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Iugerum

(232 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Latin name for a square measure comprising a rectangle of 120 × 240 feet = 35,52 × 71,04 m = 2523 m2 = 1/4 ha, made up of two squares ( Actus [2]) [1. 84f.; 3. 9f.], according to Plin. HN 18,3,9 the area which could be ploughed in one day by one yoke of oxen, in a figurative sense a ‘day's work’. Division according to the duodecimal system into 2 actus, 12 unciae, 288   scripula , with 1 scripulum corresponding to 100 square feet. A full calculation of the sub-units is given by Columella 5,1,4-5,2,10 [2. 627]. Varro, Rust. 1,10,2 mentions   heredium (2 I.), centuria (200 I.) and   sa…

Kados

(128 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (κάδος; kádos, Latin cadus, ‘jug, pail’). Graeco-Latin term for a vessel, usually earthen, for storing fluids. In Athens, kados was also the term for the biggest unit in the measure of volume, synonymous with metretes, equal to 39,4 l. [1. 101-102; 703 table X A]. In Rome, kados was the measure of Greek wines, as opposed to Italian wines, which were measured by the amphora [2]. In Roman literature, kados is a technical term for wine jug, often used metonymically for wine by the poets of the Augustan period. Records show that satirists also used the…

Hekte

(190 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (ἕκτη; héktē). Greek term for the sixth of a unit. Nominal term for the electrum staters ( Stater) of Cyzicus (inscription IG I2 199; 203), Mytilene and Phocaea made of a gold-silver alloy. In addition, series from the 7th to the 5th cents. BC have been found from indeterminate minting sites of Asia Minor that were launched according to the Milesian, Phocaean and Samian-Euboean standard [3. 7-17]. The coins of Mytilene and Phocaea made in the gold-silver ratio of 1:131/3 [1. 55] as joint mintings according to the coinage agreement of 394 BC [2. 29] corresp…

Hemina

(166 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] ( emina). Latin term adopted from the Greek (ἡμίνα; hēmína) for a measure of volume for liquids and dry goods in the volume of 1/96  amphora, 1/32  modius, 1/2  sextarius, corresponding to 2  quartarii, 4  acetabula, 6  cyathi. It corresponds to 0.273 l; calibrated in relation to water, there are 10 ounces to 1 hemina. Widespread as a measurement for drinks - comparable with ‘half a pint’ in comedy and in other writers [1. 2602-2604] as well as a quantity indicator in recipes in Caelius Apicius [2. 99-100; 3. 143]. As an oil measure, hemina describes by the name λιτραῖ…

Konche

(81 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (κόγχη; kónchē; Lat. concha; ‘mussel, small bowl’); technical term for a minimum measure, used mostly by doctors to specify a quantity of ointment. In this system, the ‘large konche’ (μεγάλη κόγχη/ megálē konche) is equivalent to an oxybaphon and corresponds to c. 0.06 l, the ‘small konche’ (ἐλάττων κόγχη, eláttōn konche) equivalent to 1/2 cyathus [2] and corresponds to c. 0.02 l [1. 636]. Measures of volume Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882.

Ro

(44 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] ( r­, literally 'cup') is an Egyptian measure of capacity for fluids and dry goods at 1/32 Hin ( c. 0,48 l) and corresponds to c. 0,015 l. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 W. Helck, S. Vleming, s. v. Maße u. Gewichte, LÄ 3, 1201 f.

Palaiste

(115 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (παλαιστή/ palaist ). Greek unit of length (a 'hand's width', cf. Latin palmus ) of 4 δάκτυλοι ( dáktyloi), corresponding to 1/4 foot. Extrapolating from the length of the underlying measurement, the foot (πούς/ pous ), the palaiste is between 68 and 87 mm long. This unit of measure, the dáktylos ('finger's width'), the σπιθαμή ( spithamḗ /'span') and the πῆχυς ( pêchys /'cubit') draw on the proportions of the human body. According to Herodotus 1 foot corresponds to 4 hands and a cubit to 6 hands (Hdt. 2,149,3). Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsc…

