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Rufius

(105 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C. R. Festus Laelius Firmus Senator, son of procurator C.R. Festus Senator, son of the procurator C. R. Festus; the family hailed from Volsinii in Etruria. He is probably mentioned in CIL XV 7525 along with his sons Marcellinus and Proculus, as well as in CIL XI 2698. The family did not rise to great importance until the end of the 3rd cent. AD. The most prominent member was C. Ceionius R. Volusianus, cos. ord. II in AD 314. PIR2 R 157; cf. 156; 159; 161. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Author of a historical brevarium s. Festus [4]

Macedo

(166 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Indebted Roman under Vespasian, 1st cent. AD According to the Digesta (14,6,1), under Vespasian a M. who was being pressured by his creditors is said to have killed his father so that he could settle his debts. A senatus consultum was therefore enacted stating that there was no option - even after the death of the father - for a creditor to bring a suit against sons who are under the authority of their father and have taken up a loan [1.; 2. 443f.]. Naming a senatus consultum after a person affected instead of after the magistrate putting in an application nevert…

Saoterus

(106 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Cubicularius of Commodus, so a slave. When Commodus returned to Rome as in triumph in AD 180, S. stood behind the emperor on the chariot. According to HA Comm. 3,6, he was his lover. For his home town Nicomedia, S. obtained the Senate's permission to build a temple for Commodus and to establish an agon (Cass. Dio 72,12,2). He is supposed to have been hated by the people of Rome because of his influence; that is why he was killed by frumentarii of the praetorian praefects (HA Comm. 4,5). The evidence on his person, however, is probably considerably distorted. Eck, Werner (Cologn…

Septicius

(91 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] C. S. Clarus, equestrian. Plinius [2] the Younger dedicated the first book of his letters (Plin. Ep. 1,1) and Suetonius his book De vita Caesarum (cf. Lydus, Mag. 2,6) to him. C. AD 120-122 praef. praet. of Hadrian beside Marcius [II 14] Turbo. According to an account in Historia Augusta (SHA Hadr. 11,3), he and Suetonius overstepped the boundaries of court etiquette with respect to the emperor's wife Sabina. Dismissed, therefore, from his post, presumably while he and Hadrian were staying in Britain. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Syme, RP 3, 1283-1285.

Iuncus

(83 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Widespread Roman cognomen and family name (‘rush’) [1. 729; 2. 334]. [German version] [1] I., M. Praetor 76 BC Praetor in 76 BC see  Iunius [I 22] I., M. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Walde/Hofmann 1 2 Kajanto, Cognomina. [German version] [2] I. Vergilianus Senator, one of the circle of Messalina and Silius Senator, who was one of the circle of Messalina and Silius and knew of their marriage; executed in AD 48. His name was perhaps Iunius I. Vergilianus, PIR2 J 712. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Got(h)icus

(48 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Cognomen ex virtute given to the victorious general deriving from the Goths; the Roman emperors from Claudius II (AD 268-270) onwards bore it ─ last used by Justinian and Mauricius (without maximus). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography P. Kneißl, Die Siegestitulatur der röm. Kaiser, 1969, passim; 247.

Ceionia

(110 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C. Fabia Betrothed to Marcus Aurelius, 2nd cent. AD Daughter of Ceionius [3], sister of L. Verus, betrothed to  Marcus Aurelius. The betrothal was dissolved (SHA Aur. 4,5; 6,2) after the death of Hadrian. She was married to Plautius Quintillus, cos. ord. 159. After the death of Faustina she tried in vain to marry Marcus Aurelius (SHA Aur. 29,10; PIR2 C 612; [1; 2. 246]). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. Plautia Wife of Q. Servilius Prudens, 2nd cent. AD Sister of C. [1]; wife of Q. Servilius Pudens, cos. ord. 166 (PIR2 C 614). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography…

Nicanor

(1,649 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Νικάνωρ; Nikánōr). [German version] [1] Military official under Alexander the Great, died 330 BC Second son of Parmenion. Under Alexander [4] the Great he led the hypaspistaí of the hetaîroi in the major battles. During the pursuit of Darius [3], Alexander commanded him to pursue the Persian king with a group of riders who had given up their horses and the Agrianes under Attalus [2] as fast as possible (Arr. Anab. 3,21,7-8). He died soon after (330 BC). His brother Philotas stayed behind with an escort for his funeral. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 554. …

