Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)" )' returned 430 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Sinti

(119 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σιντοί/ Sintoí). Thracian tribe on the western bank of the Strymon, probably between the mountains Malaševska and Ogražden, possibly somewhat more in the south; western neighbour of the Illyrian Dardani (Str. 7a,1,36; App. Mithr. 55); the westernmost tribe of the kingdom of the Odrysae ( cf. Thuc. 2,98,1 on Sitalces' [1] campaign against Macedonia in 429 BC). The main centre of the S. was Heraclea Sintica, which has not yet been located (Diod. Sic. 31,8,8; Liv. 45,29,6). The Sínties in Hom. Od. 8,294 are not the same as the S. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibli…

Pliska

(227 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Slavonic; Greek Πλίσκοβα/ Plískoba). Residency in the first kingdom of the Bulgari, one of the successor states on the soil of the Roman Empire, in the years 681-843, 25 km to the east of Šumen at modern Pliska (formerly Aboba) in northeastern Bulgaria, to the north of the Haemus, where important mountain passes can be controlled, probably founded by Khan Asparuh. Originally built as a military fortress 23 km2 in area, with rectangular and circular wooden buildings and three concentric embankments, the innermost ring enclosing the palace area (0·5 km2). This city,…

Caeni

(136 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καινοί; Kainoí). Thracian tribe between Astae and Corpili in the region of the Paeti (Hdt. 7,110 Arr. Anab. 1,11,4). After the fall of the Odrysean kingdom, the C. were located in the area east of the river Hebrus spreading to the coasts of the Propontis and the Aegean Sea. The province Caenica at the lower reaches of the river Hebrus was named after this tribe (Plin. HN 4,47; Ptol. 3,11,6). In 188 BC, the C. followed the advice of Philip V and attacked the baggage train of Cn. Ma…

Caspian Sea

(290 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κασπία θάλαττα; Kaspía thálatta; also known as ‘Hyrcanian Sea’ after the pre-Iranian Caspii or Hyrcanii who settled on its south-western shore). The world's largest drainless salt lake (371,000 km2) with c. 50 smaller islands; in the west, it borders on the Caucasus, in the east on the Iranian highlands, in the south on the Elburz range, and in the north on the Russian lowlands. Rivers flowing into the Caspian Sea (CS) are: Volga (Tanais), Ural, Terek (Atrek), Sulak, and Kura (Cyrus). Whereas the CS was seen…

Melanditae

(69 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μελανδῖται/ Melandîtai). Greek name for a Thracian tribe north of Perinthus (Xen. An. 7,2,32; cf. the name of the region in Steph. Byz. s.v. Μελανδία). North of them was the tribal territory of the Thyni, in the east the ‘Thracian delta’ of Byzantium. Their territory belonged to the Hellenistic stratēgia of Astikḗ. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography T. Spiridonov, Istoriceska geografija na trakijskite plemena, 1983, 40f., 111f.

Cillae

(38 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κέλλαι; Kéllai). Mansio on the road from Philippopolis to Hadrianopolis, modern Černa gora (Bulgaria). Honorary decrees and dedications from the imperial period (IGBulg 1515ff.); It. Ant. 136; Tab. Peut. 568. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Berezan

(193 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Island (still a peninsula in antiquity) located in front of the mouth of the  Borysthenes and on which the oldest traces of settlement by Milesian colonists on the northern coast of the Black Sea have been found: Rhodian-Ionic ceramics from the end of the 7th cent. BC; the locality B. arose in the 2nd half of the 7th cent. (numerous graffiti; flourished at the end of the 6th to the beginning of the 5th cent.). Cult of Apollo Ietros and of Apatouria (Aphrodite). Olbia was possibly …

Symbolum

(60 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Thracian coastal mountain range, today also Simbolo, lying to the south-east of the Pangaeum. The road from Philippi across S. to the port of Neapolis [1] led across a narrow pass, significant in the Roman Civil War (autumn 42 BC; Plut. Brutus 38,2; Cass. Dio 47,35,3). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography TIR K 35,1 Philippi, 1993, 55.

Doiptunus

(58 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Tib. Iulius D. (also Doiptounos or Douptounos; IPE 2,49). The name is not Greek and appears here for the first time. Probably appointed by Byzantium as administrator of the Bosporus after AD 620, since the inscription with Christian symbols also mentions a comes. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 517.

Agrianes

(100 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀγριᾶνες; Agriânes). Thracian or Paeonian tribe on the upper reaches of the  Strymon. As subjects of  Sitalces, they took part in the campaigns against  Perdiccas II in 429 BC (Thuc. 2,96); close relations with  Philippus II (FGH 115, Theopomp. F 145) and  Alexander III [4]; the latter was supported by their king  Langarus (Arr. Anab. 1,5,1-10). In Hellenistic times, they often served as mercenaries (Liv. 33,18; Pol. 2,65; 10,42). Ousted by the Dentheletae in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Ch. Danov, Altthrakie…

Melas Kolpos

(47 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (‘Black Gulf’) Now the Gulf of Saros between the Thracian Chersonesus [1] and the mouth of the River Hebrus (Str. 7, fr. 52). From the south it could be controlled from Alopeconnesus, and from the north from Aenus. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Peucini, Peuci

(105 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πευκῖνοι; Peukînoi). Important tribe of the Bastarnae (Str. 7,3,17; Plin. HN 4,100: Peucini Bastarnae; occasionally even used to refer to the Bastarnae as a whole, cf. Tac. Germ. 46; name probably a foreign expression derived from Peuce) in the north east of Dacia (Daci), east of the Troglodytae in the Danube delta (Ptol. 3,10,9). They shared characteristics with the Goti (Iord. Get. 91 for AD 248), and took part in the raid on the Aegean in AD 269, which Claudius [III 2] halted at Naissus. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography L. Schmidt, Geschichte der…

Panda

(37 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] [1] Unidentifiable river east of the Maiotis Unidentifiable river east of the Maiotis, three days' march from Tanais [2] (Tac. Ann. 12,16,2). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] see Sondergötter see Sondergötter

Cadusii

(113 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καδούσιοι; Kadoúsioi, Lat. Cadusii). Iranian group of nomadic tribes in the mountains between Media and the coast of the Caspian Sea, neighbours of the Anariaci and Albani (Str. 11,8,1). The Pantimati and Dareitai (Hdt. 3,92) possibly also belonged to the C. The  Achaemenids [2] had to battle against several revolts of the C.: in 408/7 BC, Artaxerxes II fought unsuccessfully (Xen. Hell. 2,1,13), but Artaxerxes III Ochus defeated and pacified them shortly after coming to power (359 B…