Passus

(113 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Roman measure of length (two paces; Greek βῆμα διπλοῦν/ bêma diploûn) of 5 feet, corresponding to c. 1.48 m. The passus formed the basic unit for measuring mileage, the Roman road surveys providing distance data on the basis of 1,000 times the passus, i.e. the mille passus (plural milia passuum, abbreviated as MP and corresponding to 1.48 km) (cf. for instance ILS 23: milestone of Polla). In military terminology, milia passuum was also used by way of asserting feats of marching (cf. for instance Veg. Mil. 1,27). Milestones Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliograp…

Pous

(195 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (πούς/ poús, 'foot', Lat. pes ). A poús is a Greek unit of length, taken from the proportions of the human body, of 4 παλαισταί ( palaistaí; p alaistḗ ; 'hand width', Lat. palmus ) or 16 δάκτυλοι ( dáktyloi; d áktylos ; 'finger width', Lat. digitus). Owing to differing regional calculations its length varied between c. 270 and 350 mm; an Attic foot was c. 300 mm. The poús is a subunit of larger units; 100 pódes correspond to a  πλέθρον ( pléthron ), 600 pódes to a  στάδιον ( st ádion ); cf. table. Greek units of length and the relationships between them     Unit of length     δάκτυλος …

Saton

(65 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (σάτον/ sáton, Latin satum; seā) is a Hebrew capacity measure for liquids and dry goods. Its volume varies in time and place between 20 and 24 loghim (Log; Hin; Sextarius) and corresponds to roughly 9.1-13.1 litres. During the Roman period the s. was equated with 1 1/2 Italic modii ( Modius [3]) (Jos. Ant. Iud. 9,85; less often 1 1/4 modii). Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)

Quartarius

(62 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (Greek τέταρτον/ tétarton, 'quarter'). The quartarius was a Roman measure of volume for liquids and dry goods at 1/4 sextarius , corresponding to 2 acetabula or 3 cyathi. Standardized to water, the quartarius is equivalent to 0.136 l. Acetabulum; Cyathus Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 H. Chantraine, s. v. q., RE 24, 830-834 2 F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, s. Index.

Pes

(331 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] The pes ('foot') was the basic unit of Roman measures of length (corresponding to 296·2 mm). According to Vitruvius (Vitr. 3,1,5) it, its subdivisions digitus ('fingerwidth'; Greek δάκτυλος/ dáktylos = 1/16 foot) and palmus ('handwidth'; Greek παλαιστή/ palaistḗ = 1/4 foot) and its sesquimultiple cubitus ('cubit'; Greek πῆχυς/ pȇchys ) draw on the proportions of the human body. Following the duodecimal system usual in coinage, the pes was also subdivided into 12 unciae ('inches'). Numerous surviving folding foot-long rules of bronze, bone or brass ge…

Hekteus

(177 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (ἑκτεύς; hekteús). Greek term for a dry measure, mainly for grain, in volume 1/6   medimnos , corresponding to 8   choinikes and 32   kotylai . According to [1], the hekteus depends on the region and amounts to 8.75 litres (Attica) or 12.12 litres (Aegina) [1. 504-506]. In the Ptolemaic period the hekteus corresponded to 13.13 litres [1. 623]. According to [3], the Attic hekteus passed through the stages of 4.56, 5.84, 6.56, 8.75, 10.21, 10.94 litres, the Aeginetan-Lakonian hekteus corresponded to 9.12 litres. According to [6], the Solonian hekteus amounted to 8…

Urna

(59 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Roman fluid measure  (Measures of volume); corresponding to half an amphora [2] and hence 4 congii or 24 sextarii. In modern terms approximately 13·1 litres. As an expression of quantity the u. often appears in the context of viticulture (Colum. 3,3,2; 3,3,10; 3,9,2 f.). Sextarius (with table) Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, 116 ff.

Plethron

(96 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (πλέθρον/ pléthron). A p. (Latin iugerum) is a Greek unit of length of 100 feet, corresponding to 1/6 στάδιον/ stádion (Stadion). Depending on the underlying length of the foot (Pous), it has a length of c. 27-35 m; an Attic plethron comes to 31 m. In Homeric epic, plethron is synonymous with the length of a furrow; plethron can also be found there as a unit of area for a piece of land 100 feet square (cf. also Hom. Il. 23,164: ἑκατόμπεδον ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα). Measures Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, 28.

