Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)" )' returned 430 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Chersonesos

(925 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
(Χερσόνησος). [English version] [1] h. Halbinsel Gallipoli Die h. Halbinsel Gallipoli (über 900 km2); mit vorgesch. Siedlungsspuren, strategisch günstig gelegen und fruchtbar. Erstmals bei Hom. Il. 2,844f. als Heimat der Thraker Akamas und Peiroos erwähnt. Aiol. Kolonisation im 7.Jh. v.Chr (Alopekonnesos, Madytos, Sestos), die ion. (Kardia, Limnai von Miletos und Klazomenai, Elaius von Teos) etwas später. Die starken thrak. Stämme (Apsinthoi, Dolonkoi) blieben noch lange feindlich. Um die Ch. zu schützen, l…

Pagrai

(75 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Πάγραι). Hafensiedlung an der kaukasischen Küste des Pontos Euxeinos, 180 Stadien von Hieros Limen (Arr. per. p.E. 28; Anon. peripl. m. Eux. 10r 9; evtl. identisch mit Torikos bei Skyl. peripl. m. Eux. 74), beim h. Gelenǧik, 43 km südöstl. des h. Novorossijsk. Gehörte wohl zum Regnum Bosporanum. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 237f.  D.D. und G.T. Kacharava, Goroda i poseleniya Pričernomor'ya antičnoy epochi, 1991, 207, 280f.

Bistones

(82 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Βίστονες). Thrakischer Stamm am Aigaion Pelagos um die Βιστονὶς λίμνη ( Bistonís límnē) bis zum Unterlauf des Nestos; Nachbarn der Kikones und Sapaioi. In ihrem Gebiet wurden Abdera, Dikaia und Stryme gegründet. Nur als Durchgangsstation des persischen Heeres genannt (Hdt. 7,110). Vielfach in myth. Erzählungen und Genealogien gen. (Strab. 7 fr. (43) 44 nennt von Diomedes beherrschte B. auf Thasos; Val. Fl. 3,159: Heimatland des Orpheus). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A. Fol, T. Spiridonov, Istoričeska geografija, 1983, 24, 78.

Nestos

(196 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Νέστος, Μέστος, Νέσσος). [English version] [1] Fluß in Thrakien Fluß in Thrakien, der im Rila-Gebirge entspringt (nach ant. Vorstellung fälschlicherweise aus dem Skomios, h. Vitoša-Gebirge: Aristot. meteor. 1,13,350b 16f.) und nach 234 km in einem Sumpfdelta bei Abdera [1] in die Ägäis mündet (Hdt. 7,109; Theophr. h. plant. 3,1,5; Ps.-Skyl. 67). Als Flußgott ist N. schon Hes. theog. 341 bekannt. In röm. Zeit Grenze zw. den Prov. Macedonia und Thracia. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography B. Isaac, The Greek Settlements in Thrace until the Macedonian Co…

Beos

(48 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Βέος). Ant. Siedlung zw. Apros und Resisto, h. Bunarli, deren Name oft auf Werken thrak. hell. Toreutik auftritt: Rogozen, Vraza, Borovo und Agighiol. Wohl identisch mit der mutatio Bedizos (IH 570,1; 601,9). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography G. Mihailov, Rogozen Linguistique Balkanique 1, 1987, 5-19.

Olbia

(966 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Et al.
(Ὀλβία). [English version] [1] Milesische Kolonie Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Apollon | Handel | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Kolonisation | Regnum Bosporanum | Regnum Bosporanum | Roma | Roma | Schwarzmeergebiet | Skythen | Thrakes, Thrake, Thraci | Wein Milesische Kolonie (Kolonisation) südl. vom h. Parutino (Ukraine) am Zusammenfluß von Hypanis und Borysthenes (Ps.-Skymn. 808f.), daher auch Borysthenes (Βορυσθένης) genannt (Hdt. 4,24; 78), gegr. Anf. des 6. Jh.v.Chr. (Hdt. 4,18,5: Ὀλβιοπολῖται; Ps.-Skymn. 813f.)…

Odomantoi

(98 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Ὀδόμαντοι). Thrakischer Stamm am Ostufer des unteren Strymon am Westfuß des Pangaion (Strab. 7a,1,36) in der Gegend des h. Serres (Nordgriechenland). Die O. waren an der Ausbeutung der Goldbergwerke beteiligt (Hdt. 7,112; Thuk. 2,101,3). Megabazos [1], dem Feldherrn des Dareios, gelang es 512 v.Chr. nicht, die O. zu unterwerfen (Hdt. 5,16). Ein König der O., Polles, stellte 425 v.Chr. den Spartanern ein Söldnerheer (Thuk. 5,6,2). Nach 424 v.Chr. wurden sie von den Makedonen unterworfen. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Chr. Danov, Altthr…