Macrones

(143 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μάκρωνες; Mákrōnes). Mountain people, already mentioned by Hecat. FGrH 1 F 206, who belonged to the 19th tax district under Darius [1] (Hdt. 3,94; 7,78; mentioned here between the Tibareni and the Mossynoeci). According to Xen. (An. 4,7,24; 8,1-22), their region lay south-west of Trapezus. Modern Meryemana Deresi (righthand tributary of Maçka Dere) then formed the border river between M. and Scythae; the border fortress of the Colchi was located outside Cevrilik. Colchic influence…

Rhoxolani

(277 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ῥωξολανοί/ Rhōxolanoí, Lat. Roxolani). Sarmatic tribe or group of tribes (Sarmatae; Str. 2,5,7, cf. 7,2,4; 7,3,17 in connection with Hipparchus [6], Eratosthenes [2]) that lived in the period approximately up to the time of Christ in the steppes between Tanais (Don) and Borysthenes (Dniepr) north of the Maeotis (Plin. HN 4,80; Ptol. 3,5,19; 24 f.). In the battle against Diophantus [3], general of Mithridates [6] VI, the R. fought under their king Tasius on the side of Palacus, king of the Scythians (113 BC?; Syll.3 709). In the 1st cent. AD, the R. settled on th…

Abritus

(178 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | (Ἄβριττος; Ábrittos). Roman fortress and civilian settlement, 2 km east of the modern Razgrad, Bulgaria; pre-Roman Thracian settlement, probably the administrative centre of the strategia Rysiké under the last of the Thracian kings (IGBulg 743). From 45 BC part of  Moesia inferior; from no later than AD 78 encampment of auxilia (CIL XVI 22); in the 2nd cent. AD garrison of the cohors II Lucensium (CIL III 13727); strongly fortified in the 4th cent. AD. Inscriptions confirm a civilian settleme…

Naparis

(21 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Νάπαρις; Náparis). Left-bank tributary of the Danube in Scythia (Hdt. 4,48); not identifiable. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Peuce

(214 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Πεύκη; Peúkē). [German version] [1] Largest island in the delta of the Istrus [2] The largest island in the delta of the Istrus [2] (Danube) in Getae territory (Apoll. Rhod. 4,309-322; Str. 7,3,15; Amm. 22,8,43; according to Ps.-Scymn. in 785-789 P. was no smaller than Rhodes, but this must be a misunderstanding), probably modern Sfântu Gheorghe (to the north of P. [2]). In 335 BC Alexander [4] the Great tried in vain to defeat the Thraci and Triballi, who had fled on to P. (Str. 7,3,8; Arr. Anab. 1,2f.). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] Southern branch at the…

Serrheium

(119 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σέρρειον ἄκρα/ Sérrheion ákra, Σέρρειον τεῖχος/ Sérrheion teîchos, Σέρριον/Sérrhion; Latin Serrheum). Cape (Str. 7a,1,48; App. B Civ. 4,101 f.) and castle on the north coast of the Aegean, in the west of the Plain of Doriscus (Hdt. 7,59) in the area settled by the Thracian Satrae, modern Makri west of modern Alexandroupolis. While occupied by the Delian League, the castle was captured in 346 BC by Philippus [4] II (Aeschin. Or. 3,82; Dem. Or. 6,64; 7,37; 9,15; 10,8; 65; 18,27; 70). In 200 …

Bizone

(146 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βιζώνη; Bizṓnē). Ancient settlement on the terraces leading to the plateau of the Dobruža, Čirakman on the western Black Sea coast. Traces of settlement from the Aeneolithic; originally a Thracian settlement, but hardly an apoikia of Mesambria/Mesembria (Ps.-Scymn. 758f.). Probably a polis as early as the 4th cent. BC; epigraphical evidence for the chora from the early 2nd cent. BC (Inscriptiones Scythiae Minoris 1,15,26f.). B. was captured by Lucullus in 72/71 BC (Eutr. 6,10); soon after, it was destroyed by an earthquake (Plin. H…

Borysthenes

(120 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βορυσθένης; Borysthénēs). After the Ister, the largest river in the northern area of the Black Sea (Hdt. 4,53), the modern Dnieper. Debouches into the west of the Black Sea, into the same lagoon as does the Hypanis. The B. was navigable for 600 stades upstream (Str. 7,3,17). The Skythai georgoi settled on its fertile lower reaches. Antiquity had no clear idea as to its course in the hinterland (Hdt. 4,18; Str. 7,2,4; Procop. Goth. 4,5). It had the name Danapris or Danaper from the 4th cent. AD; the Huns called it by the Iranian…

Orbelus

(57 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ὄρβηλος/ Órbēlos). Mountain range in the border area between Thrace and Macedonia (Hdt. 5,16; Str. 7a,1,36; Arr. Anab. 1,1,5), generally equated with the modern Belasica in the northern part of Halkidiki. It was known for its Dionysus cult (Mela 2,17). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography T. Spiridonov, Istoričeskata geografija na trakijskite plemena, 1983, 24f., 118.

Delcus

(55 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δέλκος; Délkos, Byzantine Δέρκος; Dérkos). Lake to the north of  Byzantium, today Derkoz Gölü/Turkey. According to Ath. 3,118b, the delkanós (δελκανός) was caught there, a fish that originated in the Délkōn (Δέλκων), which flowed into the D. In the Roman period an oppidum of the same name. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Ininthimaeus

(55 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἰνινθίμαιος; Ininthímaios). Bosporan king, c. AD 234-239 of the dynasty of the Tiberii Iulii. Like his emblem, his name is also Sarmatian. Attested on coins and in inscriptions (including IOSPE 2, 334, 433). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukević, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 458 A. N. Zograph, Ancient Coinage, 1977, II, 333.

