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Mezetulus

(90 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Numidian prince, who in 206 BC rose violently to power as regent of the Massyli. M. sought support from Carthage, marrying a niece of Hannibal [4]. Late in 206, M. was defeated by the pretender Massinissa, his kinsman, on the latter's return from Spain, but his life was spared (Liv. 29,29,6-30,12). In 202, he - if he is to be identified with the Mesotylus mentioned by Appian (App. Lib. 33,141) - rebelled, and fought for Hannibal. He presumably fell at Zama. Punic Wars Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)

Trebonius

(601 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, documented with certainty only from the 1st cent. BC on (T. [I 2] might be unhistorical). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] T., C. Son of an ill-reputed (Cic. Phil. 13,23; the same as in Hor. Sat. 1,4,114?) Roman equestrian. In 58 BC [1], T. worked as quaestor urbanus against P. Clodius' [I 4] switch to the plebs . As tribune of the people in 55, he introduced laws that gave M. Licinius [I 11] Crassus and Cn. Pompeius [I 3] provincial terms of five years and exte…

Porcia

(209 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Sister of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato Sister of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato, married to L. Domitius [I 8] Ahenobarbus. She outlived her husband, who was killed in 48 BC, and died a highly respected woman before August 45; on the model of M. (Terentius?) Varro and a certain Ollius, Cicero dedicated an elogy to her (Att. 13,37,3; 48,2). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [2] Daughter of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato, c. 95-42 BC Daughter of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato, c. 95-42 BC; first married to M. Calpurnius [I 5] Bibulus and in a second marriage, from c. 44 BC on, to her cousin M. Iunius …

Lucienus

(65 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Rare Italian surname, known through the senator Q. L., friend of T. Pomponius Atticus. Varro depicts L., who owned herds of cattle and above all large stud farms in Epirus, as a horse expert (Varro, Rust. 2,7,1-16); L. was also famous for his witty and complicated humour (Varro, Rust. 2,5,1). His mention in Cic. Att. 7,5,3 is doubtful. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)

Licinius

(11,186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Et al.
Name of probably the most important Roman plebeian family. The similarity to the Etruscan name lecne and the links between the gens and Etruria in historical times (L. [I 7]) suggest an origin in that region [1. 108, n. 3]; the name may, however, also be of Latin origin ( Licinus). The spelling with a double ‘n’ occurs not only in the Greek form Λικίννιος ( Likínnios), but also in Latin inscriptions [1. 108, n. 1]. In the annalistic historical records dealing with the early Republic, members of the family appear among the earliest people's tribunes, reaching their polit…

Sulpicius

(5,409 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of a Roman patrician family, probably originally from Cameria (hence the cognomen Camerinus); documented in the fasti from c. 500 BC. The otherwise rare praenomen Servius appears comparatively frequently and at times is even used in place of the nomen gentile (Tac. Hist. 2,48; Plut. Galba 3,1). The number of cognomina within the gens is high, but it has been impossible to identify clear branches. The link between the S. from the 3rd to the 2nd and 1st cent. BC is unclear. In the 2nd cent. BC, the most important branch of the family was that of…

Tullius

(3,490 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name derived from the praenomen Tullus; oldest traditional bearer of the name is the sixth king of Rome, Servius T. [I 4]; until the time of Cicero and his family, other bearers are only rarely recorded. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] T., Attius As 'by far the first man of the Volsci at the time' (Liv. 2,35,7), tradition connected him with the story of Coriolanus, in which T. supported the latter in his plans out of an old hate for the Romans (Liv. 2,37,1-8; 2,38,1-5; 2,39,1; 2,40,12). Hi…

Titurius

(136 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Italian nomen gentile, recorded primarily in inscriptions (cf. [1. 274 f.]; AE 1986,262; 1996,532). The only prominent member was Q. T. Sabinus, son of a mint-master c. 88 BC (MRR 2,454), who served Cn. Pompeius [I 3] in Spain (Sall. Hist. 2,94 M.) and was a legate of Caesar in Gaul. In 57 BC, T. fought the Belgae, in 56 the Veneti and with great success the Venelli under Viridovix (Caes. B Gall. 3,17,1-19,6), and in 55, with five legions in Caesar's absence, the Morini and the Menapii. The disaster in …