Pertica

(155 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Pertica is the name given to the measuring rod (bar) of the Roman land surveyor and architect (mostly with a length of 10 feet ( decempeda ) = c. 2,96 m, more rarely with 12, 15 or 17 feet). Pertica is also the t.t. for the area surveyed with the rod as well as, in the form pertica quadrata, for the surface measurement for an area of 10 × 10 feet. As a regional special form, pertica is known from Germania as a length measure of 12 feet according to the pes Drusianus at 33.3 cm, corresponding to 3.99 m. In agriculture, pertica is the term for the stakes used in viticulture to at…

Sescuncia

(126 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (also sescunx; sesqui unciae = 1 1/2 unciae ). Roman unit for 1/8 of a larger whole. As a weight it equals 1/8 of a libra [1] = 40.93 gr. (value mark I-L; AE 1968, 258), as a length, 1/8 of a pes = 37 mm, as an area, 1/8 of a iugerum = 315 m2. In the eastern Mediterranean the sescuncia as a weight was also equal to 12 Attic drachmai (value mark I-B). In coinage, the  sescuncia corresponds to 1/8 of an as , later also 1/8 of a denarius . As a coin the sescuncia is found in Venusia (SNG Munich, 1970, 550) and in Paestum (SNG Copenhagen, 1969, 1346). Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliog…

Hexas

(285 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (ἑξᾶς; hexâs). Greek name for silver and aes coins from Sicily and (more rarely) southern Italy worth 1/6   litra ; also called dionkion, Latin equivalent   sextans , since the coin system used there was based on 12 unciae to the litra. Value symbol: 2 dots. The extremely rare smallest silver coins (average weight 0.14 g) of this nominal are attested in Tarentum [5. 1117-1121], Acragas [2. 122], Himera [1. 30], Leontini [7. 1345], Messana [7. 326], Segesta [1. 48] and Syracuse [3. 373]. Owing to the non-uniform standard of the bronze litra, the aes coins have greatl…

Groma

(227 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (Greek γνώμων; gnṓmōn). Name of the Roman  surveyors' device for determining straight lines and right angles when surveying a terrain. It consists of a pole about the height of a man ( ferramentum) and a rotatable cross of four horizontal rods ( stella) attached to it at right angles. On the four ends were attached plumb-lines ( perpendicula) almost down to the ground. The plumb attached to the centre point of the rotary cross ( umbilicus soli) was aligned above the measurement point by a slight slanting of the ferramentum [3]. The application is known through Heron o…

Metretes

(110 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (μετρητής; metrētḗs) is the Greek name for the largest unit of measurement for fluids, synonymous with kados , a volume of 12 chóai ( Chous [1]), corresponding to 144 kotýlai ( Kotyle [2]). It is equivalent to approximately 39,4 litres, according to Hultsch, whereas Nissen puts it at approximately 38,9 litres. Measures of Volume Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882 (reprint 1971), 101f., 703 table X A 2 M. Lang, M. Crosby, Weights, Measures and Tokens (The Athenian Agora 10), 1964, 56ff. 3 H. Nissen, G…

Kyathos

(159 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] [1] See Pottery, shapes and types of see  Pottery, shapes and types of Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) [German version] [2] Measure of volume for fluids (κύαθος/ kýathos, Latin cyathus; 'cup'); Graeco-Latin term for a measure of volume for fluids amounting to 1/6 kotyle [2] or 1/72 chous [1] in the Greek system [1. 104] and 1/12 sextarius or 1/576 amphora [2] [1. 117] in the Roman, equivalent to approx. 0.045 l. In the Roman system, the cyathus was also a unit of measure for the ladle used to serve wine from the krater into the drinking-cup [1. 118], the volume of …

Ponderarium

(384 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] was the Latin name for the office of weights and measures. The calibration of scales and weights and of measuring-vessels for fluids and dry goods took place, both in Greece and the Roman Empire in a building in the vicinity of the marketplace, in which were kept the town's official weights and a block of stone sunk with depressions of various depths and fitted with removable metal inserts for the standardization of measures of volume. There is a copy of such a 'measuring table' ( mensa ponderaria, Greek σήκωμα/ sḗkōma) with cavities of different sizes in the Forum of…