Sindice

(151 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σινδική/ Sindikḗ). Probably originally the combined territory of the peninsula and island group of Taman to the north of the Hypanis [1]/Bug (Ps.-Scyl. 72), named after the Sindi; later it was probably only the southern part of the peninsula that bore this name (Str. 11,2,10). S. was also settled by other tribes, e.g. by the Aspurgiani (Str. 11,2,11; 12,3,29). S. was an agriculturally significant region with a dense network of settlements. In the 6th cent. BC Greek colonies (Hermo…

Satrae

(89 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σάτραι; Sátrai). Thracian tribe on the northern coast of the Aigaion Pelagos (Aegaean) between Nestus and Strymon on the northeastern slopes of the Pangaeum, whose ore deposits they exploited (Hdt. 7,112; possibly also meant by  Σατροκένται/ Satrokéntai in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 181). The Edones are recorded as being there from 475 BC onwards (Hdt. 9,75). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography 1 J. N. Jurukova, Monetite na trakijskite plemena i vladeteli (Monetni sakrovista ot balgarskite zemi), 1992, 16 2 I. von Bredow, Stammesnamen und Stammeswir…

Hylaea

(98 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ὑλαία; Hylaía). Forested area, east of the Borysthenes (Hdt. 4,17; 19; Ps.-Scymn. 844f.) between the Kinburn peninsula and Skadovska in the steppes of the lower Dniester, belonging to  Olbia. In the archaic and classical eras, it was significant for  Scythians and Greek colonists. The Scythian name for H. was Abika (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὑ.). H. played a large role in Scythian mythology (cf. Hdt. 4,9; 76). A large production and trade centre with docks, probably from the 6th/5th cents. BC, has been discovered (Jagorlyckoe poselenie). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissi…

Galepsos

(189 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Γάληψος; Gálēpsos). [German version] [1] Settlement east of the estuary of the Strymon into the Aegean This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars Settlement east of the point where the Strymon flows into the Aegean, probably east of Orfani, at the mouth of a water-course between the Pangaeum and the Symvolon. G. was part of the settlement of the Peraea of Thasos. Archaeologically attested from the 7th cent. BC and attested in literature since Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 152). Scyl. 67 et al. call G. a pólis. Together with the small neighb…

Dionysopolis

(278 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Moesi, Moesia (Διονυσόπολις; Dionysópolis). Settlement on the western coast of the Black Sea, today Balčik/ Bulgaria. There is evidence of settlement dating from Neolithic times. Nothing is known about the founding of the ancient city. On the basis of Ionic elements in inscriptions and the six indirectly identified Miletian phyles (IGBulg 1,15 ter), it is assumed that D. was probably founded by the Miletians in the 7th cent. BC. According to Ps.-Scymn. 75ff., D. was previously known as Krounoí; but accordi…

Iazyges, Iazuges

(208 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἰάζυγες; Iázyges). Iranian-Sarmatian tribe, first documented around the birth of Christ. They probably settled from the 3rd cent. BC at the earliest on the  Maeotis east of the Tanais in the area of the Roxolani (Ptol. 3,7; Amm. Marc. 22,8,31). In the 1st cent. BC a branch of the I. turned towards the southwest, crossed the Carpathians and settled on the plains between the lower Danube and the Tibiscus (later the province of Pannonia; cf. Ov. Pont. 4,7,9; Tr. 2,191; Ἰάζυγες μετανάσται/ lázyges metanástai with a list of the Iazygian cities, Ptol. 7,1f.; Str. 7…

Doriscus

(133 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Persian Wars (Δορίσκος; Dorískos, Doriscum). Settlement in the west of the Hebrus estuary (modern Evros) in the plain of the same name (Hdt. 7,59). In 512 BC it was laid out by Darius I as the starting point of his campaign against the Greeks and as a provisions storehouse, and it was also used in this way by Xerxes (Hdt. 7,25, 108; inspection of troops by Xerxes: 7,59f.; Plin. HN 4,43). The commander of the Persian garrison was Maskame…

Theodosia

(169 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius (Θεοδοσία/ Theodosía; modern Feodosiya). City on the northern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos I) in a fertile plain, with an excellent harbour which could contain 100 ships (Str. 7,4,4), founded c. 700 BC by colonists from Miletos [2]. T. minted coins autonomously c. 500 BC. Conquered in the first half of the 4th cent. BC by Leucon [3] I, T. was subsequently the westernmost polis of the Regnum Bosporanum (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 30). The city was an import…

Bizye

(109 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | (Βιζύη; Bizýē). Town on the south-western slopes of the Strandăza mountains, modern Vize/Turkey; residence of the Odrysian-Sapaean kings probably from the 3rd cent. BC, possibly since the destruction of  Seuthopolis (Str. 7 fr. 48). At the time of Trajan founded as a peregrine town of the strategia of Astike. The territory of B. encompassed i.a. the mines around Mălko Tarnovo, and bordered on that of  Deultum. Finding place of autonomous and imperial coins; B. is often mentioned …

Deultum

(300 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia (Δεβελτός; Debeltós). Settlement c. 25 km west of  Burgas, modern Debelt/Bulgaria. Traces from the late Bronze Age, and afterwards Thracian Hallstatt settlement that later flourished because of its trade with the Greek colonies of the Black Sea. D. was connected with the sea via Lake Mandra which in antiquity stretched further south than it does today. Attic goods of the 1st half of the 4th cent. BC, Hellenistic c…

Dantheletae

(289 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δανθηλῆται/ Danthēlêtai; also Dentheleti). Thracian tribe inhabiting the area around the upper reaches of the  Strymon and the area to the west reaching as far as Axius. Earliest mention was by Theopompus (FGrH 115 F 221) for 340/339 BC. Philip V twice laid waste to their territory on his Thracian campaigns (184 and 181 BC: Liv. 39,53,12; 40,22,9; Pol. 23,8,4). In 88 BC, the D. acted as allies of Rome in the quelling of a Macedonian revolt. They attacked this province in 86/5 together with the Maedi, Dardani and Scordisci. In 57 and 56, the proconsul of Macedonia, L. Cal…

Salmydessus

(201 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Σαλμυδησσός/ Salmydēssós). [German version] [1] Coastal region Coastal strip of the Pontos Euxeinos [I] without harbours, dangerously shallow for navigation, 700 stadia in length (Ps.-Scymn. 724-727; Ptol. 3,11,4: Σ. ἤτοι Ἁλμυδησσὸς αἰγιαλός ( Salmydēssòs ḗtoi Halmydēssòs aigialós) 'shore of S. or Halmydessus') from the Bosporus [1] to Cape Thynias, where the Astae (Ἀσταί/ Astaí) settled near other Thraci (Str. 7,6,1; cf. 1,3,4; 7). In 513 BC, the Thraci on the S. surrendered without a fight to Darius [1] I on his campaign against the Scythae (Hd…

Tyle

(116 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Τύλη; Týlē). [German version] [1] City in Thrace Capital of the Celtic kingdom in Thrace (Thraci, Thracia), founded under Comontorius in 278 BC, abandoned in 212 BC after the Thracians' victory over the Celtic king Cavarus (Pol. 4,46). On the basis of Steph. Byz. s.v. Τύλις, T. is generally localized near Haemus, in the region around modern Tulovo (district of Kazanlăk in Bulgaria). A textual variant in Steph. Byz. loc.cit., however, suggests a location in the Late Antiquity province of Haemimontus in southeastern Thrace, where the fortress Τουλεοῦς/ Touleoûs (Procop. Aed. 4,11,20…

Tempyra

(96 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Τέμπυρα; Témpyra). Settlement on the Thracian coast of the Aegaean (Aigaion Pelagos) to the east of Sale; founded by Samothrace. T. was a station on the Via Egnatia (Str. 7a,1,48;  It. Ant. 322,3: Timpiro;  It. Burd. 602,8: mutatio Ad Umimpara), the precise site is unknown (Str. 7, fr. 47 f.). Near T. there was a narrow unforested pass, at which pro-consul Manlius [I 24] Vulso, on his return march from Asia Minor in 188 BC, had to fight the Trausi (Liv. 38,41,5). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography E. Oberhummer, s. v. T., RE 5 A, 489  Müller, 74.