Tarquinius

(1,599 words)

Author(s): Schirmer, Brigitte | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Nomen gentile The name T. is the Latinized form of an Ancient Etruscan nomen gentile * tarq/χ u-na, from which the Latin name was derived by means of the -i̯o suffix inherited from the indo-European basic form. In Etruscan itself, the name in the form tarq/χ una is not attested; instances of a basic form * tarq/χ-  from the Archaic period are rare (cf. perhaps tarχ umenaia [1. 251, Cl 2.8], tarχ elnas [1. 86, Vs 1.2]). Inherited forms occur in Late Etruscan in the nomina gentilia tarcna/tarχ na ( cf. tarcnai, tar χ nas from the Tomba delle Iscrizioni, Caere, CIE 5907-5974; t…

Petillius

(858 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family (also Petilius), known at Rome from the 2nd cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] P., Q. Two people's tribunes of 187 BC was the name of two related (cousins?) people's tribunes of the year 187 BC. They accused (at the instigation of Cato [1]?) L. Cornelius [I 72] Scipio before the Senate of the misappropriation of state funds ( peculatus) during the war against Antiochus [5] III and demanded an explanation. L.'s brother P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio declared the accusations to be absurd, an…

Salvidienus

(396 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italian nomen gentile, derived from Salvidius. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Q. S. Rufus Salvius Before Agrippa, Octavian's principal commander (second cognomen indication of adoption or standardized form of S.? [1. 375]), Roman knight (Vell. Pat. 2,76,4; legendary Cass. Dio 48,33,2), friend of the young Octavian (Augustus [1]) and his principal commander before Agrippa. S., then possibly an officer in Caesar's army [1. 398], was in Apollonia with Octavian in 45-44 BC and was his adviser after Caesar's d…

Saenius

(344 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of an Italic gens of Etruscan origin [1. 93; 228]. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] S., L. Senator in 63 BC, obtained evidence against the Catilinarian Manlius [I 1] Senator (from Etruria?) in 63 BC, who obtained evidence from Faesulae against the Catilinarian Manlius [I 1] (Sall. Catil. 30,1). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] S., L. Consul suffectus, 30 BC Probably a son of S. [I 1], possibly recorded as a senator in 39 BC (MRR 3,34). In 30 he became cos. suff. with Octavian (Augustus: InscrIt 13,1,510), possibly as a reward for his services against…

Statilius

(1,578 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
Italic nomen gentile. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] A young friend of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato; in 46 BC he wanted to follow Cato into death, but allowed himself to be dissuaded by philosophical arguments (Plut. Cato Minor 65,10 f.; 66,6-8; 73,7). He then joined cause with M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus, who, because of S.' attitude towards tyrannicide, did not dare let him in on the plot against Caesar. S. was killed in 42 as a scout at Philippi (Plut. Brutus 51,6). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] S., L. Roman equestrian and leading follower of Catilina (Cic. Cat. 3,6…

Paquius

(207 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of an Italian gens, a variant of Pacuvius [1. 476]. [German version] [1] Paquuius Rufus, Q. Legate of M. Antonius in 42 BC Legate of M. Antonius [I 9] in 42 BC, he conducted a colony of veterans to Philippi (MRR 2, 366). P. was presumably from Verulae (cf. NSA 1922, 253f.). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [2] Paquius Paquius Scaeva Senator in the Augustan Period From Histonium. He was presumably brought into the Senate by Octavian (Augustus). P.'s career, which is described in detail and reflects the still extant flexibility in the awarding of off…

Staius

(235 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Oscan nomen gentile, documented on Delos since the late 3rd cent. BC [1. 186 f.]. [German version] [1] S. Murcus, L. Possibly a Marsus (but not the S. mentioned in ILS 885), legate of Caesar in the Civil War in Oricum in 48 BC (Caes. B Civ. 3,15,6; 3,16,2), in Africa in 46 (Cic. Att. 12,2,1). A praetorship in 45 is speculation (MRR 2,307). In 44 S. took the side of  Caesar's assassins, became pro-consul of Syria (MRR 2,330) and thanks to Q. Marcius [I 10] Crispus surrounded his opponent Q. Caecilius [I 5] Bassus i…