Konstantinopolis

(1,554 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
( Constantinopolis). [English version] I. Lage Residenzstadt, 324 n.Chr. von Constantinus [1] d.Gr. an der Stelle von Byzantion gegr. Im Norden vom Goldenen Horn, im Osten vom Bosporos [1] und im Süden vom Hellespontos begrenzt, war K. nur von einer Landseite her angreifbar. Durch seine Lage beherrschte K. Handel und Verkehr zw. Europa und Asien, zw. der Ägäis und dem Schwarzen Meer (Pontos Euxeinos; Herodian. 3,1,5; Pol. 4,38-45). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [English version] II. Topographie Die Stadtplanung folgte nicht dem üblichen kaiserzeitlichen Schema…

Iyrkai

(102 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Ἰύρκαι, Hdt. 4,22; Tyrcae, Plin. nat. 6,19; Mela, 1,116). Jägervolk östl. der Thyssagetai, im Osten des Tanais, wohl im Uralgebiet, in den Ebenen von Kama, Vjatka, Belaja und Wolga. Genaue Lokalisierung und ethnische Bestimmung sind umstritten und auf Grund der Quellen nicht auszumachen. Die russ. Forsch. verbindet die I. mit der Ananino-Kultur (8.-3. Jh. v.Chr.), von der Grabhügel und befestigte Siedlungen bekannt sind und deren Tauschhandel bis an den Kaukasos reichte. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography J. Harmatta, Quellenstud. zu d…

Metrodoros

(1,240 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Hidber, Thomas (Bern) | Et al.
(Μητρόδωρος). [English version] [1] M. von Chios Demokriteer, 5./4. Jh. v. Chr. Demokriteer (Demokritos [1]) des 5./4. Jh.v.Chr., der das Volle und die Leere, das Seiende und das Nicht-Seiende als Prinzipien kennt. Diese Orthodoxie geht aber nicht zwangsläufig über die grundsätzlichen Lehrmeinungen des Atomismus hinaus: M. soll in anderen Dingen seine eigenen Ansichten gehabt haben (70 A 3 DK) M. propagiert in eleatischer Manier (eleatische Schule) die Ungeschaffenheit des Universums (τὸ πᾶν), weil ein ges…

Apsinthioi

(77 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Ἀψίνθιοι). Thrak. Stamm auf der thrak. Chersonesos, östl. der Dolonkoi. Gegen sie ließ Miltiades eine Mauer von Kardia bis Paktye bauen (Hdt. 6,36 f.). Die A. nahmen nach der Eroberung von Sestos durch die Athener 478 v. Chr. den Perser Oiobazos gefangen und opferten ihn ihrem Gott Pleistoros (Hdt. 9,119). Die A. nannten sich nach dem Fluß Apsinthos (= Melas). In der Apsinthis befand sich das Hieron oros. Sestos von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Rhodope

(100 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Ῥοδόπη). Gebirge, das sich von der Nordküste des Aigaion Pelagos (Ägäis) bis zur thrakischen Ebene um Philippopolis erstreckte, großenteils hochgebirgig bis zu 2000 m H und schwer zugänglich, h. Rhodopi, östl. Grenzgebirge zw. Griechenland und Bulgarien. Die Rh. schloß nach ant. Trad. auch die Gebirgszüge des h. Rila- und Pirin-Gebirges ein (Hdt. 4,49; 8,116; Thuk. 2,96-98; Strab. 7,5,1; 7, fr. 36). Reiche Erzvorkommen (Gold, Silber, Kupfer). Die Rh. war Siedlungsgebiet der thra…

Gelonos

(130 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Γελωνός). [English version] [1] Sohn des Herakles und der Schlangenjungfrau Echidna Sohn des Herakles und der Schlangenjungfrau Echidna, Bruder des Agathyrsos und des Skythes, Eponymos der griech.-skythischen Gelonoi (Hdt. 4,10). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [English version] [2] Stadt der Budinoi Nur von Hdt. 4,108 erwähnte Stadt der Budinoi, dem Kontext der recht widersprüchlichen Stelle nach nördl. der Melanchlainoi am oberen Donec. Herodot beschreibt eine in Holz erbaute Stadt mit griech. Architektur und griech. Lebensstil. Die B…

Hebros

(193 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Ἕβρος). Südthrak. Fluß, h. bulgar. Marica, byz./ngr. Εὖρος, nach der Donau längster Fluß auf der Balkanhalbinsel. Nach Ps.-Plutarchos (De fluviis 3) soll sein früherer Name Rhombos gewesen sein. Sein Quellgebiet liegt im Rila-Gebirge (Thuk. 2,96,4). Von dort aus fließt er in östl. Richtung durch die fruchtbare thrak. Ebene bis Hadrianopolis, wo er den Tonzos aufnimmt, sich dann nach Süden wendet und bei Ainos mit zwei Armen in die Ägäis mündet (Strab. 7, fr. 52). Am Unterlauf wa…