Cercinitis

(152 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Patricius (Κερκινῖτις; Kerkinîtis). Ionian foundation from the 6th cent. BC in the north-western part of the Crimea near the modern village of Evpatorija (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 70; Str. 12,3,18; Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 19,5), from the middle of the 4th cent. BC in the possession of Chersonesus [3] [1. 352] and closely linked with it; second largest town with an important port, agriculture and crafts, also Doric inscriptions [1. 339]. Fr…

Siraci

(162 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σιρακοί/ Sirakoí, Latin Sirachi). Sarmatian tribe, which inhabited the steppe regions to the west of the Caspian Sea between the Maeotae and the Thatei (Mela 1,114). Under their king Ariphanes they supported Eumelus [4] against his brothers (Diod. 20,22: here  Θρᾷκες is better read as Σ.). From the 1st cent. AD onwards the S. expanded southwards, where they are recorded on the Hypanis [1] (Ptol. 5,9,17: Σερακά). Their cavalry supported Pharnaces [2] II (Str. 11,5,8) and, under their…

Getae

(1,011 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γέται; Gétai). Greek term for the Thracian tribes south of the Lower Danube in modern Dobrudža and in the hinterland of the north-western Greek colonies on the Black Sea coast. Their region shows traces of settlement from the Stone Age onwards and was the centre of highly developed cultures from the time of the Copper Stone Age (cf. Varna, Durankulag). On the basis of the written sources and the language remnants attested in the Onomastikon, the G. are shown to be the northern Thr…

Aigos Potamos (Potamoi)

(78 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War (Αἰγὸς ποταμός; Aigòs potamós). Settlement on the Thracian  Chersonesus opposite Lampsacus. Width of the straits at that point c. 15 stades (Xen. Hell. 2,1,21). Location of Athens' defeat by  Lysander in 405 BC (Diod. Sic. 13,105). Also the point where the stream of the same name in the tribal territory of the  Dolonci flows into the sea. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Coralli

(71 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κόραλλοι; Kóralloi). Tribe in the region of the  Getae, documented in literature only for the last cent. of the Roman Republic and the 1st cent. of the Imperial period (Ov. Pont. 4,2,37; 8,83; Str. 7,5,12). Appianus (Mith. 293) mentions the C. separately from the Iazyges and Thracians, but more likely meant the Sarmatae or Scythae instead. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography M. Fluss, s.v. K., RE XI 2, 1377.

Rhombites

(141 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Ῥομβίτης/ Rhombítēs). Two rivers flowing from the east into the Maeotis, where they are abundant in fish, distinguished by their epithets 'the Great' and 'the Lesser' (Str. 11,2,4; cf. Ptol. 5,9,3 f.; 26; Amm. Marc. 22,8,29). [German version] [1] R. Megas (ὁ μέγας Ῥ./ ho mégas R., 'the Great R.'). Further north, modern Jeja; according to Str. ibid., 800 stadia from the mouth of the Tanais (Don). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] R. Elatton (ὁ ἐλάττων Ῥ./ ho eláttōn R., 'the Lesser R.'). Further south; according to Str. ibid., 800 stadia from R. [1…

Drusipara

(42 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δρουσιπάρα; Drousipára). Important station on the Amphipolis ─ Hadrianopolis ─ Byzantium road in south-east Thrace, east of Büyük Kariştiran/Turkey (earliest reference Ptol. 3,11,7; also in It. Ant. 137,7; 323,3; It. Burd. 569; Theophanes, 1,234,2). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Cabyle

(323 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Moesi, Moesia (Καβύλη, Kabýlē). City near today's Kabile on the bend of the river Tonzo in the district of Jambol/Bulgaria. Traces of settlements have been documented from the late Bronze Age and the early Iron Age. During the mid 5th cent., C. developed intensive connections to the Aegean region. A mountain sanctuary with Cybele relief was created on the acropolis. In 342/41 BC, C. was conquered by Philip II (Dem. Or. 8,44; 10,14)…

Aorsi

(121 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀορσοι; Áorsoi). Group of tribes of the Sarmatae in the steppe region of the west and north coast of the  Caspian Sea, as far as the Maeotian ( Maeotis) river Achardeus and the lower reaches of the Tanais (Ptol. 3,5,10; Plin. HN 4,80). Strabo also mentions οἱ δ ̔̃ἄνω Ἄορσοι ( hoi d' ánō Áorsoi 11,5,8). They were known through their lively trade with  Media and  Armenia; their king Spadines provided 20,000 mounted men for Pharnaces (Str. 11,5,8). In 50 BC their prince Eunones supported Rome against the Siraci (Tac. Ann. 13,15). It was from the A. that the  Alani sprang. von Bred…

Cardia

(294 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Colonization | Persian Wars (Καρδία; Kardía). Town on the northern face of the Thracian Chersonesus on the  Melas Kolpos (Ps.-Scyl. 67; Ps.-Scymn. 698f.; Str. 7a,1,52;54), not localized (the modern Bakla Liman?), described in Dem. Or. 23,182 as the gateway to Thrace. It was founded towards the end of the 7th cent. BC by Miletus, possibly with colonists from Clazomenae (Str. loc. cit), and re-established by  Miltiades with Attic coloni…

Sauromates

(249 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Σαυρομάτης; Sauromátēs). Name of Bosporan kings; see also Sarmatae. [German version] [1] King of the Regnum Bosporanum, c. 100 AD King of the Regnum Bosporanum, AD 93/4-123/4, son of Rhescuporis II; S. conducted successful wars against the Scythae (IOSPE 22 26) and pirates in the area of the northern Pontos. Many new buildings in Gorgippia and Panticapaeum attest to the increase in prosperity under his rule. There was a column in honour of S. in Sinope (IOSPE 22 40). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] King of the Regnum Bosporanum, c. 200 AD King of the Regnum …

Thynia

(56 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Θυνία; Thynía). Island off the Bithynian southeastern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos;  Str. 12,3,7; Ptol. 5,1,15; Steph. Byz. s.v. Θυνιάς), modern island of Kefken, approximately 40 km to the west of the mouth of the Sangarius. There was a sanctuary to Apollo there (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,684). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Melinophagi

(55 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μελινοφάγοι/ Melinophágoi; ‘Millet-eaters’). Greek name of a Thracian tribe located between Salmydessus and Byzantium. According to Xen. An. 7,2, the M. settled to the east of the Melanditae, Thyni and Tranipsii (cf. Theop. FGrH 115 F 223). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography T. Spiridonov, Istoriceska geografija na trakijskite plemena, 1983, 41, 108 f.

