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(125 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (also Hismenos; Ἰσμηνός; Ismēnós, Ἱσμηνός; Ismēnós). Boeotian river with its source in  Thebes [1] near the Cadmeia. Outside the city it joined the  Dirce and flowed into the  Hylice. In poetry the I. is frequently mentioned. Apollo Ismenius was worshipped in the Ismenium south-east of the Cadmeia above the I. The river god I. gradually became part of the oracle cult of Apollo. A Geometrical temple in the Ismenium was destroyed by fire c. 700 BC and a second temple was erected in the 6th cent. In the 4th cent. a peripteros remained unfinished. Evidence in: Pind. Pyth.…


(106 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Aegean Koine | Boeotia, Boeotians (Εὔτρησις; Eútrēsis). Boeotian settlement near the modern Leuctra. The settlement mound, Arkophodi by its modern name, was on the road from Thespiae to Plataea. The settlement was already of importance in the early Greek period and was also mentioned in Homer's catalogue of ships (Il. 2,502). Later, despite its allegedly famous Apollo oracle, it became no more than a dependent settlemen…


(67 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia (Πυλήνη/ Pylḗnē). Aetolian city, mentioned in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,639; Stat. Theb. 4,102;  Hsch. s. v. Π.; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.). In the pre-Hellenistic period, P. was relocated to a higher site and renamed Proschium. Aetolians, Aetolia (with map) Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography C. Antonetti, Les Étoliens, 1990, 278-280.


(215 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἄρνη; Árnē). [German version] [1] Boeotian settlement Boeotian settlement (Hom. Il. 2,507). According to Str. 1,3,18; 9,2,34-35, A. was either equated with  Acraephia, or believed to have been drowned by  L. Copais. According to other sources, A. was the ancient name of  Chaeronea (Paus. 9,40,5; Steph. Byz. s.v. Χαιρώνεια). It is probably not identical with the fortress of Gla which had been abandoned in the late Mycenaean period [1].  Boeotia Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. Noack, A., in: MDAI (A) 19, 1894, 405-485. J. M. Fossey, Papers in Boiotian Topography and H…


(456 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Boeotia, Boeotians (Πλάταιαι/ Plátaiai, Πλαταιαί/ Plataiaí, Lat. Plataeae; ethnic Πλαταιεύς/ Plataieús). City in southern Boeotia, in the northern foothills of Mount Cithaeron, near the Asopus. The site was inhabited from the Helladic into the Byzantine Period [1]. The city walls, still recognizable today, were built at various times. A ring wall c. 3 km in length was probably erected in the reign of Philip II (Phi…


(348 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (Πλευρῶν; Pleurôn). City in south-western Aetolian Aeolis [2] (ethnic names Πλευρώνιος/ Pleurṓnios and Πλευρωνεύς/ Pleurōneús, the area was called Πλευρωνία/ Pleurōnía, Str. 10,2,5). Listed as an Aetolian city in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,639), P. had broken away from the Aetoloi in the 6th/5th cent. BC (Thuc. 3,102,5) and at the end of the 5th cent. became a member of the Achaean League (…


(304 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Aetolians, Aetolia | Hellenistic states | Athenian League (Second) (Θέρμος, Θέρμον/ Thérmos, -on). Religious centre from the Archaic period onwards of Aetolian tribes to the north east of Lake Trichonis/modern Limni Trichonida (Aetolians, with map), 'League sanctuary' of the koinón from the 4th cent. BC, in which annual festivals with markets and the League's main assembly took place (Pol. 5,7,8; Liv. 31,32,3; Ethnicon Θέρμιος, IG IX 12 1, Z. 102; cf. Pol. 5,6,6; Str. 10,3,2) [1]. Apollo Thermios, A…


(150 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Athenian League (Second) | Boeotia, Boeotians (Λεῦκτρα; Leûktra). Town (τόπος, Str. 9,2,39, cf. Plut. Mor. 773b) and plain (τὰ Λεῦκτρα) in Boeotia in the area of Thespiae. The exact localization near Leuktra (formerly Parapoúgia) is uncertain. L. became famous through the battle of 371 BC, in which the Boeotians under the leadership of Epaminondas defeated Sparta [3. 49-59]. Remains of a tropaion [1] from the 3rd cent. BC are preserved (rebuilt today…


(195 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (Παγαί/ Pagaí, ethnic name Παγαῖος/ Pagaîos; Att. and lit. Πηγαί/ Pēgaí or Πηγαῖος/ Pēgaîos). Port city in Megaris on the Corinthian Gulf, identified with the remains of a fortified harbour settlement near what is today Alepochori. In 461 BC P. was occupied by the Athenians (Thuc. 1,103,4) who undertook marine operations from that location (Thuc. 1,111,2). During the 30-year peace the Athenians were forced to return P. to Megara [2] (Thuc. 1,115; cf. IG I3 1353). The fortunes of P. we…


(136 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
(Σύβοτα/ Sýbota). [German version] [1] Island group Island group off the coast of Epirus opposite the southern tip of Corcyra [1]. In 433 BC a sea battle took place there between Corcyra and Corinth ([1]; Thuc. 1,47,1; 50,3; Str. 2,5,20; 7,7,5). In AD 551 the islands were plundered by the Ostrogoths (Procop. Goth. 4,22,30). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography 1 J. S. Morrison et al., The Athenian Trireme, 22000, 62-69. [German version] [2] Harbour Harbour on the coast of Epirus opposite the S. [1] island group, modern Limani Murzo. In the 5th cent. BC, S. was …


(111 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Τριποδίσκος; Tripodískos). One of five villages which developed into Megara [2]; the founder of T. was considered to be Coroebus [1] (Paus. 1,43,8 with an explanation of the  place name;  cf. Callim. Fr. 31; Plut. Mor.  295b; Steph. Byz. s. v. T.). T. is to be found in the foothills of the Gerania and on a strategically important route to  Delphi (Thuc. 4,70,1 f.), about 7 km to the northwest of Megara. In T., Apollo was worshipped, and in his honour a festival was probably instituted in Megara. The comedy writer Susarion (Susarion, fr. 2) was from T. Freitag, Klaus (Münst…
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