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Olbia

(1,082 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Et al.
(Ὀλβία/ Olbίa). [German version] [1] Milesian colony This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Thraci, Thracia | Wine | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Apollo | Patricius | Patricius | Rome | Rome Milesian colony (Colonisation) south of modern Parutino (Ukraine) at the confluence of the Hypanis and Borysthenes (Ps.-Scymn. 808f.), and for that reason also known as Borysthenes (Βορυσθένης; Hdt. 4,24; 78); founded at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC (Hdt. 4,18,5: Ὀλβιοπολῖται; Ps.-Skymn. 813f.). Sometime around the year 500 BC, relations with its Scythian neighbours worsened (traces of warfare and territorial losses). In the 80s of the 5th cent., the tyranny of the Molpi under the Scythian protectorate arose (cf. Hdt. 4,78-80). After the Black Sea expedition of Pericles (437 BC), O. became a member of the Delian League. An economic and cultural flourishing followed. O.'s main divinities were Apollo Delphinios and Dionysus. Orphic circles (Orphic) are attested in graffiti. At the start of the 4th cent. BC, O. freed itself from tyranny and the Scythian protectorate (establishment of the cult of Zeus Eleutherios) and introduced a moderately democratic constitution. In 331 BC, O. was unsuccessfully besieged by Zopyrion, one of Alexander […

Sidyma

(113 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Σίδυμα; Sídyma). Lycian polis in the west of the Xanthus valley (Plin. HN 5,100; Ptol. 5,3,5) with a small harbour at Calabatia; member of the Hellenistic Lycian League. Remains at modern Dodurga: Classical fortification, Imperial period buildings and graves; noteworthy are the founding document of the

Lycia et Pamphylia

(225 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] The province was set up in c. AD 74 under the Roman emperor Vespasian, after Lycia had been constituted as an autonomous imperial province following internal unrest (Suet. Claud. 25,3; [1. 137]) in AD 43. The contradictory account in Cass. Dio 60,17,4 is refuted by the existence of legati Augusti pro praetore Lyciae (e.g. AE 1956, 186). For the Roman influence in the Republican period cf. Str. 14,3,3; [2. 94-100]. Until then, Pamphylia belonged to the province of Galatia into which it had been incorporated in 25 BC after the death of Amyntas [9], who had been assigned the region by Mark Antony. Previously (from 101/0 BC) the Pamphylian and East Lycian coasts had belonged to the province of Cilicia. After it was disbanded in about 43 BC, part of Pamphylia was reckoned as be…

Lycii, Lycia

(1,010 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
(Λύκιοι, Λυκία; Lýkioi, Lykía, Lycian Trm̃mis; Latin Lycii, Lycia). [German version] A. Prehistory The south-western Asia Minor landscape of Lycia stretched from the ancient Indus at Caunus to the coast north of Phaselis [5. 265-271] and has not only high mountains and fertile alluvial plains but also highly organized upland with dense rural settlement [8. 29; 13] whose features have been reconstructed since 1989 as a result of field research in central Lycian Cyaneae [2] ([7]). The settlement area of the L., who are distinguished until the Classical period by a language related to Luwian a…

Limyra

(307 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Λίμυρα; Límyra, Lycian zêmuri). City in Lycia on a mountain slope near modern Finice in southern Turkey, settled at the latest from the 7th cent. BC onwards, with an extended chóra and small harbour (late antique name: Phoenix) [1]. In the 5th cent. BC the castle was extended with a fortified lower city [2], and coins were minted. From the beginning of the 4th cent. BC to 366/362 the Lycian king Pericles (cf. [3]; on his heroon with building decoration [1. 45-52]) controlled almost the whole of Lycia from L. The largest Classical Lycian rock necropolis ( Funerary architecture), which is of great significance for language, art and social history [4. 348-358], proves that L. flourished in the Classical period. Thi…