Melas Kolpos

(42 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] Heute der Golf von Saros zw. der Thrak. Chersonesos [1] und der Mündung des Hebros (Strab. 7, fr. 52). Vom Süden aus konnte er von Alopekonnesos, vom Norden von Ainos her überwacht werden. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Kallip(p)idai

(84 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Καλλιπ(π)ίδαι). Bezeichnung der dem Emporion Borysthenes am h. Dnjepr benachbarten Bevölkerung, charakterisiert als Hellenoskýthai (Ἑλληνοσκύθαι, Hdt. 4,17; vgl. Strab. 12,3,21; Mela 2,7). Es scheint sich hier um die griech.-skythische Bevölkerung zu handeln, die im Dekret IOSPE 12 32, Z. 26f. als Mixhéllēnes (Μιξέλληνες) bezeichnet wird. Der Name spielt sowohl auf die Skythen als Reitervolk als auch auf den Spottnamen Kallipos (“Pechvogel”) an. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography I. von Bredow, Der Begriff der Mixhellenes, in: B. Func…

Sale

(87 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Σάλη). Stadt an der Nordküste des Aigaion Pelagos (Ägäis) westl. von Doriskos im SO des Vorgebirges Serreion, verm. beim h. Alexandrupolis. In der Peraia von Samothrake angelegt (Hdt. 7,59,2), gehörte S. 188 v. Chr. z.Z. des Syrischen Krieges zum Territorium von Maroneia [1] (Liv. 38,41,8: vicus Maronitarum). In der röm. Kaiserzeit war S. Wechselstation ( mutatio) an der Strecke Traianopolis - Philippoi (Itin. Burdig. 602). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography B. Isaac, The Greek Settlements in Thrace until the Macedonian Conquest…

Kadusioi

(96 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Καδούσιοι, lat. Cadusii). Iran. Nomadenstammesverband im Gebirgsland zw. Media und der Küste des Kaspischen Meers, Nachbarn der Anariakoi und Albanoi (Strab. 11,8,1), evtl. gehörten die Pantimatoi und Dareitai (Hdt. 3,92) zu ihnen. Die Achaimenidai [2] mußten mehrfach Aufstände der K. bekämpfen: Artaxerxes II. 408/7 v.Chr. ohne Erfolg (Xen. hell. 2,1,13), erfolgreich Artaxerxes III. Ochos, der sie nach seinem Regierungsantritt befriedete (359 v.Chr.). Auch Antonius [I 9] hatte auf…

Doiptunos

(57 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] Tib. Iulius D. (auch Doiptounos oder Douptounos; IPE 2,49). Der Name ist nicht griech. und tritt hier zum ersten Mal auf. Wohl nach 620 n.Chr. von Byzanz als Verwalter des Bosporos eingesetzt, da die Inschr. mit christl. Zeichen auch einen comes erwähnt. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 517.

Alexandreia

(1,526 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin) | Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀλεξάνδρεια). Name zahlreicher Stadtgründungen Alexanders d. Gr.; darunter neun im östl. Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan und Indien. [English version] [1] in Ägypten Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Ägypten | Ägypten | Alexandros | Athleten | Bildung | Caesar | Christentum | Diadochen und Epigonen | Handel | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Indienhandel | Legio | Legio | Limes | Pilgerschaft | Pompeius | Roma | Roma | Wein | Zenobia | Straßen Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) [English version] A. Topographie Stadt an der ägypt. Mittelmeerküst…

Astae

(213 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀσταί; Astaí). Thracian tribe in south-east Thrace, between Apollonia [2] and  Salmydessus in the Strandža mountains, with the royal capital of  Bizye. Politically independent after the decline of Odrysian rule at the end of the 4th cent. BC, the A. increasingly gained in importance following the withdrawal of the Celts in 278 BC (Ps.-Scymn. 729; Pol. 13,10,10). They had good relations with the Greek colonies (IGBulg 312). The A. fought alongside the Maduateni, the  Caeni, and the…

Spartocus

(324 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Σπάρτοκος/ Spártokos). Name of a king from the Bosporanian dynasty of the Spartocids (Regnum Bosporanum). Contrary to earlier opinion he was of Iranian origin and not Thracian. [German version] [1] S. I. (438/7-433/2 BC; in Diod. Sic.12,31: written as Spartacus). Founder of the Spartocids dynasty. He removed the Archaeanactidae from power, probably through a coup and without changing the state’s structure as an hereditary tyranny. The culture remained purely Greek, which is in contradiction with the assumption that S. was the…

Sarpedon

(481 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Σαρπηδών/ Sarpēdṓn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. In the Trojan War, S. and his cousin Glaucus [4] command the Lycians (Lycii), the strongest and remotest allies of the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,876-877; the name S. is also of Lycian origin [1]). Zeus' son S. wins a duel with Zeus' grandson Tlepolemus (ibid. 5,628-662) and plays a decisive part in storming the defensive wall around the Greek camp (ibid. 12,290-471). Here his rousing speech to Glaucus (ibid. …