Petreius

(260 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Rare Italian nomen gentile [1. 306]. [German version] [1] P., M. Roman general, then Praetor in around 64 BC In c. 110-46 BC a Roman general with many decades of experience, perhaps the son of a primipilus (cf. Plin. HN 22,11) from the Volscan area [2. 316]. From c. 93 onwards, P. was tr. mil. or praef. legionis (Sall. Catil. 59,6) for 30 years; in about 64 he became praetor (MRR 2, 161) and at the end of 63 he went as legate to the consul C. Antonius [I 2] for whom he destroyed Catilina's army at Pistoria in January 62 (Sall. Catil. 59,4-60,5). In …

Menodorus

(302 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μηνόδωρος; Mēnódōros). [German version] [1] Legate of C. Calvisius Sabinus, died 35 BC M. (according to Appian, elsewhere Mena(s), Μηνᾶς; Mēnâs), a freedman, previously perhaps a Cilician pirate, in about 40 BC S. Pompeius' admiral in the Tyrrhenian Sea. As an opponent of a settlement with the Triumviri (Plut. Antonius 32,6f.), M. defended Sardinia and Corsica. When Pompey threatened to strip him of his power at the instigation of his rival Menecrates [11], M. delivered the islands into the hands of Octavian in 38…

Servilia

(468 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Half-sister of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato, 1st cent. BC Born in c. 100 BC, daughter of Q. Servilius [I 13] Caepio and Livia [1], half-sister of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato. In c. 85, she married M. Iunius [I 9] Brutus (d. in 77) and became the mother of the future murderer of Caesar, M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus. S.'s second husband, the lacklustre D. Iunius [I 30] Silanus with whom she had three daughters probably owed his consulate to her. The intelligent, independent and poised woman who remained close to Caesar even aft…

Ventidius

(893 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Legate of Q. Cornificius [3] in Africa vetus, killed in 42 BC in the battle against T. Sextius [I 2] (App. B Civ. 4,228; 236). Perhaps the V. who was proscribed in 43 and fled ( ibid. 4,198). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V., P. Presumed father of V. [I 3]. Scholarship often saw him as an Italic leader in the Social War [3], settled in Asculum, where he was said to have died with the entire local nobility in 89 BC (Oros. 5,18,26; cf. CIL IX 5254: freedman of a P. V.). However, Ventidii…

Theomnastus

(96 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] (Θεόμναστος; Theómnastos). Prominent citizen of Syracuse, an adherent 73-71 BC of C. Verres, for whom he had honorary decrees declared and taxes collected (Cic. Verr. 2,2,50 f.; 2,3,101); in thanks T. became (by cheating in the drawing of lots: 2,2,126 f.) a priest of Zeus in Syracuse and was allowed to enrich himself in the purple trade (2,4,59). In 70 BC, after a short-lived resistance against investigations by Cicero, who presents T. as mad, T. lost nerve and handed over to him a list of valuable objects in Verres' possession (2,4,148 f.). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)

Magius

(793 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Family name of Oscan origin. [I 184]. The family was prominent in Capua (M. [I 3], cf. Cic. Pis. 24) and M.'s [I 5] sons were the first to be admitted to the Senate in the 1st cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Grandfather of the poet Vergilius on his mother's side Grandfather of the poet Vergilius on his mother's side; was allegedly an official messenger ( viator ; Donat. Vita Vergilii 1). Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) [German version] [I 2] M., Cn. Governor of Numidia AD 256-258. From Larinum in Samnium, died about 88 BC; heir of his (half…

Juba

(1,071 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Leonhardt, Jürgen (Marburg/Lahn)
(Ἰόβας; Ióbas, Ἰούβας; Ioûbas, Ἰόβα; Ióba). [German version] [1] King of Numidia, 1st cent. BC Born in c. 85 BC, died in 46 BC, king of Numidia, son and successor of Hiempsal. In 63 J. represented Numidian interests in Rome (Cic. Leg. agr. 2,59). In 62 he became the enemy of Caesar who protected  Masintha and pulled J.'s beard (Suet. Iul. 71; re his appearance [1; 2]). In 50 J. was already king, but not yet recognized by Rome [3. 126-128]. C.  Scribonius Curio demanded Numidia's annexation; the Senate rejected t…

