, and the upper reaches of the Euphrates (Turkey). To the north and south, coastal mountain ranges (t…

Turkish Menace

(540 words)

Author(s): Ursinus, Michael
[German Version] Especially after the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the image of the “terrible Turk” as the pagan archenemy of Christendom spread among the population of the Christian West, encouraged by spokesmen for the church and the secular authorities, who called for a religious war against the Turks (and imposed a “Turkish levy” to finance it). After c. 1500, the pressure and dissemination of anti-Turkish propaganda played a significant role. A broadsheet published in Rome in 1453 describe…