Madytus

(138 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μάδυτος; Mádytos). City on the Thracian Chersonesus between Elaeus and Sestus, founded by Lesbos (6th cent. BC; Scyl. 67, Ps.-Scymn. 709; Str. 7, fr. 55). North of M., Xerxes had the pontoon bridge built over the Hellespontus (Hdt. 7,33; 9,120). In 465 BC, M. was a member of the Delian League (Plut. Cimon 4); a few tributes are recorded for 443/440 BC (ATL 1,336f.). In the Peloponnesian War, M. was used as a harbour by the Athenian fleet (Xen. Hell. 1,1,3). Conquered in 200 BC by …

Criu Metopon

(72 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κριοῦ μέτωπον, ‘Ram's Forehead’). The designation of the two southernmost peaks of the Taurian  Chersonesus [2]: Cape Capyc and Cape Ai Todor (Plin. HN 4,86; Ps.-Scymn. 953; Ptol. 3,6;2) opposite Cap Carambis in Paphlagonia. According to legend the golden ram carried  Phrixus from there to the Colchi (Ps.-Plut. De fluviis 14,4). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. D. Blavatskij, Očerki noennogo dela v antičnih gosudarstvah severnogo Pričernomor'ja, 1954, 133f.

Pactye

(89 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πακτύη/ Paktýē). Fortress on the Propontic coast of Chersonesus [1], to the south of present-day Bolayır Iskelesi (Ps.-Scyl. 67; Str. 7a,1,52; 54; 56). Here stood the east end of the wall which ran from Miltiades [1] via the Chersonesus [1] to Cardia (Hdt. 6,36; Scymn. 711). Alcibiades [3] retreated here in 407 BC after the loss of his position as strategos (Nep. Alcibiades 7,4; Diod. Sic. 13,74,2). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Müller 2, 895f.  B. Isaak, The Greek Settlements in Thrace until the Macedonian Conquest, 1988.

Mygdones

(147 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μυγδόνες; Mugdónes). Thracian inhabitants of the Mygdonia [1] region (Μυγδονία/ Mygdonía; Macedonia) between the lower Axios, the Gulf of Thermae, the Bolbe and the Kruša and Bogdanska mountains in the east (Hdt. 7,123f.; 127; Strab. 7a,1,11; 36). At the time of Herodotus (5th cent. BC) it was home to groups of Paeones, Sitones and Crestones; according to Thucydides 2,99,4 the Edones were expelled from Mygdonia by the Macedonian kings (after 479 BC? [4. 15]), at the time of Strabo it was i…

Maiotae

(146 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαιῶται; Maiôtai). Greek collective name for the tribes on the east coast of the Maeotis and in the lower and middle reaches of Kuban/north-west Caucasus (Hdt. 4,123; Str. 11,2,2-4; 11). These probably include Iranian and Caucasian tribes of the Sindi, Cercetae, Toretae, Dandarii and Psessii among others. Farming and fishing formed the primary basis of their livelihood (Str. 11,2,4). They traded actively with Tanais in particular. The M. had to pay tributes to the Regnum Bosporanu…

Bergule

(75 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βεργούλη; Bergoúlē). Lüle-Burgas on the Erghene, Thracian settlement and important statio of the province of Thracia (Ptol. 3,11,7), called Arcadiopolis from the beginning of the 5th cent. AD. In AD 441, it was threatened by the Huns, and in AD 473, captured by the Goths under  Theoderic. In the Middle Ages, it was a strong fortress. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. Zlatarski, Istorija na bălgarskata dăržava prez srednite vekove 1,1, 21994, pass.

Hygiaeon

(56 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ὑγιαίων; Hygiaíōn). Ruler of the Kingdom of the Bosporus ( Regnum Bosporanum), c. 220-200 BC. Successor of  Leucon II, but not as king, rather as árchōn, also portrayed without a royal diadem. Maybe not a Spartocid. On brick stamps and coins ἄρχοντος Ὑγιαίοντος. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporan. Reich, 1971, 93, 95.

Pangaeum

(281 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πάγγαιον/ Pángaion, Παγγαῖον ὄρος/ Pangaîon óros). A mountain chain (up to 1956 m in height) forested in Antiquity, extending parallel to the northern Aegaean coast between the lower Strymon and Kavalla (25 km long, 16 km wide) isolated from other mountain ridges; still called P. today. With its rich gold and silver deposits it was constantly in the centre of disputes (Str. 7a,1,34). Ore production was probably begun in the 7th cent. BC by the Pieres, the Odomanti and the Satrae (Hdt. 7,112), but also by Thasos and the cities of its peraía . At a very early stage Athen…