Xestes

(129 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (ξέστης/ xéstēs). From the turn from the 3rd cent. BC to the 2nd onwards, the term xestes is recorded as a Greek term for the Roman sextarius , a fluid and dry measure of capacity (=  c. 0.546 l) corresponding to 1/48 of an amphora [2], 1/6 of a congius or 2 heminae , 4 quartarii and 12 cyathi . In late Antiquity Egypt, 72 xestai/ sextarii corresponded to an artábē, which was subdivided into 48 choínikes. Hence a choínix can be equated with 11/2 xestai/ sextarii. Sextarius (with table) Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 H. Chantraine, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 210…

Parasanges

(75 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (παρασάγγης; parasángēs). Babylonian-Assyrian and Persian measurement of length, equal to 30 stadia (cf. Hdt. 2,6,3; Xen. An. 5,5,4) or 10,800 royal cubits, the equivalent of c. 5.7km. According to Herodotus, roads as well as those areas of land included in the tax land register were measured in parasangs in the kingdoms of the Ancient Near East (Hdt. 6,42,2). Stadion [1] Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, 476ff.

Mensor

(294 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] was the Latin term for technical experts who carried out measurements in the broadest sense of the word. Mensores agrarii ( agrimensores, geometrae, gromatici, surveyor) were responsible in both civil and military domains for marking out surfaces, laying out roads, aqueducts, and building camps. This activity gained great importance during the 1st cent. BC, as a consequence of the allocation of land to veterans. According to the representation on the gravestone of L. Aebutius Faustus (CIL V 6786 = ILS 7736), their main instrument was the groma. Mensores aedificiorum

Sicilicus

(154 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (also quartuncia = 1/4 uncia ; Greek σικελικός/ sikelikós). Roman unit of 1/48 of a larger whole. As a weight the sicilicus corresponds to 1/48 of a libra [1] = 6,82 g and hence 11/2 sextulae , as a length 1/48 of a pes = c. 6 mm, as an area 1/48 of a iugerum = 52,5 m2, as a time unit 1/48 of an hora (hour) = 11/4 minutes (Plin. HN 18,324). In the imperial monetary system of the Greek East the sicilicus was synonymous with the assárion . In the late Roman and Byzantine systems of weights the sicilicus was equivalent to 6 scripula (value mark VI or Ε; scripulum ) or 11/2 solidi (Solidus). I…

Quincunx

(173 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] The quincunx ( quinque unciae; Greek πεντόγκιον/ pentónkion) was a Roman measure equalling 5/12 of a larger unit, also in the sense of 5% in interest or an inheritance. As a measure of weight it corresponds to 5/12 libra = 136,4 g, as one of area to 5/12 iugerum = 1051 m2, as one of volume 5/12 sextarius = 0·23 l. Because of its exceptional position within the usual duodecimal system, weights of this value are extraordinarily rare. Examples from the Roman period bear the value mark IIIII (CIL XIII 10030,36) or V, pieces from the Byzantine period Γ-Ε. The quincunx as a bronze…

Cardo, kardo

(377 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] The point around which something rotates; technical term in Roman land-surveying ( limitatio); within the rectangular grid of the survey, it refers to the horizontal lines ( limites). Originally, it was a cosmological term, referring to the pivotal point of the uni- verse; later, it was used to describe the north-south axis -- in contrast with the east-west axis of the   decumanus , which divided the world into two halves, one of sunrise and one of sunset, or one of day and one of night [1. 147]. In gromatic theory ( Surve…

Spithame

(112 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (σπιθαμή/ spithamḗ, handspan). Greek unit of length taken from the proportions of the human body, extending between the tips of the thumb and little finger, equal to 1/2 pchys , i.e. 3 palaistaí ( palaist ) or 12 dáktyloi dáktylos [1]. Depending on the underlying foot size ( pous ), its length was c. 20-26 cm. According to a metrological relief from the island Salamis [1], the Attic spithame was 24,3 cm long. There was no unit of length corresponding to spithame in the Roman measurement system. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 K. W. Beinhauer (ed.),…

Sextarius

(163 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (later Greek ξέστης/ xéstēs, 'a sixth'). Roman unit of fluid and dry capacity equalling 1/48 of an amphora [2], 1/6 of a congius, 2 heminae , 4 quartarii and 12 cyathi (Cyathus [2]; see table); a sextarius corresponds to approximately 0,546 l. As a measure of volume sextarius also occurs on ancient measuring vessels. Colloquially sextarius was also used for 1/6 of anything. The sextarius was the largest measure of both fluid and dry capacity; higher units had distinct names. Roman units of fluid and dry capacity and their relationships: sextarius      Unit:     cyathus  …