Edones

(349 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἠδωνοί; Ēdōnoí, Ἠδῶνες; Ēdônes). Thracian tribe on the lower reaches of the Strymon and on the Pangaeum. Their region was rich in mines and forests and therefore much embattled. Records of the E. exist for the 6th to the 4th cent. BC. They were subjugated in Megabazus' first European campaign. The Milesian tyrant Histiaeus received the settlement of Myrcinus from Darius and had a city built in its place (Hdt. 5,11; 23; 124). His son-in-law Aristagoras [1] fell in the fight against t…

Bisanthe

(127 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Βισάνθη; Bisánthē). Town on the Propontis, later Resisthon (both names in Plin. HN 4,43; 48; cf. It. Ant. 176,1), modern Rodosto; possibly a foundation from Samos (Mela 2,24). Hdt. 7,137 mentions B. for 484 BC, when it was part of Sitalces' kingdom. Later, it was possibly in the possession of Alcibiades (Nep. Alc. 7,4), then part of the kingdom of Seuthes II, who offered B., together with Ganus and Neon Teichos to Xenophon (Xen. An. 7,2,38). Fortified by Justinian (Procop. Aed. 4,9; 17: Rhaidestos); destroyed by K…

Agathyrsi

(161 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀγάθυρσοι; Agáthyrsoi). Scythian or northern Thracian tribe on the upper reaches of the Mureş, north-east of the  Neuri (Hdt. 4,48; 4,100; 102). For Scythian-Agathyrsian relations, see Hdt. 4,78: Spargapeithes, a king of the A.; 4,119; 125). Because of the importance of the Dacian tribes, little mention is made of the A. around the end of the 1st cent. BC (Ptol. 3,5,10). For the mythological eponymous hero Ἀγάθυρσος ( Agáthyrsos) in the Greek version of the Scythian myth regarding their origin, see Hdt. 4,10. Later references are strongly depende…

Crestones

(148 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κρηστῶνες, Κρηστωναῖοι, Γραστῶνες). Thracian tribe located south-east of the Mygdonia and in the south up to Lake Bolbe (Aristot. Mir. 122). Xerxes marched through their land on his approach from  Acanthus [1] to  Therme. The stream Echeidoros which rises near the C. could not provide enough water for his army (Hdt. 7,124; 127). At that time, the C. were led by a Bisaltaean king, which may point to the existence of an anti-Persian military alliance (Hdt. 8,116). The C. lived in s…

Myrmecium

(235 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Patricius (Μυρμήκιον; Myrmḗkion). Harbour town on the European shore of the Bosporus [2] on Cape M. (Μ. ἄκρον; M. ákron), founded in the second quarter of the 6th cent. BC. It is uncertain whether M. had been an autonomous Ionian colony or a foundation by Panticapaeum (Ps.-Scyl. 68; Str. 7,4,5).  It is located close to the modern Karantinnaya. Quite early on, M. joined the  Bosporan League, led by Panticapaeum. M. experienced its greatest prosperity in the Hellen…

Venethi

(180 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] People between the central reaches of the Vistula (modern Wisła, German Weichsel) and the modern Daugava (German Düna), to the north of the Sarmatae and the Sciri (Plin. HN 4,97; Tac. Germ. 46,2; Ptol. 3,5,19: Οὐενέδαι/ Ouenédai). According to Iord. Get. 34 they settled between the Peucini and the Fenni and incorporated various Slav tribes in the region. It is assumed that the V. were bearers of the Przeworsk culture (2nd-6th cents. AD). From the term V. the name for a Slavonic people, the Wends, developed. It is un…

Sestus

(242 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Thraci, Thracia | Colonization | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Σηστός/ Sēstós). City on the European shore of the Hellespont (Hom. Il. 2,836) where it is narrowest (known as the Heptastádion, Str. 2,5,22; 7a,1,52), connected over a stretch of about 60 m by walls with the anchorage of Apobathra (Theop. FGrH 115 F 390; Str. 13,1,22), probably near modern Yalıkavat. Founded c. 600 BC on the site of a Thracian settlement by Lesbos (Ps.-Scymn. 709 f.). It was …

Aprus

(68 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia Originally Thracian settlement on the   via Egnatia , near the modern Kestridze at the turn-off towards Aenus and Thracian Chersonesus (Plin. HN 4,47; Ptol. 3,11,7; on vessels found at Rogozen). Seat of a bishopric; in 312 noted by Hierocles as Theodosioupolis. Incursions by  Goths (Procop. Goth. 8,27,8). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Albani

(148 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀλβανοί; Albanoí). Group of tribes in  Albania (Str. 11,4), in modern Dagestan. They fought with  Darius against  Alexander III [4] (Arr. Anab. 3,8,5; 11,4; 13,1). A. appear again in connection with the 3rd Mithridatic War (74 to 63 BC): Oroizes, the king of A., attacked Pompey in 65 BC with 60,000 men infantry and 22,000 riders at Cyrus (today Kura), when the former was on the march from Armenia to the Caspian Sea through their land. Beaten, they made peace with Rome (Liv. Per. 1…

Thyni

(231 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Θυνοί/ Thynoí). Thracian tribe in the southeast of Thrace (Thraci, Thracia), to the north of Perinthus and Selymbria on the upper reaches of the Agrianes (modern Ergene; cf. Xen. An. 7,2,22; 7,4,2) probably as far as the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) coast to the north of Salmydessus [2]. Herodotus does not mention the T. among the tribes subjugated by Darius [1] I in Thrace in 513 BC, and this suggests that they did not consolidate there until after the withdrawal of the Achaemenid…

Apulum

(181 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia | Legio | Limes Capital of  Dacia Apulensis, in southern Transylvania on the Mureçs; important crossroads (Ptol. 3,8,4), today's Alba Julia. Economy based on agriculture and gold ore. Under  Trajanus the camp ( c. 24-30 hectares in size) of the legio XIII Gemina was here. To the south the municipium Aurelium Apulense (CIL III 986), under Emperor Commodus colonia Aurelia Apulensis. Nearby, the colonia Nova Apulensis (inscription of AD 250) developed over an older Dacian sett…