Traulus Montanus

(36 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Sex. T. M. Young Roman equestrian, whom Messalina [2] made her lover for one night. After her death (AD 48), he was executed (Tac. Ann. 11,36,3; Sen. Apocol. 13,4). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Acilius

(1,410 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Gentilicium of a plebeian gens, verifiable from the 3rd cent. BC. The most important branches are the Aviolae (imperial era), Balbi and especially the Glabriones, who are documented from the 3rd cent. BC to the end of the 5th cent. AD [1]. In Rome there was a compitum Acilium, on which the first Greek doctor in Rome was settled in 219 (Plin. HN 29,12 [2. 98]), on the Pincio the horti Aciliorum, in the imperial era the most famous gardens of Rome [2. 195 f.; 3. 488 ff.]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] Soldier in Caesar's tenth legion Brave soldier in Ca…

Voconius

(439 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V. Naso, Q. In 66 BC, V. was the judge in a lawsuit against A. Cluentius [2] Habitus (Cic. Clu. 147 f.), hence presumably an aedile in 67. Before 60, V. was a praetor (Cic. Flac. 50). His relationships to a certain V., who was governor in 49 (Cic. Att. 8,15,3) and to Naso, augur presumably in 45 ( ibid. 12,17) are unclear. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V. Saxa, Q. As people's tribune ( tribunus [7] plebis) in 169 BC, with the support of M. Porcius Cato [1] he had a plebiscitum passed ( lex Voconia ) according to whi…

Rationibus, a

(342 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Head of the central financial administration of the Roman Emperor and his subordinates. In the financial administration of the princeps, at first privately organised and evolving already under Augustus, the entire system of revenues and expenditures was initially managed by a single freedman. His title a rationibus is first attested for the reign of Tiberius; but the freedmen who managed the breviarium totius imperii for Augustus (Suet. Aug. 101,4) were probably already called like this. The functional importance of the department lent consid…

Coiedius Maximus

(50 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Presidential procurator of Mauretania Tingitana under Marcus Aurelius and Verus, no later than the middle of 168; he took part in the conferring of civil rights of citizenship which is described in the tabula Banasitana (AE 1971, 534 = ILMar. 2, 94). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Claudia

(907 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] A daughter of Ap. Claudius Caecus, 3rd cent. BC A daughter of Ap. Claudius Caecus. Her wish, which she loudly expressed in a crowd, that her brother P. Claudius Pulcher ( cos. 249 BC) should live and lose another battle at sea so that the mob would be decreased, was heavily fined (Ateius Capito in Gell. NA 10,6; Liv. per. 19; Suet. Tib. 2,3). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography R. A. Bauman, Women and Politics in Ancient Rome, 1992, 19-20. [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Ap. Claudius Pulcher, wife of Ti. Gracchus Daughter of Ap. Claudius Pul…

Albinius

(163 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentilicium. [German version] [1] see Albanius A. see  Albanius, C. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] L. (1st half 4th cent BC) A., L., at the invasion of the Gauls in 387 BC brought the Vestals safely to Caere (Liv. 5,40,9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] M. (L. ?) consular tribune 379 BC. A., M. (L. ?) consular tribune 379 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [4] Paterculus, L., tribune of the people 494 and 493 BC A. Paterculus, L., one of the first tribunes of the people 494 and 493 BC. He is not named in all sou…

Appius

(457 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Rare Latin family name (cf. [1]) and Latin praenomen (abbreviated Ap., in the Imperial period also App.), whose ancient derivation from Sabinian (Lib. praen. 6) is not undisputed; mainly documented for the patrician families of the Claudii Pulchri, rarer among the Claudii Nerones, etc. First documented name-bearer was Ap. Claudius Sabinus Inregillensis (Attus Clausus), the founder of the gens Claudia in Rome about 500 BC (Liv. 2,16,4). Because of its almost exclusive occurrence among the gens Cl…

Ennius

(2,729 words)

Author(s): Suerbaum, Werner (Munich) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] E., Q. Latin writer of the pre-classical period Latin writer of the pre-classical period. E. (239-169 BC) is the most important and versatile Latin writer (Fronto p. 134,1 H.2) of the pre-classical period. Although ‘a foreigner in Rome’ [21] (sociologically a dependent poet, poeta cliens [33]) and representative of Hellenistic education, he contributed to shaping the Roman national consciousness through sentences such as moribus antiquis res stat Romana virisque (Ann. 500 V.; see Cic. Rep. 5,1). Suerbaum, Werner (Munich) [German version] A. Life Most of the …