Leuga

(360 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Gallo-Roman unit of measurement of Celtic origin for measuring and displaying distances on roads in Aquitania from the 2nd cent. AD and in the other Gaulish as well the two German provinces from the beginning of the 3rd cent. One leuga is equivalent to 1.5 Roman miles and corresponds to c. 2,200 m. Whilst in the 1st and 2nd cents. in these provinces the distance indications on the miliaria ( Milestones) were provided exclusively in Roman miles (abbreviation M P = milia passuum), the measures generally appeared in leugae (abbreviation L) from the time of Septimius Sev…

Pondo

(45 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Fossilised ablative of limitation of Latin pondus, -i, 'in weight'. Often used instead of libra [1] as a basic Roman unit of weight in the sense 'at a weight of 1 pound'. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882.

Ulna

(111 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (ὠλένη/ ōlénē, literally 'elbow'). A measure of length based on one of the proportions of the human body which appears primarily in poetry (cf. e.g. Hor. Epod. 4,8; Verg. Ecl. 4,105; Verg. G. 3,355); its extent is inconsistent. Whereas the term is occasionally used as a synonym for cubitus (ell = 11/2 feet), it is also found in Plinius [1] the Elder as a translation of ὄργυια/ órgyia (fathom = 6 feet; cf. Plin. HN 36,87 with Hdt. 2,148,7), the length a human can span with both arms (Plin. HN 16,133; 16,202). Use as an official measure of length is improbable. Schulzki, Heinz-Jo…

Libra

(249 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] [1] Unit of weight (also pondus, ‘pound’, metonymic ‘what has been weighted’; Greek equivalent: λίτρα/ lítra). Terminus technicus for the unit of weight of 327,45 g of the Roman measuring system; a libra corresponds to the as , which in the duodecimal system was divided into 12 unciae of 27,28g [2. 706 fig. XIII]. The standard very likely remained unchanged until early Byzantine times, as evidenced by weighing coins of precious metals and silver implements. [3. 222]. As weights, we find librae of bronze and of lead, also of stone. They are to be differentiated…

Pechys

(137 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (πῆχυς; pêchys). Greek measure of length derived from the proportions of the human body, from the tip of the longest finger to the elbow ('ell' or 'cubit', Latin Cubitus), equal to 2 σπιθαμαί ( spithamaí/'handspans' ), 6 παλαισταί ( palaistaí/'handbreadths'; cf. Latin Palmus) as well as 24 δάκτυλοι ( dáktyloi/'fingerbreadths'; cf. Latin digitus), corresponding to 1 1/2 feet (cf. Vitr. De arch. 3,1,8). Depending on the foot measure (Pous) that was used, its length was c. 40-52 cm. According to a metrological relief from the island of Salamis, the Attic pechys measured …

Medimnos

(102 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (μέδιμνος; médimnos) is the largest Greek unit of measurement for dry substances, with a volume of 6 hekteis ( Hekteus), equivalent to 48 choinikes ( Choinix) and 192 kotylai ( Kotyle [2]). According to Hultsch, it equals c. 52.5 l, according to Nissen c. 51.8 l with considerable regional differences. Measures of volume Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, 108, 703 tab. X 2 M. Lang, M. Crosby, Weights, Measures and Tokens (The Athenian Agora 10), 1964, 41ff. 3 H. Nissen, Griechische und römische M…

Quadrantal

(177 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] The quadrantal (cubic foot) was the basic Roman unit of volume (Measure of volume) for liquids, identical in measurement to the amphora [2], equal to 2 urnae, 8 congii, 48 sextarii, 96 heminae, 192 quartarii etc. (cf. table). Calibrated to water, the quadrantal was equal to 80 librae (1 libra = 327.45 g), i.e. 26.2 litres. The quadrantal was probably standardized in the late 3rd cent. BC by a lex Silia de mensuris et ponderibus (Fest. 288). The Roman measures of volume and their relationships     Unit of volume    acetabulum     quartarius     hemina     sextarius    …

