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(1,874 words)

Author(s): Livingstone, David N. | Daecke, Sigurd | Hübner, Jürgen | Hefner, Philip
[German Version] I. Science – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Systematic Theology – IV. Ethics I. Science Although Darwinism may be thought of as referring to the version of evolutionary theory originating from C.R. Darwin (Desmond & Moore), it is in reality, however, difficult to agree on any more precise definition. Darwin's own works on evolution involved several different mechanisms for br…

Keplerbund (Kepler Association)

(298 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Jürgen
[German Version] The “Keplerbund for the promoting of cognitive insights into nature among all our people” was established in 1907 in Frankfurt am Main (seat in Bad Godesberg) by the botanist Eberhard Dennert in order to counter the activities of E. Haeckel's “German Monist League.” Its goal was the “correct presentation of modern research results” in conjunction with the preservation of the “unconditional freedom of science” and the simultaneous recognition of religion. Its publication organ from 1909 onward was the monthly journal Unsere Welt (banned in 1941). On the basis o…

Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre

(549 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Jürgen
[German Version] (May 1, 1881, Sarcenat, near Clermont-Ferrand – Apr 10, 1955, New York), paleontologist and theologian. Teilhard joined the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in 1899. After studying philosophy in Jersey, he taught physics in Cairo. He studied theology in Hastings, in England, from 1908 to 1912 and was ordained to the priesthood in 1911. His acceptance of the theory of evolution and his attempt incorporate it into theology (as in La vie cosmique, 1916) met with hostility on the part of the order. His military service as a stretcher-bearer from 1914 to 1919 w…


(3,425 words)

Author(s): Polkinghorne, John | Pollack, Detlef | Hübner, Jürgen | Kubon-Gilke, Gisela | Leiner, Martin
[German Version] I. History and Cosmology – II. Religious Studies – III. Evolution and Creation – IV. Social Sciences – V. Ethics I. History and Cosmology The significance of the notion of evolution as a historical process taking place through the interaction of contingent factors and regular laws first attracted attention in 18th-century geology, where it served to mediate between the theory of uniformity, espoused by James Hutton (…


(11,663 words)

Author(s): Figal, Günter | Ahn, Gregor | Janowski, Bernd | Furley, David J. | Sellin, Gerhard | Et al.
[German Version] I. Philosophy The word Weltbild (“worldview”; more lit. “world picture”) is already found in early medieval German; it is defined as a “conceptual view of the world that emerges from the totality of impressions made by the world and ideas of one’s Weltanschauung” ( DWb 28 [14.1.1], 1955, 1553). Its meaning is thus related to the meaning of Weltanschauung . Philosophy usually treats both together. A Weltbild can be understood as both a premise and a product of a Weltanschauung. W. Dilthey called a Weltbild “the basis of one’s appreciation of life and understanding…

Kepler, Johannes

(406 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Jürgen
[German Version] (Dec 27, 1571, Weil der Stadt – Nov 15, 1630, Regensburg), astronomer, philosopher, theologian of nature, champion and extender of the Copernican system (N. Copernicus). After uncompleted study of theology in 1594, Kepler taught mathematics in Graz. There in 1595 he discovered what he called and published as the Mysterium cosmographicum (21621): between the orbits of the (six known) planets (Constellations), the five regular Platonic solids can be inscribed and their spacing explained – for him, knowledge of God's plan of creation…


(1,488 words)

Author(s): Hampe, Michael | Hübner, Jürgen | Fowler, James W.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Psychology and Psychology of Religion I. Terminology The Latin terms explicatio and evolutio originally referred to the unfolding or evolvement of something already existing (including the sense of maturation), later also to the origination of something new, growth and differentiation, i.e. mostly to all forms of orderly change that is regarded positively …