Oppius

(1,221 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Oscan praenomen, later a widespread nomen gentile; literary refs. at Rome from as early as the 5th cent. BC (O. [I 5]), but historical evidence only from the 2nd cent. The Tusculan Opiter O., who is said to have given his name to the Mons O. at Rome, is an invention (Varro in Fest. 476 L.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] O., C. Author of a law of 215 BC to limit displays of wealth Restricted the opportunities for women to display wealth by his law of 215 BC (Liv. 34,1,1-3 et alibi; MRR 1, 255). In 195, this legislation was repealed despite the res…

Sextilius

(473 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, historically attested at Rome from the 3rd cent. BC. The name was a common one, but its bearers were politically insignificant. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Legate of L. Licinius [I 26] Lucullus in 69 BC. Distinguished himself in the Armenian war (Plut. Lucullus 25,4-6; App. Mithr. 381-385), but fell into Parthian hands in 68 (Cass. Dio 36,3,2 f.). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] Praetor before 67 BC, together with his colleague Bellinus, he was kidnapped by pirates (Plut. Pompeius 24,6). Fündling,…

Iunius

(8,102 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Roman surname, derived from the name of the goddess Iuno [1. 470; 2. 731]. The gens was plebeian; the idea that this family originated from the patrician founder of the Republic L. I. [I 4] Brutus (Cic. Att. 13,40,1), which was particularly propagated by the murderers of Caesar, M. and D. I. Brutus [I 10 and 12], was already a matter of controversy in ancient times (Plut. Brutus 1,6-8). T.  Pomponius Atticus (Nep. Att. 18,3) composed a family history at the request of M. Brutus. This gens became politically im…

Masintha

(121 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Young noble Numidian, who fled to Rome to escape the demands for tribute exacted by King Hiempsal [2] II. Caesar represented him in court against Hiempsal's son Juba [1], later hid him and in 61 BC took him to Spain with him. His motives were probably assumed to be of a sexual nature. (Suet. Iul. 71). According to an interpretation of Vitr. De arch. 8,3,25 [1. 31-33], M. owned the territory around Ismuc, not far from Zama, and in 46 he and his son C. Iulius fought on Caesar's side against Juba. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) Bibliography 1 K. Jeppesen, Vitruvius in Africa, in: H. Geertman, …

Sallustius

(3,055 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
Italian nomen gentile, see also Salustius. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] S., Cn. Friend and correspondent of Cicero Close friend of Cicero, with whom he demonstrably exchanged letters between 67 and 45 BC (Cic. Att. 11,11,2; Cic. Fam. 14,11). In 58, he accompanied Cicero on the first leg of his journey into exile, in 47, he lent him money, and they were together pardoned by Caesar (Cic. Fam. 14,4,6; Cic. Div. 1,59). S. read the draft of Cicero's De re publica and urged him - in vain - to state his views clearly and unambiguously (Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 3,5,1), a request…

Lyson

(152 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
Greek family name. [German version] [1] In 72 BC host of Verres, friend of Cicero L. of Lilybaeum. In 72 BC friend of Cicero, host of Verres who created a statue for him (Cic. Verr. 2,4,37). Cic. Fam. 13,34 is a letter of recommendation for L.'s son. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [2] Host of Cicero, Pompeian L. of Patrae. Host of Cicero, in 50 BC looked after his sick secretary Tiro (Cic. Fam. 16,4,1f.). L. was a Pompeian in the Civil War and in 46 or 45, after Caesar's victory, he asked for his pardon (13,19; 24). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [3] Greek bronze sculptor Greek bronze…

Titius

(1,112 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Roman family name, derived from the praenomen Titus II., recorded only in the 1st cent. BC; the bearers of the name are usually not related to each other. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] T., C. Equestrian, orator and poet, 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC Roman equestrian of the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC, orator (Cic. Brut. 167) and poet (Fronto p. 15,13 ff. v.d. Hout). Although T. lacked theoretical education and frequent practice of delivering speeches, his own speeches distinguished themselves by their…

