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(6,411 words)

Author(s): Hefner, Philip
1. Concept Since the term “evolution” embraces several dimensions, we cannot deal with it adequately without recognizing its various facets and clarifying precisely which of these are at issue in any given context. Four such facets are of particular importance: evolution as (1) an idea of change over time; (2) an idea of emergence, by which novelty arises from preceding entities and processes; (3) an idea that describes the origins of things, both proximate and ultimate; and (4) an idea of selection, explaining why things die or survive. Each of these facets deserves careful attention. 1.…


(1,874 words)

Author(s): Livingstone, David N. | Daecke, Sigurd | Hübner, Jürgen | Hefner, Philip
[German Version] I. Science – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Systematic Theology – IV. Ethics I. Science Although Darwinism may be thought of as referring to the version of evolutionary theory originating from C.R. Darwin (Desmond & Moore), it is in reality, however, difficult to agree on any more precise definition. Darwin's own works on evolution involved several different mechanisms for br…

d'Aquili, Eugene

(135 words)

Author(s): Hefner, Philip
[German Version] (Jun 4, 1940, Trenton, NJ – Aug 2, 1998, Philadelphia, PA), professor of psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania. D'Aquili pioneered in research that he himself termed “biogenetic structuralism,” which correlates brain states to ritual and mystical experience in order to develop explanatory models of brain function. He developed theories …


(723 words)

Author(s): Hefner, Philip | Evers, Dirk | Leiner, Martin
[German Version] I. Theology and Science – II. Systematic Theology – III. Ethics I. Theology and Science Emergence (from Lat. emergere, “to arise”), an idea that describes the appearance of novel and higher forms, represents an alternative to mechanistic, vitalist (Vitalism and mechanism), reductionist, and preformationist explanations. Emergence claims that complex structur…

Einstein, Albert

(1,198 words)

Author(s): Hefner, Philip
[German Version] I. Life – II. Work – III. Philosophical, Religious, and Social Approaches (Mar 14, 1879, Ulm – Apr 18, 1955, Princeton, NJ) I. Life Einstein grew up in Munich as the son of an electrical machinery manufacturer. At age 15, when the family moved to Milan, Einstein emigrated to Switzerland and finished his schooling in Aarau. After he graduated from the Swiss Federal Polytechnic Institute, he taught at a school briefly before receiving an appointment in the Swiss patent office in Bern. Einstein was professor in Zürich, Prague, and Berlin ( inter alia, Director of the Kai…


(2,732 words)

Author(s): Hefner, Philip | Thiel, Josef Franz | Lang, Bernhard
[German Version] I. The Concept – II. Comparative Religion – III. Old Testament – IV. Ethnology and Theology I. The Concept The scholarly disciplines of ethnology, anthropology, social psychology, and cultural semiotics are closely related. The specific terminology employed in these disciplines differs at a number of important points in German- and English-speaking countries…

Campbell, Donald T.

(243 words)

Author(s): Hefner, Philip
[German Version] (Nov 20, 1916, Grass Lake, MI – May 5, 1996, Bethlehem, PA) was professor of psychology at Northwestern University (1953–1979), Syracuse University (1979–1982), and Lehigh University (1982–1996); he was president of the American Psychological Association in 1975/1976. He won international recognition for his work in social and experimental psychology, especially in the fields of methodology and the philosophy of the social sciences. He made funda…

Burhoe, Ralph Wendell

(160 words)

Author(s): Hefner, Philip
[German Version] (Jun 21, 1911, Somerville, MA – May 8, 1997, Chicago). From 1964 to 1975 Burhoe was the professor of theology at the Meadville/Lombard Theological School, Chicago. He founded the Institute of Religion in an Age of Science in 1956, the journal Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science in 1966, and the Chicago Center for Religion and Science in 1988. Burhoe urged the alliance of the natural sciences with traditional religious values. He developed a set of …

Anthropic Principle

(401 words)

Author(s): Zycinski, Józef | Hefner, Philip
[German Version] I. Science – II. Philosophy of Religion I. Science In 1973, Brandon Carter introduced the expression “anthropic principles” in order to emphasize that the earthly observer assumes a privileged position in the universe in the sense that the development of life based on carbon requires very specific conditions. These conditions depend on certain characte…