Sextula

(144 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] ('A small sixth' = 1/6 of the u ncia ; cf. Varro Ling. 5,171: aeris minima pars sextula, quod sexta pars unciae). Roman unit of measurement constituting 1/72 of a bigger whole. As unit of weight, the sextula corresponds to 1/72 of the libra [1] = 4,55 g, as unit of area to 1/72 of the iugerum = 35 m2. In the Late Roman and Byzantine weight system, the sextula was equivalent to four scripula (value symbol Δ; scripulum ) or one solidus (value symbol N). Sextula also appears as part of the declared weight on silver crockery from Late Antiquity (CIL XIII 3100,5; 10026,25; 29a). Schulzki…

Konche

(66 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[English version] (κόγχη; lat. concha; “Muschel, Schälchen”); t.t. für ein hauptsächlich bei Medizinern zur Mengenangabe von Salben verwandtes Kleinstmaß. Dabei ist die “große K.” (μεγάλη κόγχη/ megálē k.) gleichbedeutend mit einem Oxybaphon und entspricht ca. 0,06 l, die “kleine K.” (ἐλάττων κόγχη, eláttōn k.) gleichbedeutend mit 1/2 Kyathos [1] und entspricht ca. 0,02 l [1. 636]. Hohlmaße Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882.

Quartarius

(56 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[English version] (griech. τέταρτον/ tétarton, “Viertel”). Der q. war ein röm. Hohlmaß für Flüssiges und Trockenes zu 1/4 sextarius , entsprechend 2 acetabula bzw. 3 cyathi. Auf Wasser geeicht entspricht der q. 0,136 l. Acetabulum; Cyathus Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 H. Chantraine, s. v. q., RE 24, 830-834 2 F. Hultsch, Griech. und röm. Metrologie, 21882, s. Index.

Lupinus

(38 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[English version] ist die lat. Bezeichnung für die Wolfsbohne ( l. albus; Lupine), die bei Brettspielen anstelle von Münzen als Spielstein verwendet wurde. Als Kleingewicht auch gleichbedeutend mit 1/4 scripulum , entsprechend ca. 0,28 g. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)

Passus

(94 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[English version] Röm. Längenmaß (Doppelschritt; griech. βῆμα διπλοῦν/ bḗma diplún) zu 5 Fuß, entsprechend ca. 1,48 m. Der p. war Grundeinheit des Wegemaßes, nach dessen 1000fachem mille passus (Pl. milia passuum, abgekürzt MP, entsprechend 1,48 km) die röm. Straßen vermessen und mit Entfernungsangaben versehen wurden (vgl. etwa ILS 23: Meilenstein von Polla). Im mil. Bereich wurden die milia passuum auch zur Angabe von Marschleistungen verwandt (vgl. etwa Veg. mil. 1,27). Meilensteine Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsch, Griech. und röm. Metr…

Pertica

(130 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[English version] Als p. wird die Meßlatte (Stange) der röm. Feldmesser und Architekten (meist in einer Länge von 10 Fuß ( decempeda ) = ca. 2,96 m, seltener zu 12, 15 oder 17 Fuß) bezeichnet. P. ist auch t.t. für das mit der Stange vermessene Gebiet sowie als p. quadrata Flächenmaß für ein Areal von 10 × 10 Fuß. Als regionale Sonderform ist aus Germanien p. als Längenmaß von 12 Fuß nach dem pes Drusianus zu 33,3 cm, entsprechend 3,99 m, bekannt. In der Landwirtschaft bezeichnet p. die im Weinbau verwandten Pfähle zum Befestigen der Reben sowie die Stöcke zum Abschlagen von Nü…

Multiplum

(334 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[English version] In der ant. Numismatik benutzter t.t. zur Bezeichnung von Mehrfachstücken eines bestimmten Nominals bzw. von Prägungen größeren Formats aus edlen oder unedlen Metallen. Häufig wird M. irrtümlich gleichbedeutend mit dem Begriff Medaillon verwandt; dieser schließt allerdings eine Funktion als Zahlungsmittel aus, während multipla grundsätzlich nach ihrem Gewicht in das gängige Münzsystem hineingehören. Im griech. Bereich können Oktadrachmon und Dekadrachmon als m. angesprochen werden, da ihre Ausprägung in der Regel im Zusammenhang mit besti…