Alani

(484 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀλανοί; Alanoí). Iranian alliance of tribes north of the  Caspian Sea, from the Caucasus to the Tanais. A. appear in sources since the end of the Roman republic in place of the Sarmatian tribes. During a campaign against  Mithridates VI, Pompey came upon A. (Luc. 8,133). Since the end of the 1st cent. AD there were invasions into Media and Armenia; under Hadrian (AD 117 to 138), they threatened Cappadocia. For their culture, see Lucian, Tox. 51; Amm. Marc. 30,2,3; Iord. Get. 24. A…

Seuthopolis

(184 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Diadochi and Epigoni (Σευθόπολις/ Seuthópolis). Residence city of king Seuthes [4] III of Thrace, 3,5 km to the south of modern Koprinka (municipality of Kazanlak in Bulgaria) at the confluence of the Goljama Varovica and the Tonzos (modern Tundža). A city wall of 890 m enclosed a pentagon (orthogonal city layout) of 5 hectares. In the agora there was a temple to Dionysus, with a great altar in its centre. In the northern part of S. there was a fortress defended by a wall of its own (4620 m2) with the residence …

Moschi

(112 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μόσχοι; Mόschoi). Caucasian tribe between Colchis and Armenia. The Moschikḗ was situated in the hinterland of Phasis (Μοσχική/ Moschikḗ, Str. 11,2,17), the Moschian mountains were to the south of Colchis (Str. 11,2,15; Moschorum tractus, Plin. HN 6,29). Hdt. 7,78 describes the M.'s primitive weapons (wooden helmets, small shields and lances). Under Dareius [1] I. and Xerxes the M. were part of the 19th Persian satrapy (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 288). A shrine to Leucothea and the so-called oracle of Phrixus, which was plu…

Callipolis

(459 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Et al.
(Καλλίπολις; Kallípolis). [German version] [1] Place in Caria Place in Caria (Arr. Anab. 2,5,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Callipolis), its location disputed: either near the modern Gelibolu, south of the eastern end of the Ceramic Gulf (ancient and medieval remains, no finds indicating a settlement),or east of it, 10 km inland, near Duran Çiftlik (remains of an ancient sanctuary and a church; the associated settlement about 1.5 km east of Kızılkaya, stone-cist tombs on the eastern side of the mound). C. was unde…

Brisae

(123 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Βρῖσαι; Brîsai). [German version] [1] Nymphs on Ceos Nymphs on Ceos; introduced the rural deity  Aristaeus to olive oil and honey (Hsch s.v. B. 348; schol. Theoc. 5,53). Even in antiquity they were associated with the Lesbian Dionysus,  Brisaeus, whom a nymph Brisa is said to have nurtured (schol. Pers. 1,76). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Thracian sub-tribe Thracian sub-tribe above the lower Nestus, neighbours of the Sinti and Mygdones; only attested once in literature (Plin. HN 4,40), frequently conjectured to be Brigas (Brison in Arr. Ana…

Hermonassa

(192 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ἑρμώνασσα; Hermṓnassa). [German version] [1] Greek port on the Asiatic bank of the Cimmerian Bosporus This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Patricius Greek port on the Asiatic bank of the Cimmerian  Bosporus [2], on the southern coast of the Bay of Taman, founded as a colony of Ionians and Aeolians before the middle of the 6th cent. BC. Imports and coins attest to lively trade. H. was situated in the tribal area of the Sindi (Str. 11,2,10) whose upper class also lived in H. (rich kurgans). Main cul…

Iluraton

(122 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἰλούρατον; Iloúraton). Graeco-Scythian settlement north of the Curubas lake in the interior of modern Kerč, c. 17 km from Panticapaeum. Traces of settlement since the Neolithic; founded in the middle of the 1st cent. AD. The results of the excavations are representative for other inland settlements in the Bosporan kingdom of the Roman period: I. was naturally and artificially well fortified. The inhabitants were military peasants who engaged in agriculture and livestock breeding, Hellenized des…

Maduateni

(42 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Ethnicon for the place name Madytus, often erroneously regarded as a small Thracian tribe, mentioned only in Liv. 38,40,7 in connection with the attack by Thracian tribes on Cn. Manlius Vulso in 188 BC. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Bryges

(56 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βρύγες, Βρῦγαι, Βρύγοι, Βρίγες; Brýges, Brŷgai, Brŷgoi, Bríges). Thracian tribe in western Macedonia. In 492/91 BC, the B. ravaged the Persian army under Mardonius (Hdt. 6,45); later, they provided troops for Xerxes' infantry (Hdt. 7,185). They are often erroneously equated with the Phrygians. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Chr. Danov, Altthrakien, 1976, 271ff.