Xanthi

(45 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ξάνθοι; Xánthoi). Thracian people (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 180), whose location cannot be determined; mentioned in Str. 13,1,21 in a list of Thracian/Trojan homonyms as a parallel to the River Xanthus (Hom. Il. 20,74; Scamander) in the Troad. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Tearus

(171 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Τέαρος/ Téaros). Tributary of the Contadescus (modern Kaynarca), which in turn flows into the Agrianes, a tributary of the Hebrus. According to Hdt. the T. had healing water from 38 springs, some warm, some cold; the area of the source was two days' journey both from Apollonia [2] on the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) and from Heraeum near Perinthus on the Propontis. On his campaign against the Scythae in 513 BC Darius [1] I erected a column with  inscription on the T. (Hdt. 4,89 f.)…

Beos

(50 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βέος; Béos). Ancient settlement between Aprus and Resisto, today's Bunarli. The name B. often appears on products of Thracian Hellenistic toreutic: Rogozen, Vraza, Borovo and Agighiol. Probably identical with the mutatio Bedizus (IH 570,1; 601,9). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography G. Mihailov, Rogozen Linguistique Balkanique 1, 1987, 5-19.

Dolonci

(119 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δόλογκοι; Dólonkoi). Thracian group of tribes that settled on the  Chersonesus [1] in the 6th/5th cents. BC. Harassed by the Apsinthii in the north, the D. on the advice of the Delphic Oracle in 561/560 BC brought in  Miltiades [1], who was considered the oikistḗs. He arrived in the Chersonesus with political opponents of Peisistratus and ruled over them as tyrant. His second successor, Miltiades [2], fled at the Scythian invasion of the Chersonesus (516/5), but was then recalled by the D. (Hdt. 6,34-40 [1. 79-82, 565-567]…

Sindi

(174 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σινδοί/ Sindoí). Population of Sindice on the Taman peninsula to the north of the river Hypanis between the Toretae, the Dandarii and the Psessi with capital Sindus (or Sindicus Limen: Str. 11,2,14; Ps.-Scymn. 888; cf. Hdt. 4,28; Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 69). Their culture exhibits considerable Scythian elements. Because of their strong relations with the Regnum Bosporanum they became intensively Hellenized at an early stage. Kings and coins are known from the 5th century BC onwards. T…

Strymon

(109 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Στρυμών; Strymṓn). Thracian-Macedonian river, which rises in the Scombrus mountains (Hdt. 8,115), flows through the settlement areas of the Maedi, the Agrianes, the Laeii, the Sinti, the Bisaltae and the Odomanti (Thuc. 2,96,3; Str. 7,7,4), then through the Prasias Limne and, after 408 km, into the Aegean Sea to the west of Eion, modern Struma. The S. was navigable in its lower reaches. Xerxes had a bridge built over the S. at Ennea Hodoi (later Amphipolis) in 481 BC (Hdt. 7,24-25…

Bisaltae

(114 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βισάλται; Bisáltai). Thracian tribe west of the Strymon and the Crestones, south of the Maedi and the Derrones. Silver mines and political independence enabled them to mint their own coins at the end of the 6th/beginning of the 5th cent. BC. At that time, the B. ruled over the Crestones (Thuc. 4,109) and fought against the Persians (Hdt. 8,116). A military leader by the name of Naris, who had supposedly captured Cardia, is mentioned by Charon (FGrH 262 F 9). The power of Athens and later of the Macedonians put an end to the political influence of the B. von Bredow, Iris (Bieti…

Cypsela

(125 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium (Κύψελα; Kýpsela, Cypsala). Inland Thracian town on the lower left bank of the  Hebrus at the via Egnatia (Str. 7,7,4), in a very marshy area (Str. 7,7,4; 6; 7a,1,9f.; 48; 57), mod. Ipsala. In the 4th cent. BC, C. was residence and mint of the  Odrysae dynasty. Because it was in Ptolemaic possession, the town was besieged by  Antiochus [3] II in 254 BC (Polyaenus, Strat. 4,16); in c. 200 BC, it was taken by Philip V. In 188 BC, Cn. Manlius Vulso was attacked by Thracians near C. In the Byzantine perio…

Cercine

(121 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κερκίνη; Kerkínē). Uninhabited mountain chain forming the border between Sinti and Maedi in the south and Paeones in the north, through which in 429 BC  Sitalces marched to Doberus against the Macedonian King Perdiccas II. To that end, he himself had to have a path built through the mountains (Thuc. 2,98,1f.). The C. are equated with the mountain ridges of Belasica, Orbelos, or Kruša in the border region between Macedonia and Thrace. It is possible though that the name C. refers t…

Gepidae, Gepidi

(393 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γήπαιδες; Gḗpaides). Germanic tribe, related to the  Goti according to Iord. Get. 17,94. The original area of settlement was located in the Vistula-Nogat Delta. Groups of G. began to move south-east from the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. AD onward. In 249, the son of Philippus Arabs was defeated by the G. in Dacia (Chron. pasch. 503 de Boor). The G. participated in the great anti-Roman coalition of the Germani in c. 263. C. 290, battles erupted between the G. and the Vandali against the Taifali and the Visigoths (Pan. Lat. 287 Baerens). The G. took part in…

Thynias

(102 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Θυνιάς; Thyniás). Cape, about 36 km to the north of Salmydessus [2] (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 37; Mela 2,23), modern Cape Iğneada, or bay (Str. 7,6,1: T. chṓra = 'area of land'; Str. 12,3,3: T. aktḗ = 'coast'; Hecat. FGrH 1 F 166; Scymn. 728 f.; Ptol. 3,11,4) on the southwestern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos). The bay provided a good place of anchorage in the territory of Apollonia [2] (Scymn. 728). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography D. Müller, Topografischer Bildkommentar zu den Historien Herodots: Kleinasien, 1997, 922-924  B. Isaac, The G…

Dynamis

(110 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δύναμις; Dýnamis). Daughter of Pharnaces; wife and successor of Asander. For a short time autonomous queen of the  Bosporan kingdom. Her second husband was the anti-Roman  Scribonius; he died during the attack of Agrippa [1] and Polemon, whom D. had to marry on Roman orders (in 14 BC, Cass. Dio 54,24,4-6). Shortly afterwards she retired with her son  Aspurgus (perhaps to the residence found 15 km from Novorosijsk). Augustus restored her to the throne after the death of Polemon. Sh…

Haemimontus

(75 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] One of the six provinces of the diocese of Thrace with the capital  Hadrianopolis [3]. It comprised the territory on the Danube between the confluence with the Vit and the delta, the western Pontic coast up to Constantinople (excluding the city itself), the Propontis and the northern Aegean to the mouth of the Nestus. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. Velkov, Cities in Thrace and Dacia in Late Antiquity, 1977, 61 Soustal, Thrakien.