Kotyle

(95 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[English version] [1] s. Gefäße, Gefäßformen/-typen (Trinknapf) s. Skyphos Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) [English version] [2] Hohlmaß (κοτύλη/ kotýlē; lat. cotula, cotyla). Griech.-lat. Bezeichnung eines Hohlmaßes für Flüssiges im Volumen von 1/144 Metretes oder 1/12 Chus [1], entsprechend 4 Oxybapha oder 6 Kyathoi, sowie als Trockenmaß im Volumen von 1/192 Medimnos oder 1/32 Hekteus. Die Umrechnung liegt nach Hultsch bei ca. 0,27 l [1. 108, 703, Tab. X], nach Viedebantt bei ca. 0,22 l [2. 1547f.] mit größeren regionalen Abweichungen. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Man…

Parasanges

(58 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[English version] (παρασάγγης). Babylonisch-assyrisches und persisches Längenmaß (“Stundenweg”) zu 30 Stadien (vgl. Hdt. 2,6,3; Xen. an. 5,5,4) bzw. 10800 königlichen Ellen, entsprechend ca. 5,7 km. Nach Herodot wurden in den altorientalischen Reichen die Straßen sowie die in Steuerkataster erfaßten Landflächen in Parasangen vermessen (Hdt. 6,42,2). Stadion Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography F. Hultsch, Griech. und röm. Metrologie, 21882, 476ff.

Libra

(217 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[English version] [1] Gewichtseinheit (auch pondus, “Pfund”, metonymisch “das Gewogene”; griech. Äquivalent: λίτρα/ lítra). T.t. für die Grundeinheit des röm. Gewichtsystems zu 327,45 g; die L. entspricht dem as , der nach dem Duodezimalsystem in 12 unciae zu 27,28 g unterteilt wurde [2. 706 Tab. XIII]. Der Standard dürfte nach Wägungen von Edelmetallmünzen sowie Silbergeschirr bis in die frühbyz. Zeit weitestgehend unverändert geblieben sein [3. 222]. Als Gewichtsstücke finden sich L. aus Br. und Blei sowie aus Stein, zur Unterscheidung von den in Kleinas…

Kados

(113 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[English version] (κάδος; lat. cadus; “Krug, Eimer”). Griech.-lat. Bezeichnung für ein - in der Regel irdenes - Gefäß zur Aufbewahrung von Flüssigkeiten. In Athen war K. gleichzeitig Begriff für die größte Einheit der Hohlmaße, gleichbedeutend mit Metretes, entsprechend 39,4 l [1. 101-102; 703 Tab. X A]. In Rom war K. die Maßeinheit für griech. Weine, im Gegensatz zu ital. Weinen, die nach der Amphora [2] bemessen wurden. In der röm. Lit. t.t. für Weinkrug, daher bei den Dichtern der augusteischen Z…

Decumanus

(248 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[English version] ist t.t. der röm. Landvermessung (Limitation) und bezeichnet im rechtwinklig angelegten Vermessungssystem die senkrecht verlaufenden Linien ( limites); urspr. handelt es sich um eine Bezeichnung aus der Kosmologie für die Ost-West-Achse als Visierlinie der Himmelsbewegung [1. 199] im Gegensatz zum cardo als Nord-Süd-Achse, die die Welt in eine Sonnenauf- und Sonnenuntergangshälfte bzw. Tag- und Nachthälfte teilt [2. 147]. In der gromatischen Praxis wurde der d. maximus als Orientierungsachse unabhängig von den Haupthimmelsrichtungen nach top…

Groma

(215 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[English version] (griech. γνώμων). Bezeichnet das Gerät der röm. Feldmesser, mit dem bei Vermessungen im Gelände gerade Linien und rechte Winkel ermittelt wurden. Es besteht aus einer etwa mannshohen Stange ( ferramentum) und einem waagerecht darauf befestigten drehbaren Kreuz aus vier rechtwinkligen Balken ( stella). An den vier Enden waren an Fäden abhängende Lote ( perpendicula) bis in Bodennähe angebracht. Das am Mittelpunkt des Drehkreuzes ( umbilicus soli) angebrachte Lot wurde durch leichte Schrägstellung des ferramentum über dem Meßpunkt ausgerichtet [3]. Die …
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