Lucretius

(3,448 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Italian surname (on its Etruscan connection cf. [1. 182f.]). In the 5th and 4th cents. BC we encounter the patrician family of the Lucretii Tricipitini (among others with the rare praenomen Hostus) which later died out; from the 3rd cent. BC onwards several plebeian families are known (Gallus, Ofella, Trio, Vespillo). The most important bearers of the name are Lucretia [2] from early Roman history and the poet L. [III 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L. Prosecutor of M. Livius Drusus [I 5] Claudianus In 54 BC he prosecuted M. Livius Drusus …

Otacilius

(584 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Originally an Oscan nomen gentile. The family belonged to the urban nobility of Benventum; the sources show it gaining kinship with one of the leading Roman noble families through the marriage, probably c. 300 BC, of one of its daughters, Otacilia, to a relative of the gens Fabia (Fabius) (Liber de praenominibus 6; Fest. 174 L). This no doubt contributed to the rapid rise of family members O. [I 2] and O. [I 3] to the consulship. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] O. Crassus Prefect of Pompeius at Lissus, 48 BC Prefect of Cn. Pompeius at Lissus in 4…

Lucceius

(615 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italian family name, expanded from Lucius. Many bearers of the name are known [1. 359; 426], among them also prominent figures from the 1st cent. BC onwards. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., Cn. Visited M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus often in Puteoli 44 BC Visited M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus often in Puteoli during the summer of 44 BC (Cic. Att. 16,5,3); probably came from an aristocratic family in Cumae (CIL X 3685-3690). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] L., L. Senator with business interests, intimate of Pompey Senator with business interests in Italy and Cilicia (Cic…

Timarchides

(227 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
(Τιμαρχίδης/ Timarchídēs). [German version] [1] Name in an Attic family of sculptors, 2nd cent. BC Frequently occurring name in a 2nd-cent. BC Attic family of sculptors. A T. created an Apollo Kitharoidus in Rome in c. 179 BC, of which copies exist. After 156 BC in Elatea [1], a younger T. and Timocles, sons of Polycles [3], worked on cult images of Asclepius and Athena, of which fragments survive, and a victor statue at Olympia. After 130 BC the same T. and Dionysius [48] created a surviving portrait statue of Ofellius Ferus in …

Teidius

(57 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Roman gens name. Most important bearer: S. T., a senator, who in 52 BC found the body of P. Clodius [I 4] on the via Appia and took it to Rome; in 49 T., although elderly and one-legged, fled from Italy with Cn. Pompeius [I 3] (Ascon. 32 C on Cic. Mil. 28; Plut. Pompeius 64,7). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)

Lucilius

(2,458 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Christes, Johannes (Berlin) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, derived from the first name Lucius [II], widespread from the 2nd cent. BC onwards. The satirical poet L. is the best-known of them. [I 6]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] A friend of M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus, who wanted to protect the latter in 42 BC at Philippi by pretending to be him (App. B Civ. 4,542-545). After that he followed M. Antonius [I 9] with similar loyalty until they both died in the year 30. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] L., Sex. People's tribune 87 BC, thrown from the Tarpeian rock beca…

Nonius

(2,494 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
N. (also Nonnius, Nunnius), Italic nomen gentile derived from the numeral praenomen Nonus (evidence: [3. 229; 424]). Several families are attested since the 1st cent. BC, among which the - probably Picene [1. 925] - Nonii Asprenates stand out. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] N. Asprenas, L. Consul suff. in 36 BC Follower of Caesar during the Civil War, propraetor in Gaul before late 49 BC. (ILS 884; [1. 138-142]), proconsul in Africa in 46 (Bell. Afr. 80,4) and cavalry commander in Spain in 45 (Bell. Hisp. 10,2). In 44 N. was people'…