Zerynthus

(183 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ζήρυνθος/ Zḗrynthos, Ζηρυνθία/ Zērynthía). City with a grotto (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ζήρυνθος) to the west of the mouth of the Hebrus (modern Marica; Liv. 41,38,4; Nicander, Theriaka 461f.) on the coast (Ov. Trist. 1,10,19: Zerynthia litora) of the Thracian peraia of Samothrace; there was a grotto sanctuary Z. on Samothrace as well (schol. Aristoph. Pax 277b α 3f.). The cult connected with the two Z.es was that of the goddess Zerynthia (Lycophron, Alexandra 958: Μήτηρ Ζηρυνθία/ Mḗtēr Zērynthía), probably a Thracian chthonic deity with a local epiclesis, who wa…

Panticapes

(89 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Παντικάπης; P antik ápēs). Iranian name for the Bosporus [2] (Ps.-Scymn. 850; Eust. Ad Dion. Per. 311; Steph. Byz. s.v. Παντικάπαιον/ Pantikápaion), which gave Panticapaeum its name; it probably means  “fish road”. In Hdt. 4,18 it is the strait itself that is meant by the river P.; this reflects the idea that the Tanais flows into the Pontus Euxinus to the south of Lake Maeotis (Arr. Per. p. E. 29). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography E. Diehl, s.v. Pandikapes, PE, 825f.  V.I. Abaev, Osetinskij jazyk i folklor, 1949, 170, 175.

Cerdylium

(41 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κερδύλιον; Kerdýlion). Elevated settlement on the right bank of the Strymon within the territory of Argilus near  Amphipolis in Thrace. There Brasidas took up position against the Athenians in 422 BC (Thuc. 5,6,3ff.). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Tauri

(255 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ταῦροι/ Taûroi). Pre-Scythian people on the Chersonesus [2] (Crimea), probably descendants of the bearers of the Kizil-Koba culture, in the 7th/6th cent. BC driven by the Scythae and Greek colonists into the inland hills. They occupied themselves especially with agriculture and animal husbandry; there is evidence of trade with Greek poleis only from the 4th cent. BC onwards. A goddess worshipped among the T. was identified by the Greeks with Artemis or Iphigenia (Hdt. 4,103). In 513 BC the T. declined to help the Scythae against…

Palacium

(57 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Παλάκιον; Palákion). Scythian fortress in the steppe region of the Crimea (Str. 7,4,7); together with the fortified settlements Chabon and Neapolis it was founded by Scilurus and his sons (Str. 7,4,3). The Scythians used P. as a base against Mithridates [5] V. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 309.

Hunni

(847 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Οὖννοι; Oûnnoi, Χοῦννοι; Choûnnoi), the Huns. [German version] A. History Nomadic people, origin debatable. In all probability they came from central Asia shortly after the time of Christ. As Χοῦννοι ( Choûnnoi) first mentioned in Ptol. 3,5,25 between  Bastarnae and Roxolani (additional later localizations in Amm. Marc. 2,1; Iord. Get. 36f.). Some of the Hunnic tribes moved to the Caucasus region; from the eastern Hunnic branch, several states emerged (Hephthalitae, Avares, Chazars and Protobulgarians). Around AD 376 Hunnic …

Hermonaktos kome

(73 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἑρμώνακτος κώμη; Hermṓnaktos kṓmē). Settlement at the mouth of the  Tyras (Str. 7,3,16) or at a distance of c. 16.5 km from it (Ptol. Geog. 3,10,7). Perhaps identical with the remains of an ancient settlement near modern Kosovka. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography M. V. Arbunov, K voprosu o lokalizacii bašni Neoptolema u Germonaktovoj derevni [On the problem of locating the tower of Neoptolemos and H.K.], in: VDI 1, 1978, 43-51.

Maedi

(270 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαῖδοι, Μαίδοι; Maîdoi, Maídoi, M(a)edi). Thracian tribal league on the middle reaches of the Strymon, between Kresna and Rupel (modern Macedonia). According to the earliest witness (Thuc. 2,98), neighbours of the Sinti and Paeoni. In 429 BC, Sitalces moved through their territory, which did not belong to the kingdom of the Odrysae, against the Macedons. After the withdrawal of Sitalces, the M. expanded their tribal territory to the north, probably subjugated the Dentheleti and estab…

Tyras

(182 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Thraci, Thracia | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Patricius | Rome | Rome (Τύρας/ Týras). Colony of Miletus [2] on the northwestern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), modern Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, at the mouth of the river of the same name, modern Dnister (Ps.-Skymn. 7,98; 7,802 f.; Plin. HN. 4,82). The Ionian character of the polis is confirmed by inscriptions (IOSPE I2 2-19), the calendar and the cult of Apollo Ietrus. The date of foundatio…

Agathopolis

(123 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀγαθόπολις; Agathópolis). Modern Ahtopol on the western coast of the Black Sea. Inscriptions on coins allow a probable trace of the name to the 5th cent. BC; according to Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 36 Aulaiou teichos, Ptol. 3,11,3 Perontikon, Geographus Ravennas 4,6,2-5 Burtinum; from Middle Ages verified as A. Traces of settlements from the aeneolithic period onward; in the 3rd/2nd cents. BC Greek polis (IGBulg 474-478). It was integrated into the Roman province of  Thracia in the midd…

Cimmerii

(943 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κιμμέριοι; Kimmérioi, Lat. Cimmerii). Nomadic tribe probably of Iranian descent, attested for the 8th/7th cents. BC. The Assyrian and Babylonian forms of the name were Ga-mir, Gi-mir-a-a and similar; in the OT they were referred to as gmr, in the Masora Gȯmär. According to a document from the time of Sargon II [1. no. 30-32], the Urartian King Rusa I invaded the land of Gami(ra) (between 720 and 714 BC) and was defeated there. A further document from the same period attests to a Cimmerian intrusion into  Urartu from the region south of La…

Neuri

(90 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Νεῦροι/ Neûroi). Tribe (not of the Scythae) on the Hypanis [1], to the west of the Borysthenes and south of the source lake of the Tyras (Hdt. 4,17); easterly neighbours of the Androphagi and Melanchlaeni (Hdt. 4,17; 51; 100; 125). Various attempts have been made to associate them with cultures of southern Belrus, including the ancestor tribes of the Slavs, Balts or Finns. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A.I. Terenožkin, Predskifskij period na Dneprovskom Pravoberež'e, 1961, 234  E.A. Mel'nikovskaja, Plemena južnoj Belorusij v rannem ž…