Theodoropolis

(165 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Θεοδωρόπολις/  Theodōrópolis, also Θεοδωρούπολις/ Theodōroúpolis). Name of several towns and forts in the northern Balkan peninsula founded by Iustinianus [1] I and named after his wife Theodora [2], which have not all been located. [German version] [1] City in Moesia Secunda City in Moesia Secunda (Moesi, with map) on the Danube (Ister [1]), between Securisca (modern Cherkovitsa) and Iatrus (modern Krivina; Proc. Aed. 4,7,5). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] Fort in Dacia Ripiensis Fort in Dacia Ripiensis (Proc. Aed. 4,6,18) on the right b…

Melantias

(76 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μελαντιάς/ Melantiás, Melantiana). Last station before (and 150 stadia from) Constantinople on the via Egnatia , where the Athyras flowed into the Propontis (Agathias 5,14,20; It. Ant. 138; 230); its precise location is unknown. The emperor Valens spent several days at his villa in M. before the battle of Adrianopolis in AD 378 (Amm. Marc. 31,11,1; 12,1). In AD 558, M. was attacked by the Cutrigur Huns (Agathias 5,13). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Apollonia

(1,493 words)

Author(s): Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλωνία; Apollōnía). [German version] [1] City in southern  Illyricum This item can be found on the following maps: | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Delian League City in southern  Illyricum, in antiquity on the north bank of the Aous, c. 6 km from the sea, near modern Pojani (Albania). Founded by Corinthians at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC, with the participation of Corcyra (mythical oikist Gylax). Hdt. 9,93-95, Paus. 5,22,3 f. and inscriptions attest to the wealth of A. during the 5th cent. BC; …

Metrodorus

(1,340 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Μητρόδωρος/ Metródōros). [German version] [1] M. of Chios Democritan philosopher, 5th/4th cent. BC Democritan philosopher ( Democritus [1]) of the 5th-4th cent. BC who recognised Fullness and Emptiness, Being and Non-Being as the first principles. This orthodoxy, however, does not go beyond the fundamental theoretical views of Atomism: M. is said to have had his own views in other matters (70 A 3 DK). M. propounds the uncreatedness of the universe (τὸ πᾶν) in the Eleatic manner ( Eleatic School) because a c…

Nipsaei

(119 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Νιψαῖοι/ Nipsaîoi). Thracian tribe west of Mesambria, probably on the eastern slopes of the Strandža mountain range to about Salmydessos. When the Persian army under Darius [1] marched through in a northerly direction against the Scythians in 513 BC, the N. subjugated themselves to Darius without bloodshed (Hdt. 4,93). Possibly identical with the Tranipsi (Xen. An. 7,2,32; Hsch. s.v. Τρανιψοί/ Tranipsoí). At the end of the 5th cent. they came under the rule of the Odrysae which is why they are not longer mentioned in later sources. The place name Νίψα/ Nípsa in Steph. …

Rhodope

(106 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ῥοδόπη/ Rhodópē). Mountain range stretching from the northern shores of the Aigaion Pelagos (Aegean Sea) to the Thracian plain around Philippopolis, mostly high, up to 2000 m in height, and inaccessible, modern Rhodopi, east of the mountain chain border between Greece and Bulgaria. According to ancient tradition R. also included the modern Rila and Pirin chains (Hdt. 4,49; 8,116; Thuc. 2,96-98; Str. 7,5,1; 7, fr. 36). Rich ore production (gold, silver, copper). R. was the area whe…

Eumelus

(707 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Latacz, Joachim (Basle)
(Εὔμηλος; Eúmēlos). [German version] [1] Leader of the pherae. fleet against Troy Son of  Admetus and  Alcestis. He led (only) 11 ships from Pherae against Troy (Hom. Il. 2,711-715) [1]. Although he had the best horses (Hom. Il. 2,763-767), he did not win the chariot race at the funeral games for Patroclus, as Athena broke the yoke of his chariot (Hom. Il. 23,391-397). Achilles nevertheless awarded him a prize (23, 533-538). According to Apollod. epit. 5,5, he is said to have won at the funeral games for Ac…

Nymphaeum

(1,502 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
I. Sanctuary [German version] A. Etymology and definition The word νυμφαῖον/ nymphaîon is first attested in the 4th cent. BC, on Delos (IG XI,2,144, A l. 91). It originally designated a sanctuary of the nymphs. A nymphaeum is first attested in Itanus on Crete in the 3rd cent. BC together with a water reservoir (ILS 9458). The Latinised form nymphaeum is first found in Pomponius Mela (first half of the 1st cent. AD, Mela 2,3), for a nymph sanctuary in Chersonessus. Conversely, Plinius (HN 35,151) used the word nymphaeum to describe a well with a statue in it (Corinth). The modern t…

Heracleum

(399 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Ἡράκλειον; Hērákleion). [German version] [1] Town on Crete's northern coast Town on Crete's northern coast, modern Iraklion. In a legal support agreement with Miletus (259/250 BC) H. appears as a sovereign town allied with  Knossos (Stv III 482 I) [1]. H. was in the 1st cent. BC, probably in succession to Amnisus, the port town of Knossos (Str. 10,4,7f.) and probably subject to it (cf. Str. 10,5,1). Based on Plin. HN 4,59, it was presumed that H. also bore the name Mation [2]. However, the consensus is that Pliny misunderstood his Greek source (πολισμάτιον Ἡ.; polismátion H., ‘the little…