Megiste

(76 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] (Μεγίστη/ Megístē). Island off the Lycian coast near the city of Antiphellus. From the 4th century BC, it was a Rhodian naval base (Ps.-Scyl. 100; Liv. 37,24,1; 45,2), mentioned in Str. 14,3,7 as a pólis and in Plin. HN 5,131 as a ‘former civitas’. Inscriptions so far only provide evidence of Rhodian military presence in a fortress ( pýrgos) under a hagemṓn or epistátēs (SEG 14, 719; SGDI III 1, 4332). Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)

Myra

(476 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Byzantium | | Asia Minor | Lycii, Lycia | Natural catastrophes | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Education / Culture (Μύρα; Mýra). Since classical tim…

Trysa

(98 words)

Cyaneae

(390 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
(Κυανέαι). [German version] [1] Two rocky islands Two small rocky islands directly to the west of the confluence of the Bosporus and the  Pontus Euxinus, 2.3 km north of Garipçe Burnu, 100 m in front of the lighthouse of Rumelifeneri, modern İreke Taşı. In Greek myths they were identified with the dangerous  Symplegades or  Planctae (Hom. Od. 16,176; Apoll. Rhod. 2,317ff.). Here there was a shrine (Hdt. 4,85). Pompey built an altar in honour of Apollo here [1. 28f., 35-39].…

Milyas

(216 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Trustee of the legacy of Demosthenes Milyas (Μιλύας; Milýas), a confidant of Demosthenes [2], administered his inheritance. In a legal dispute between Demosthenes and his guardians, the latter accused M. of irregularities. Aphobus demanded that the presumed slave M. be handed over for interrogation under torture. Demosthenes refused, on the grounds that M. had already been freed by his father (cf. Dem. Or. 29). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Schäfer, Vol. 4, supplements, 1885, 82-85 Traill, PAA 653990. [German version] [2] Region in southern Asia Minor Milyas (Μιλυάς; Milyás). Region in southern Asia Minor with an indigenous population (Μιλυαδεῖς/ Milyadeís), whose identification with the Hittite Millawanda remains uncertain, despite traces of Bronze Age settlement. Geographical identification is hampered by the fact that ancient authors assigned the name M. to various parts of the region, which stretched from Comba in Lycia to Phrygian-Pisidian Apameia. The political organization of the

Phellus

(173 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Φελλός; Phellós). Lycian polis near modern Çukurbağ. As early as the 6th/5th cent. BC, an important town was situated here (in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 258 erroneously a Pamphylian pólis) with the Lycian name wehñti (Lycii, with map). In the mid 5th cent. BC, Harpagus, a dynast of Xanthus, resided here; right through to the 4th cent. BC, P. remained an important centre for the minting of coins of various dynasts and it had a significant heroon. In this period, …

Limyrus

(60 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] (Λίμυρος; Límyros). River with its source near Limyra which flows from there to the sea [1. 124f.] and into the Arycandus not far from the ancient seaport (late antique Phoenix) (Ps.-Scyl. 100; Str. 14,3,7; Coin image: BMCRE Lycia, 61). Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 J. Borchhardt, Zêmuri. Die Residenzstadt des lyk. Königs Perikles, in: MDAI(Ist) 40, 1990.

Trebenna

(126 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Τρεβέννα/ Trebénna). City in eastern Lycia (Lycii), to the southwest of modern Antalya at Çağlarca. The age of the settlement presumably extends back to the Classical period. A member of the Lycian League, possibly since the Hellenistic period. Archaeological studies of the Imperial period buildings (e.g. stoa, thermae, ekklesiasterion) are in progress. T. minted coins under Gordianus [3] III. The town of Onobara was part of the territory of T., probably incorporated by