Paccius

(264 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] [1] C.P. Africanus Senator Senator. In probably 67 he became a suffect consul. In 70 he was expelled from the Senate for being found guilty of informing on the Scribonii brothers under Nero [1] (Tac. Hist. 4,41,3). But he must have been readmitted soon after, because in 77/8 he served as proconsul of Africa; there are numerous testimonies to his activities there. PIR2 P 14. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Thomasson, Fasti Africani, 44. [German version] [2] P. Antiochus Pharmacologist in Rome, 1st cent. Pharmacologist, active in Rome, who had great therapeutic…

Calpurnius

(5,197 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Fey-Wickert, Beate (Hagen)
Name of a plebeian gens in Rome, probably of Etruscan origin (ThlL, Onom. 101-104) [1. 138]; attested from the 3rd cent. BC. The most important family into the 1st cent. AD was that of the Calpurnii Pisones (I 13ff.). Family connections and the identification of individual members in the Republican period have not been completely clarified. Late Republican pseudo-genealogy declared Calpus, one of the sons of king Numa, the progenitor of the gens (Hor. Ars P. 292; Laus. Pis. 3f.; 14f.; Plut. Numa 21,2 et al.; portraits of Numa on coins of the Calpurnii). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Repu…

Mantennius

(170 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] L. M. Sabinus Cos. suff. around AD 225 Senator. In AD 214 known as m agister tertium of the sodales Augustales Claudiales (CIL XIV 2391). He must therefore already have been a senior member of the sodality. After a suffect consulship he became legate of Moesia inferior, where he is attested from 227 to 229 (AE 1972, 526 = [1. 13]). PIR2 M 172. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 V. Božiloa, J. Kolendo, L. Mrozewicz, Inscriptions latines de Novae, 1992. [German version] [2] L. M. Sabinus Praefect under Commodus, AD 194 Equestrian. Father of M. [1] and M. [3]. Praetor…

Vitorius

(201 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C. V. Hosidius Geta Son of V. [2], born before AD 95; recorded from AD 118 among the fratres Arvales. Praefectus urbi feriarum Latinarum causa, 'quaestor Traiani' (CIL VI 370079 = 41116). Praetor before 120 [1. 35, n. 22]; suffect consul under Hadrian (before 139 since he is mentioned in ILS 7190) [2. 53, 379-384]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, Senatoren von Vespasian bis Hadrian, 1970 2 Scheid, Collège. [German version] [2] M. V. Marcellus Senator, from Teate Marrucinorum, born shortly after AD 60. One of his fellow pupils was a C. …

Cocceius

(616 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C. Auctus, L. Architect, late 1st cent. BC Freedman of C. Postumius (Pollio). Architect (CIL X 1614), who constructed the road tunnels between Lake Avernus and Cumae and between Puteoli and Naples for M. Vipsanius  Agrippa [1] (Str. 5,5,245). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography H. Benario, C. and Cumae, in: CB 35, 1959, 40-41 D. Kienast, Augustus, 1982, 347 fn. 148, 348 fn. 153. [German version] [2] C.C. Balbus Cos. suff. 39 BC Cos. suff. in 39 BC (InscrIt 13,1, p. 282; 291; 278; 135; 506; MRR 2, 386). As a supporter of M.  Antonius he was …

Pontius

(1,397 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
Oscan praenomen and Oscan/Lat. gentilic. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] Pontius, Gavius Samnite general, delivered Rome its defeat 321 BC at Caudium Samnite general who in 321 BC famously defeated the Romans at Caudium and sent them 'under the yoke' (Liv. 9,2,6-6,4). The fact that the Samnite leader in the Social War (Social Wars [3]), P. [I 4], had the same name is no proof that P.' name entered the tradition only later. The annalistic tradition (in Liv. 9, 15,8), however, of P.'…

Patrobius

(53 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] A rich freedman of Nero who enjoyed the latter's confidence. In AD 66, P. organised the gladiatorial games in Puteoli in honour of the Armenian king Tiridates [5]. Their lavishness surpassed everything that the people were used to. Galba [2] had him executed. PIR2 P 161. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Annia

(257 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Wife of L. Cornelius Cinna (1st half of 1st cent. BC) Wife of L. Cornelius Cinna († 84), then of M. Pupius Piso Frugi, cos. 61 BC (Vell. Pat. 2,41,2). Perhaps sister of A. [I 12] and daughter of C.  Annius [I 15] Rufus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A. Aurelia Galeria Lucilla see Lucilla Aug. Spouse of L. Verus  Lucilla Aug. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2a] A. Fundania Faustina daughter of M. Annius [II 9] Libo, married to T. Pomponius Proculus Vitrasius [4] Pollio; executed under Commodus (AD 180-192, HA Comm. 7,7). PIR2 A 713. Eck, Werner…