Tomi

(573 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Thraci, Thracia | Christianity | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Moesi, Moesia | Pertinax | Rome | Rome | Balkans, languages (Τόμοι/ Tómoi, Τόμις/ Tómis, Τῶμις/ Tômis; Lat. Tomi). Colony of Miletus [2] (Ps.-Scymn. 765) on the west coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), modern Constanţa (Romania). T. was probably founded in the 6th cent. BC -- although Jer. Chron. 95b,4, lists the founding date as 657 BC. In Plinius [1] the Older (HD 4,44), T. is referred to as Eumenia (originally perhaps an…

Cyaneae

(390 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
(Κυανέαι). [German version] [1] Two rocky islands Two small rocky islands directly to the west of the confluence of the Bosporus and the  Pontus Euxinus, 2.3 km north of Garipçe Burnu, 100 m in front of the lighthouse of Rumelifeneri, modern İreke Taşı. In Greek myths they were identified with the dangerous  Symplegades or  Planctae (Hom. Od. 16,176; Apoll. Rhod. 2,317ff.). Here there was a shrine (Hdt. 4,85). Pompey built an altar in honour of Apollo here [1. 28f., 35-39]. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography 1 R. Güngerich (ed.), Gryllius, De Bosporo Thracic…

Thracia

(272 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Roman province in the north of the Balkan peninsula, established in AD 45. Its boundaries were: to the east the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos I.) from Apollonia [2] to the Bosporus [1] including Byzantium (Ptol. 3,11; Hdn. 3,1,5; from no later than AD 201, Mesambria [1] was also part of T.); to the the south the northern coast of the Aegean Sea including the islands of Proconnesus, Thasos, Samothrace and possibly also at times Imbros; to the west the province of Macedonia (border on …

Tirizis

(137 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Τίριζις ἄκρα/ Tírizis ákra; Latin Tiristis promunturium). 'Cape' or fortress on the western coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos; Str. 7,6,1; cf. Mela 2,22), on the coast road between Callatis to the north and Dionysopolis to the west, modern Kaliakra (Ptol. 3,10,8: Tiristría ē Tiristrìs ákra; Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 35). T.' natural safe position on the steep coast had already been of useful service to the Thracian Terizi. Lysimachus [2] hid his treasure from the attacking Thraci under Seuthes [4] III there at the end of the 4th cent. BC (Str. 7,6,1). The comes foederator…

Perinthus

(481 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon | | | Colonization | Moesi, Moesia | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Πέρινθος; Périnthos). Harbour town, established by Samos in 602 BC on a peninsula on the Thracian Propontis coast (Ps.-Scymn. 713-715; Str. 7a,1,56; Diod. Sic. 16,76; Plin. HN 4,47; Colonisation IV), where later the via Egnatia joined the coast road, modern Marmara Ereğlisi. The place name is of pre-Greek origin (cf. the ending -inthos). Around 570/560 BC, P. became …

Thyssagetae

(148 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Θυσσαγέται/ Thyssagétai). Tribe of Volga Finns (Ugro-Finnic peoples) in the area of the trade route from the Tanais [1] (modern Don) to the Agrippaei, i.e. to the central Urals, seven days' travel to the northeast of the Budini and close neighbours with the Iyrcae (Hdt. 4,22; Plin. HN 6,19). This was the source region of the four great rivers, the Lycus [16], the Oarus (modern Kama), the Tanais and the Syrgis (Hdt. 4,123); it could hence be that the area where the Oarus flows into…

Leucon

(431 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Λεύκων; Leúkōn). [German version] [1] Boeotian hero Boeotian hero, son of Athamas and Themisto, daughter of the Lapith king Hypseus (Apollod. 1,9,2). His daughter Euippe marries Andreus of Orchomenus (Paus. 9,34,6f.). Eponym of Lake Leuconis (= Copais) (Steph. Byz.). Walde, Christine (Basle) [German version] [2] Author of Old Comedy, 5th cent. BC Author of Old Comedy who competed in the Lenaea of 422 BC with the play Πρέσβεις (‘Legates’) against Aristophanes' ‘Wasps’, and in the Dionysia of 421 with the play Φράτερες against the latter's ‘Peace’…

Dioscurias

(196 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Commerce | Colonization | Patricius (Διοσκουρίας; Dioskourías). Greek pólis and port (Ps.-Scyl. 81) on the eastern shore of the Black Sea, mod. Suḫumi/Abhazia, according to Eratosthenes (Str. 1,3,2; 2,5,25) the easternmost coastal town of the Pontus Euxinus. No exact dates of foundation; the pottery suggests that it was founded by Milesians in the 6th cent. BC (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 10,4; Anon. Per. p. E. 7B). Important commercial centre …