Volusius

(944 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gens name from Etruria, whose bearers first appear in the 1st cent. BC. With V. [II 2] Saturninus the family was ennobled under the emperor Augustus and in the 1st cent. AD was able to amass considerable wealth (large burial site on the via Appia: CIL VI 7281-7393). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] Haruspex (Haruspices) in the retinue of C. Verres 73-71 BC, several times appointed recuperator in - according to Cicero (Verr. 2,2,75; 2,3,28; 54; 137) - unfair lawsuits. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V., Cn. Travelled with C. Pompt…

Vennonius

(183 words)

Author(s): Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Roman historian, 2nd cent. BC Roman historian of the late 2nd cent. BC (in Cic. Leg. 1,6 ordered after C. Fannius [I 1]); nothing is known of him as a person. His presumably annalistic work (Annalists) began with stories of the founding of Rome and the period of the kings (Origo gentis Romanae 20,1; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,15,1), but its scope and end point are unknown. Cicero felt the need of it in 46 BC in his literary work in Tusculum (Cic. Att. 12,3,1). Fr. in HRR I2 142 and [1]. Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) Bibliography 1 M. Chassignet (ed.), L'annalistique romain…

Tacfarinas

(175 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Numidian, deserter from the Roman auxilia ; leader of an uprising against Roman power in Africa (Africa [3]) from c. AD 17 until AD 24. T. led the Musulamii in raids, petty wars and even sieges. In the West, the Moors under Mazippa, who were dissatisfied with Iuba [2] II, followed T. (Tac. Ann. 2,52; [1. 89, 104-106, 127]); even the Romans came to terms with him (Tac. Ann. 4,13). After victories celebrated prematurely by the pro-consuls M. Furius [II 2] Camillus and L. Apronius [II 1], T. recovered q…

Roscius

(1,412 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italian nomen gentile, with many bearers in Ameria (CIL XI 4507-16) and Lanuvium (CIL XIV 3225-7). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] R., L. Roman envoy killed in 438 BC by the Fidenati A Roman envoy killed in 438 BC together with his three colleagues by the Fidenati (Fidenae); because of this all three were honoured with statues on the Rostra (Cic. Phil. 9,4; Liv. 4,17,2-6). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] R., Sex. Father and son; the latter was defended by Cicero in 80 BC against the accusation of patricide and embezzlement From Ameria; so…

Philo

(5,673 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλων/ Phíl ōn). [German version] [I 1] Athenian politician Athenian from Acharnae who was exiled by the Oligarchic regime in 404 BC (Triakonta). During the civil war, he lived as a metoikos (resident without Attic citizenship) in Oropos awaiting the outcome of events. Following his return, when he applied to join the boulḗ he was accused of cowardice and other misdemeanours at a dokimasia investigation (Dokimasia) (Lys. 31; possibly 398 BC). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass, vol.1, 480f.  Th.Lenschau, A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 2526f. …

Sabinus

(1,149 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] A. Greek (Σαβῖνος; Sabînos) [German version] [1] Hippocratic physician and commentator on Hippocrates, 1st-2nd cent. AD Hippocratic physician and commentator on Hippocrates, who was active in the 1st to 2nd cent. AD. He was the teacher of Metrodorus [8] and Stratonicus, who in turn was the teacher of Galen; the latter regarded S. as a more careful and concise interpreter of Hippocrates [6] than his predecessors had been (CMG 5,10,2,1, p. 17, 329-330; 5,10,2,2, p. 510). S.' weakness lay mainly in …

Maevius

(112 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Rare Italian proper name, variant of Mevius . [German version] [1] Accomplice of Verres in Sicily Accomplice of Verres in Sicily (Cic. Verr. 2,3,175), perhaps the scribe who received gifts from Verres (2,3,176; 181; 185; 187). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [2] Centurio of Octavian Centurio of Octavian, caught in 30 BC at Alexandria by Mark Antony, urged in vain to change sides and released out of respect (Val. Max. 3,8,8). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [3] M., M. Fell in battle as military tribune in 203 BC Fell in battle in upper Italy in 203 BC as military tribu…

Villius

(650 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] [1] V., Ap. Livy (3,54,13) lists V. as peoples' tribune in 449 BC among those who, after the end of the D ecemviri [1], had been voted into this office "more due to the hopes (that had been put into them) than due to their merits". Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [2] V. Annalis, L. As peoples' tribune in 180 BC, he introduced a law about age limits that regulated the competition for offices and thus proved fundamental in the development of the cursus honorum [1]. In this, he had the consent of the Senate, which earned him and his…