Olbia

(966 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Et al.
(Ὀλβία). [English version] [1] Milesische Kolonie Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Apollon | Handel | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Kolonisation | Regnum Bosporanum | Regnum Bosporanum | Roma | Roma | Schwarzmeergebiet | Skythen | Thrakes, Thrake, Thraci | Wein Milesische Kolonie (Kolonisation) südl. vom h. Parutino (Ukraine) am Zusammenfluß von Hypanis und Borysthenes (Ps.-Skymn. 808f.), daher auch Borysthenes (Βορυσθένης) genannt (Hdt. 4,24; 78), gegr. Anf. des 6. Jh.v.Chr. (Hdt. 4,18,5: Ὀλβιοπολῖται; Ps.-Skymn. 813f.). Um die Wende vom 6. zum 5. Jh. v.Chr. verschlechterten sich die Beziehungen zu den skythischen Nachbarn (Spuren von Kriegshandlungen und territoriale Verluste). In den 80er J. des 5. Jh. entstand unter skythischem Protektorat die Tyrannis der Molpoi (vgl. Hdt. 4,78-80). Nach der Pontosexpedition des Perikles (437 v.Chr.) wurde O. Mitglied des Attisch-Delischen Seebundes. Es folgte ein wirtschaftlicher und kultureller Aufschwung. Hauptgottheiten von O. waren Apollon Delphinios und Dionysos. Orphiker-Kreise (Orphik) sind durch Graffiti belegt. Zu Anf. des 4. Jh.v.Chr. befreite sich O. von den Tyrannen und dem skythischen Protektorat (Einrichtung des Kultes für Zeus Eleutherios) und gab sich eine gemä…

Milyas

(187 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[English version] [1] Verwalter des Erbes des Demosthenes M. (Μιλύας) verwaltete als Vertrauensperson des Demosthenes [2] dessen Erbe. Im Gerichtsstreit zw. Demosthenes und seinen Vormündern warfen diese M. Unregelmäßigkeiten vor. Aphobos verlangte die Auslieferung des angeblichen Sklaven M. zum Verhör unter der Folter. Dies lehnte Demosthenes ab, da M. schon von seinem Vater freigelassen worden sei (vgl. Demosth. or. 29). Engels, Johannes (Köln) Bibliography Schäfer, Bd. 4, Beilagen, 1885, 82-85  Traill, PAA 653990. [English version] [2] Landschaft in Südkleinasien (Μιλυά…

Limyros

(52 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[English version] (Λίμυρος). Fluß, der bei Limyra entspringt und von hier zum Meer fließt [1. 124f.], aber unweit des ant. Hafenplatzes (spätant. Phoinix) in den Arykandos mündet (Ps.-Skyl. 100; Strab. 14,3,7; Mz.-Bild: BMCRE Lycia, 61). Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 J. Borchhardt, Zêmuri. Die Residenzstadt des lyk. Königs Perikles, in: MDAI(Ist) 40, 1990.

Lycia et Pamphylia

(191 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[English version] Die Prov. wurde ca. 74 n.Chr. unter dem röm. Kaiser Vespasianus eingerichtet, nachdem Lycia im J. 43 n.Chr. nach inneren Unruhen als eigenständige kaiserliche Prov. konstituiert worden war (Suet. Claud. 25,3; [1. 137]); die anderslautende Nachricht bei Cass. Dio 60,17,4 wird durch legati Augusti pro praetore Lyciae (z.B. AE 1956, 186) widerlegt; zum röm. Einfluß in republikanischer Zeit vgl. Strab. 14,3,3; [2. 94-100]. Pamphylia gehörte bis dahin zur Prov. Galatia, in die es nach dem Tod des Amyntas [9], dem M. Antonius die…

Lykioi, Lykia

(854 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
(Λύκιοι, Λυκία, lyk. Trm̃mis; lat. Lycii, Lycia). [English version] A. Vorgeschichte Die südwestkleinasiat. Landschaft Lykia reichte vom ant. Indos bei Kaunos bis zur Küste nördl. von Phaselis [5. 265-271] und weist neben Hochgebirgen und fruchtbaren Schwemmebenen ein stark gegliedertes Bergland mit dichter ländlicher Besiedlung auf [8. 29; 13], deren Merkmale seit 1989 durch Feldforsch. im zentrallyk. Kyaneai [2] erschlossen werden (zuletzt [7]). Das eigentliche Siedlungsgebiet der L., die sich bis in …

Phellos

(138 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Lykioi, Lykia (Φελλός). Lyk. Polis beim h. Çukurbağ. Schon im 6./5. Jh.v.Chr. lag hier ein bed. Ort (bei Hekat. FGrH 1 F 258 irrtümlich pamphylische
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