Zesutera

(47 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Way station for swapping horses ( mutatio) on the Via Egnatia on the border between the late-antique provinces of Europa in the east and Rhodope in the west, 12 miles to the west of Aprus (It. Burdig. 602,1); not located. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Tisia

(265 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] ( Tiza, Pathissus, Parthiscus; Τίσσος/ Tíssos, Τήσα/ Tḗsa, Τίτζα/ Títza; modern Tisza). The largest tributary of the Danube (Ister [1]), flowing from the Carpathians to the west of Singidunum and into the Danube from the north (cf. also Pathissus); original name probably Parthisus (Str. 7,5,2). Herodotus (4,100) and Strabo (7,3,4) identify the lower reaches of the T. with the Maris (modern Maros). The T. plain (modern Bánság) was fertile and densely settled: Agathyrsi (Hdt. 4,78), Daci, Bo…

Xanthea

(95 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ξάνθεια; Xántheia). City in Thrace between the Bistonis limne (modern Lake Vistonida) and Maronea [1] on the northern coast of the Aigaion Pelagos (Str. 7a,1,44) on the southern slopes of Rhodope, not precisely locatable. In the Byzantine city of the same name no remains suggesting Antiquity have been discovered; it was on the Via Egnatia (Nikephoros Gregoras 727,24; 814,19); modern Xanthi. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography S. P. Kyriakidis, Περὶ τὴν ἱστορίαν τῆς Θρᾴκης, 1960, 27-32  P. A. Pantos, Ἱστορικὴ τοπογραφία τοῦ νομοῦ Ξάνθης…

Bistones

(95 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βίστονες; Bístones). Thracian tribe on the Aegean Sea from around the Βιστονὶς λίμνη ( Bistonìs límnē) to the lower reaches of the Nestus; neighbours of the Cicones and the Sapaei. On their territory,  Abdera,  Dicaea and Stryme were founded. Hdt. (7,110) only mentioned as an intermediate staging post of the Persian army They appear frequently in mythological tales and in genealogies (Str. 7 fr. (43) 44 mentions B. on Thasos, under the rule of Diomedes; Val. Fl. 3,159: homeland of Orpheus). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A. Fol, T. Spiridonov,…

Naulochus

(127 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ναύλοχος/ Naúlochos). Small port on the western shore of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) beneath the southern slopes of the Haemus mountains, north of Mesambria [1], from where N. was probably founded at the turn of the 4th/3rd cents BC (Str. 7,6,1; 9,5,19; cf. also Plin. HN 4,45), modern Obzor. Mentioned as a port (ὅρμος ναυσί/ hórmos nausí), but without giving its name, in Arrian Peripl. p. eux. 36 and Anon. Peripl. m. eux. 81. The mansio on the Mesambria - Philippopolis road was called Templum Iovis in the Roman period (Tab. Peut. 8,4), and Kozeakos i…

Corpili

(94 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κορπῖλοι; Korpîloi). Thracian tribe east of the lower course of the  Hebrus (Str. 7a,1,48). The Thracian strategia of Corpilice (Ptol. 3,6,9) also extended over the earlier territory of the  Apsinthii as far as  Aenus [1] (Str. 7a,1,58). In 188 BC the C. took part in the uprising against the troops of Cn. Manlius Vulso together with the Caeni and Maduateni (Liv. 38,40,7). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Chr. Danov, Die Thraker auf dem Ostbalkan. ..., in: ANRW II 7.1, 1979, 21-185, esp. 84f. M. Tačeva, Istorija na bălgarskite zemi 2, 1987, 58ff.

Ganus

(103 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γάνος; Gános). A mountain above modern Gaziköy on the European Propontis coast, modern Ganos Dağı (945 m). Its region was Ganiás (Γανιάς) with the local deity theà Ganḗa (θεὰ Γανήα). A fortified settlement was located below the mountain tò Gános (τὸ Γάνος, Scyl. 67). In the 5th cent. BC, G. was part of the Thynian tribal territory under Seuthes II, who promised  Bisanthe, G. and Neon Teichos to Xenophon (400-399 BC., Xen. An. 7,5,8). G. is also mentioned in association with the advance of Philip II into Propontis against Kersebleptes (346 BC, Aeschin. In Ctes. 3,82). von…

Carpathians

(209 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καρπάτης ὄρος/Κάρπαθον ὄρος; Karpátēs óros/ Kárpathon óros, Lat. Carpates montes, Carpatae, Alpes Bastarnicae). Arch-shaped mountain range, rich in forests and water, between the Balkans ( Haemus) and the Alps, the natural border between the Balkan peninsula and the steppes of north-eastern Europe. Marinus (Ptol. 3,5,6; 15; 18; 20; 7,1; 8,1) was the first to recognize the C. as a separate mountain range, whereas they were previously mainly seen as being part of the Alps or the Haemus. Gold, …

Phanagoria

(311 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Commerce | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius (Φαναγόρεια; Phanagóreia). Port founded by Teos (Ps.-Scymn. 886f.) in the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC in the area of the Sindi (Ps.-Scyl. 72) (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 212; Colonisation IV.) on the Korokondamitis limne (Gulf of Taman) on the Asiatic coast of the Bosphorus [2], on the peninsula of Taman about 3 km south-west of modern Sennaja. As the Hypanis [2] in ancient times flowed with …

Sale

(104 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σάλη; Sálē). City on the northern shore of the Aegean Sea, west of Doriscus in the south east of the foothills of the Serrheum, probably at present-day Alexandrupolis. Built as part of the peraia of Samothrace (Hdt. 7,59,2), S. belonged to the territory of Maronea [1] in 188 BC at the time of the Syrian Wars (Liv. 38,41,8: vicus Maronitarum). In the Roman Imperial Period, S. was a road-station ( mutatio) on the road from Traianopolis to Philippi (It. Burd. 602). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography B. Isaac, The Greek Settlements in Thrace until th…

Xerogypsos

(38 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ξηρόγυψος; Xērógypsos). Small river near Perinthus in southeatern Thrace (Anna Komnena, Alexias 7, 378,14 Niebuhr; Theophylaktos Simokattes 6,245,2 Bekker), presumably modern Çorlusuyu  (in Turkey). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography C. Danov, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2094.

Panticapaeum

(370 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Wine | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius | Rome (Παντικάπαιον; Pantikápaion). Milesian colony on the European side of the Bosporus [2], founded in the 7th/6th cent. BC, modern Kerč (Ps.-Scyl. 68; Scymn. 836). With its strategic and commercially commanding position and its fertile hinterland P. soon took on a leading role under the Greek poleis on the Bosporus (Str. 7,4,4; Plin. HN 4,87). Thus in about 480 BC the Regnum Bosporanum
▲   Back to top   ▲