Silius

(1,908 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Reitz, Christiane (Rostock)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, documented since the first cent. BC (the name in Liv. 4,54,3 is probably a later invention). Under Augustus the family attained the consulate, but it disappeared at the end of the first cent. AD. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S., P. Praetor c. 58 or 52 BC, as propraetor of Bithynia et Pontus 51-50 BC addressee of laudatory letters from Cicero (Cic. Fam. 13,47; 61-65; cf. 7,21). S., who was regarded as an authority on Asia Minor, brought an inheritance lawsuit in 44 BC (Cic. Att. 7,1,8). His son is probably S. [II 7]. Fündli…

Vibius

(2,209 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
Uncommon Latin praenomen , abbreviation V. The etymology of the name is unknown. Like the identical nomen gentilicium, it derives from the Osco-Umbrian Vībie/o-. Related nomina gentilicia were Vibidius, Vibuleius, Vibulenus. The praenomen and its feminine equivalent Vībia- were loaned into Etruscan as Vipie and Vipia respectively. The nomen gentilicium formed from that, Vipi(e)na, appears in Latinized form as Vibenna . Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V. Curius Prefect of Caesar, to whom troops of L. Manlius [I 18] Torquatu…

Vedius

(676 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italian gens name, recorded from the 1st cent. BC onwards. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V., P. Friend of Cn. Pompeius [I 3], provoked mockery by Cicero (Cic. Att. 6,1,25) in March of 50 BC for his travelling in an ostentatious style and his collecting miniature portraits of married women. Possibly identical to V. [II 4]. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) II.Imperial period [German version] [II 1] P. V. Antoninus Citizen of Ephesus of equestrian rank. Praefectus cohortis and tribunus militum Legionis I Italicae (IEph III 726; 726a). In Ephesus itself he was a prýtanis, and a grammateú…

Tigellius

(115 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Rare Latin gens name (ILS 1687; CIL VI 27412 f.; FiE III 8; AE 1975,788; SEG 29,1105 f.; 33,179). The freedman [2. 269 f.] M. T. Hermogenes from Sardinia (Cic. Fam. 7,24) was a musician, singer and patron of the arts famous for his wealth and extravagance (Hor. Sat. 1,3,1-19; 1,3,129 f.). C. Licinius [I 31] Calvus ridiculed him; Cicero, who was an enemy because of T.'s uncle(?) Phamea (Cic. Att. 13,49), was fearful of his influence with Caesar (which extended to Cleopatra [II 12] VII and Octavianus [1]: Porph. in Hor. Sat. 1,2,1; 1,3,4). T. ([1. 862] et al. dis…

Statius

(2,106 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Vessey, David T. (Huntingdon) | Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
Praenomen of Oscan origin, particularly widespread in Upper Italy (cf. S. Gellius [3], S. Abbius Oppianicus); later also occurring as nomen gentile with many variants [1. 37, 237, 469]. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] A Samnite, in 90 BC a leader of the Itali in the Social Wars [3], later (81?) on the Roman side. Proscribed at the age of 80 in 43 BC, he distributed his property and burned himself to death in his empty house (App. B Civ. 4,102). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] A slave and close friend of Cicero's brother Quintus, from 61 to 59 BC Quintus' pro…

Paconius

(300 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of an Italian gens, attested in Setia (consequently Oscan? ILS 6130) and several trading towns. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] (P.) Lepta, Q. Friend of Cicero and his praefectus fabrum in Cilicia, 51-50 BC Friend of Cicero and his praefectus [7] fabrum in Cilicia 51-50 BC (Cic. Fam. 3,7,4; 5,20,4 et passim). Cic. Fam. 9,13,1-3 points to Cales in Campania as his homeland, where ILS 5779 must attest himself or a son (on the identity [1. 6]). P. often appears in Cicero's letters (e.g. as addressee of Fam. 6,18-19), for the last time in November 44 (Att. 16,15,3). Fündling, Jörg …
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