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Komnene, Anna

(171 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Claudia
[German Version] (Dec 2, 1083 – c. 1153/1154, Constantinople) was the oldest daughter of Alexius I Comnenius. Originally engaged to Constantine Doukas, the son of Emperor Michael VII, she married Nicephorus Bryennius after the early death of the former. In 1118, she conspired with Irene Doukaina to elevate her husband to the imperial throne as successor to her father. However, she was forced by her brother John II to retire to a convent, where she associated with schol-¶ ars and was productive as an author. She only became a nun shortly before her death. Her main opus, the Alexiad, is a deta…

Nicephorus Callistus Xanthopoulos

(153 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Claudia
[German Version] (2nd half of the 13th cent. – before 1328, Constantinople), Byzantine author and cleric of Hagia Sophia. One may conclude from the evidence of several works that he taught rhetoric and belonged to intellectual circles. He corresponded with several scholars of his time; Theodoros Metochites and Manuel Philes dedicated poems to him. Probably a considerable time before his death, he became a monk and took the name Neilos. His copious writings, benifiting from his work at the library …


(7,786 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram | Ritter, Adolf Martin | Ludwig, Claudia | Thümmel, Hans Georg | Ohme, Heinz | Et al.
[German Version] I. Archaeology – II. Early Church – III. After 600 – IV. Councils – V. Patriarchate – VI. Literature – VII. Art – VIII. Church Music – IX. Judaism I. Archaeology Settlers from Megara settled Byzantium in the early 7th century on a previously inhabited hill on the Bosphorus, the most important water route from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea; a deep bay, the “Golden Horn” offered additional protection. In 324 ce, after the victory over Licinius, Constantine chose Byzantium as a new capital and dedicated it on May 11, 330 as Nea Roma, “New Rome”; soon the name …