Murena

(128 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman third name or nickname (‘Moray’) in the Licinii family (Licinius [I 32-35]) which passed by adoption from there to A. Terentius Varro M. and his son of the same name ( cos. 23 BC). It was adopted by more families in the Imperial era. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] People's tribune in 97 AD The tribunus plebis, who in AD 97 made the right of speech possible for Fabricius [II 2] Veiento in a dispute in the Senate (Plin. Ep. 9,13,19); probably he and Q. Roscius Coelius Murena ... Pompeius Falco are one and the same person. PIR2 M 746. It is, however, surprising why Pli…

Valerius

(11,988 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, which was said to have immigrated to Rome under King T. Tatius with V. [I 10] (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,46). The name, derived from the old personal name Valesus/ Valerus, was originally Valesios (cf. V. [I 7]; CIL XII p. 298g: Valesies; Fest. 22; Varro, Rerum divinarum fr. 66 Cardauns [4; 5]); the censor App. Claudius [I 2] introduced the new spelling in 312 BC (cf. Dig. 1,2, 2,36). Because in Antiquity the name was derived (etymologically correctly) from valere, 'to be strong', it was considered to be a good omen ( boni ominis nomen, Cic. Div. 1,102; Cic. Sca…

Political administration

(4,328 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] I. General The states of antiquity had no executive PA independent of government and legislature in the sense of the modern separation of powers. The triple division of constitutions, indicated in Aristot. Pol. 1297b 35-1301a 15 ( tría mória, 1297b 37), into a decision-making, legislating organ ( tò bouleuómenon), an executive element ('on the offices': tò perì tàs archás) and judicature ( tò dikázon) owes more to the schematically working mind of the author than to a political concept as such, especially since the fields defined show conside…

Rubrius

(561 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Common nomen gentile in the late Republic and early Principate; its bearers are generally of little political importance (Schulze, 221; 462). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] R., C. (?) People's tribune, 122 BC As people's tribune in 122 BC, he laid down a law concerning the foundation of the colony of Carthage by C. Sempronius Gracchus (Plut. C. Gracchus 10,2; mentioned as lex Rubria CIL I2 585, ch. 59; perhaps also mentioned in Sherk 16, l. 12). MRR 1,517; 3,182. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] R. Propraetor of Macedonia i…

Lysanias

(197 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Λυσανίας; Lysanías). [German version] [1] Tetrarch of Abilene, 1st half of the 1st cent. AD Tetrarch of Abilene who was introduced by the evangelist Luke (Lc 3:1) for the purpose of synchronization, in the 15th year of the emperor Tiberius = October 27 - September AD 28. He must have died before 37, since Caligula gave his territory to Herodes [8] Agrippa I at that time. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography L. Boffo, Iscrizioni Greche e Latine per lo studio della Bibbia, 1994, 171ff. PIR2 L 467. [German version] [2] Greek Grammarian, 3rd cent. BC Greek grammarian from Cyrene who lived in …

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Marcus

(4,055 words)

Author(s): Wick, Peter (Basle) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Μάρκος; Márkos). I. Greek [German version] [I 1] The Evangelist, [1] (Lat. Marcus). The author of the second Gospel (Mk) could be a missionary (Iohannes) M. who is often mentioned in the NT especially in close association with Paulus (Acts 12:12:25; Phm 24 among others) (for example, for the first time Papias around AD 130, see Euseb. Hist. eccl. 3,39,15). The fact that evidence of a closeness to Paul's theology can barely be found [3] is an argument against this identification, while the straightforwardn…

Papius

(506 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic family name, most common among the Samnites, also encountered as an Oscan praenomen. The author of the lex Papia Poppaea in AD 9 was P. [II 1]. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P. People's tribune c. 80 BC People's tribune, probably before 80 BC and therefore not identical with P. [I 2]; author of a lex Papia, stipulating the supplementation of the number of Vestal virgins by means of election by lot (Gell. NA 1,12,10-12). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] P., C. People's tribune in 65 BC, author of a lex Papia People's tribune in 65 BC, author of a lex Papia

Tusidius Campester

(98 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] L. (?) T. Campester. Roman senator; suffect consul under Antoninus [1] Pius in the September/October of  AD 142 together with Q. Cornelius [II 54] Senecio Annianus (see also RMD 106, fr. 37 of the Fasti Ostienses = FO2, fr. S and a new fragment of a diploma in [1]). He is without doubt identical to L. Tusidius Campester (CIL XI 5632 = ILS 2735), the son of the procurator M. Maenius [II 1] Agrippa, whose career was in the time of Hadrian. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, P. Weiß, T. C., in: ZPE 134, 2001, 251-260.

Titius

(1,112 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Roman family name, derived from the praenomen Titus II., recorded only in the 1st cent. BC; the bearers of the name are usually not related to each other. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] T., C. Equestrian, orator and poet, 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC Roman equestrian of the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC, orator (Cic. Brut. 167) and poet (Fronto p. 15,13 ff. v.d. Hout). Although T. lacked theoretical education and frequent practice of delivering speeches, his own speeches distinguished themselves by their…

Cosconius

(57 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [II 0] C. Celsus Presiding procurator in Raetia until AD 139 when he was replaced by Sempronius Liberalis [1]; his name should probably also be added to RMD II 94 = AE 1984,706. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 K. Dietz, Ein neues Militärdiplom aus Alteglofsheim, Lkr. Regensburg, in: Beiträge zur Arch. in der Oberpfalz 3, 1999, 225-256.

Tattius

(48 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] C. T. Maximus. Eques. Tribune of the equites singulares in Rome, attested 142-145 AD. Recorded from 156 until 158 as praefectus [16] vigilum; in 158 he became praefectus praetorio succeeding Gavius [II 6] Maximus until his death in 160. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography R. Sablayrolles, Libertinus miles, 1996, 487 f.

Lucretius

(3,448 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Italian surname (on its Etruscan connection cf. [1. 182f.]). In the 5th and 4th cents. BC we encounter the patrician family of the Lucretii Tricipitini (among others with the rare praenomen Hostus) which later died out; from the 3rd cent. BC onwards several plebeian families are known (Gallus, Ofella, Trio, Vespillo). The most important bearers of the name are Lucretia [2] from early Roman history and the poet L. [III 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L. Prosecutor of M. Livius Drusus [I 5] Claudianus In 54 BC he prosecuted M. Livius Drusus …

Otacilius

(584 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Originally an Oscan nomen gentile. The family belonged to the urban nobility of Benventum; the sources show it gaining kinship with one of the leading Roman noble families through the marriage, probably c. 300 BC, of one of its daughters, Otacilia, to a relative of the gens Fabia (Fabius) (Liber de praenominibus 6; Fest. 174 L). This no doubt contributed to the rapid rise of family members O. [I 2] and O. [I 3] to the consulship. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] O. Crassus Prefect of Pompeius at Lissus, 48 BC Prefect of Cn. Pompeius at Lissus in 4…

Publicius

(869 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(also Poblicius, Poplicius, Populicius). Name of a Roman plebeian family, known from the 3rd cent. BC onwards, but not politically significant. During the Late Republic the name was often assumed by public slaves ( servi publici) after manumission as a token of their former status. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Q. Praetor between 69 and 66 BC; after that, presumably governor in Asia Praetor between 69 and 66 BC; after that, presumably governor of the province of Asia (Cic. Clu. 126; Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 1,2,14?; MRR 2,143; 150). Bartels, Jens (Bon…

Epponina

(58 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Wife of the Lingonian Iulius Sabinus, whom, following his participation in the Gallic uprising against Rome in AD 69/70, she kept hidden in a cave for nine years, during which time she bore him two sons. Following their discovery, Vespasian had her and Sabinus executed in AD 79. PIR2 E 81. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Mussius

(158 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] L. Mussius Aemilianus, rival emperor AD 261/2. He was of equestrian rank and his career is known partly from CIL XIV 170 = ILS 1433. After the quattuor militiae he became praefectus vehiculorum in the three Gallic provinces, procurator in Alexandria [1] and procurator of the two ports in Ostia (documented in AD 247). From 257-259 he held office in Egypt in place of the prefect of the province; at the same time correctores were operating there. From 259, M. was himself then praefectus Aegypti until 261. Since 257 he had been taking brutal action against Dionysius …

Montanus

(306 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
Roman cognomen, probably originally referring to an origin ‘in the mountains’; in the Republican period it was found in the family of the Tarpeii, in the Imperial period also among the Iulii and Venuleii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] One of the proceres of Domitian One of the proceres (‘leading men’), whom Domitianus [1], according to Juvenal (4,107; 131f.), gathered at his farm in the Alban Hills. He was certainly a senator; as a number of senators of this period bore the cognomen M., identification is uncertain, but he is most likely to have been T. Iunius M., cos. suff…

Rufrius

(270 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] (P.?) R. Crispinus Praetorian prefect, AD 47-51 Roman equestrian, of whose activities prior to AD 47 nothing is known. At that date, emperor Claudius [III 1] made him Praetorian prefect, possibly prompted by Messalina [2]. As a reward for his commitment to Claudius, he was granted the rank of a praetor and 1.5 million HS by the Senate. When R. was dismissed as Praetorian prefect in 51 at the urging of Agrippina, he additionally received the insignia of a consul. Married to Poppaea [2]…

Mucius

(2,116 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
Name of a Roman gens (in inscriptions also Muucius, CIL I2, 584, Greek Μούκιος/ Moúkios). Tradition tells us of the legendary C.M. [I 2] Cordus Scaevola; the great age of the family is perhaps demonstrated by the name Mucia Prata of a place to the east of the Tiber [1]. In the historical period (from the 3rd century BC) the family was plebeian and provided a series of significant lawyers (M. [I 5; I 8-9]). One of M. [I 4]'s sons was adopted by a P. Licinius Crassus and as P. Licinius [I 19] Crassus Dives Mucianus founded the reputation of this branch of the family of Licinii Crassi. I. Republican …

Pedanius

(1,688 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Pedanius Dioscorides Author on medicines, 1st cent. AD (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης; Pedánios Dioskourídēs). [German version] I. Life The author of the treatise Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς/ Perì hýlēs iatrikês ( De materia medica, 'On Materia Medica') hailed from Anazarbus (Cilicia) and dates to the 1st. cent. AD: in his preface (§ 4), he refers to a certain Laikanios Bassos, whom he describes as krátistos (‘the highest’), now assumed to be C. Laecanius Bassus, senator and consul of AD 64. Pliny makes no reference to this work in his Naturalis historia (completed in AD 77 acc…

Munatius

(2,051 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne)
[German version] A. (Roman) Name of a Roman plebeian family, of which the branch of the Planci acquired political significance in the 1st century BC. Its most prominent member is M. [I 4], cos. in 42 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] M. Flaccus, L. Took part in an attempt on the life of Cassius Longinus in 48 BC From Hispania Baetica; he escaped after a failed attempt on the life of the Q. Cassius [I 16] Longinus, a follower of Caesar's, in Corduba in 48 BC (Bell. Alex. 52,3f.). In 46/5 as a follower of the younger…

Corrector (Italiae)

(225 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] At the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD there is evidence for the senator C. Octavius Appius  Suetrius Sabinus as corrector Italiae ( CI) while iuridiciiuridicus ) still held office simultaneously: CIL X 5178 and 5398 = ILS 1159 (under Caracalla); possibly T. Pomponius [II 5] Bassus was also CI: CIL VI 3836 = 31747 = 41237 (probably in 268/9). [3. 221 ff.]. So they had not replaced the iuridici as occurred from the late 3rd cent. These correctores were special authorized representatives, as the description in CIL X 5398 = ILS 1159 for Octavius Appius Sue…

Eprius

(244 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] T. Clodius E. Marcellus. Descendant of a socially unimportant family from Capua (where the province of Cyprus later had a monument erected in his honour, ILS 992); homo novus. He probably entered the Senate under Claudius, and became praetor in AD 48. After commanding a legion, he was posted to Lycia as praetorian governor ( c. 53-56); he was charged with extortion by the province, but acquitted. Under Nero, he became proconsul of Cyprus (SEG 18, 587 [1]), and cos. suff. in 62 [2]. He excelled as an orator, and under Nero publicly accused several senators, a…

Pollenius

(343 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(also Pollienus). [German version] [1] Tib. P. Armenius Peregrinus Consul ord. AD 244 Cos. ord. in AD 244. He may have been both praetorian proconsul of Lycia-Pamphylia as well as proconsul of Asia after the consulate. The genealogical relationships are not completely clear; probably the adopted son of P. [2]. PIR2 P 536. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] P. Auspex Consul suff., XV sacris faciundis AD 204 Cos. suff. Consular legate of Dalmatia, judge commissioned by the emperor, praefectus alimentorum viae Appiae et Flaminiae ter, proconsul of Africa. It is uncertain wh…
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