Kamasarye Philoteknos

(107 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καμασαρύη Φιλότεκνος; Kamasarýē Philóteknos). Daughter of the Bosporan king Spartocus V and wife of his successor, Paerisades III, very active politically and mentioned in many inscriptions along with him (e.g. sacrificial list from Didyma, CIG 2, 2855, 178/7 BC; Syll.3 439 from Delphi among others). IOSPE I2 19 ( Panticapaeum) mentions K. as ruler of the Regnum Bosporanum and her son (?) Paerisades IV. She married Argotas before 160 BC. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography B. N. Grakov, Materialy no istorii Skifii v grečeskih nadpisjah Ba…

Niconia

(87 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Νικωνία, Νικώνιον/ Nikōnía, Nikṓníon). A town in the north of the Black Sea area, northeast of the Tyras (Dniester) estuary, opposite Ophiusa (Str. 7,3,16; Νικώνιον/ Nikṓníon: Peripl. m. eux. 61 GGM 1 p. 418; Ps.-Scyl. 68; Ptol. 3,10,16) and near the present-day village of Roxolany. Steph. Byz. s.v. Νικωνία mistakenly located the town on the Danube. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography M.V. Agbunov, Davn'ogrečeskii Nikonij, in: Arheologija 32, 1979, 17-25  G.A. Koselenko, Antičnye gosudarstva Severnogo Pričernomor'ja, 1984, 29f.  M.L. Ber…

Tilataei

(62 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Praetor in 59 BC, thereafter probably governor of Africa (Cic. Flacc. 85). His relationship to the quaestor of Verres (T. V.; cf. V. [I 2]) and the tresvir monetalis (Tresviri [4]) T. V. Sabinus, whose dates are disputed (BMCRR, no. 3370; RRC, no. 404; MRR 2,455; 3,219), is unclear. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography T. Spiridonov, Istoričeska geografija na thrakijskite plemena, 1983, 19, 58.

Paerisades

(622 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Παιρισάδης/ Pairisádēs, Παρισάδης/ Parisádēs, Βηρισάδης/ Bērisádēs). Royal name of Iranian origin among the Bosporanean Spartocids (Spartocus) and the Thracian Odrysae. [German version] [1] P. I. Ruler of the Regnum Bosporanum Ruler of the  Regnum Bosporanum, son of Leucon [3] I., 'árchōn of the Sindi, of all Maeotae, Thataeans and Dosci' [1. no. 8], husband of Kamasarye. P. ruled from  349/8-344 BC together with his brothers Spartocu II. and Apollonius, dividing the territory of the kingdom between themselves. In 347/6, a trade agreement with Athens was renewed by them (Syll.3 …

Zygi

(77 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ζύγιοι/ Zýgioi). People on the eastern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) who lived between the Achaei [2] and the Heniochi (Str. 2,5,31; 11,2,1; 11,2,13 f.: Ζυγοί/ Zygoí; Dionys. Per. 687 with Eust. ad locum; Avien. Descriptio orbis terrae 871) and financed their way of life, tolerated by the Regnum Bosporanum, by means of piracy on the coasts of the Pontos Euxeinos (Str. 11,2,12). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1976, 311, 343.

Cicones

(116 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κίκονες; Kíkones). Tribal group on the northern Aegean coast between Nestus and Hebrus, the later settlement area of the Bistones and Sapaei, in the Homeric epics named as allies of the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,846f.; 17,72f.). Homer distinguishes between the coastal C. and those in the northern mountains. Ismarus is described as a wealthy city of the C., and herds of sheep and cattle along with viticulture are also mentioned (Hom. Od. 9,39-59). It is doubtful whether the C. belonged t…

Prytanis

(191 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Πρύτανις; Prýtanis). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Sparta Mythical king of Sparta, allegedly son of Eurypon (Hdt. 8,131), who was considered to be progenitor of the Eurypontid dynasty. The genealogy is fictitious, however, like the one of the Agiads before the 6th cent. BC. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] King of the Regnum Bosporanum in 310-309 BC King of the Regnum Bosporanum in 310-309 BC, the youngest son of Paerisades [1] I. After the death of his brother Satyrus [2] I, he fought against his eldest brother Eumelus [4] (D…

Philippopolis

(822 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Thraci, Thracia | Christianity | | Coloniae | Alexander | Moesi, Moesia | Rome | Rome | Balkans, languages (Φιλιππόπολις/ Philippópolis, Φιλιπούπολις/ Philipoúpolis). [German version] I. Location and history up to conquest by the Goti City in Thrace (Thraci), founded by Philip (Philippus [4]) II in the immediate vicinity of a fortified settlement of the Bessi on the right bank of the Hebrus in 341 BC. An important road and river transport junction between the Ister [2], the Black Sea, …

Dyme

(299 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Δύμη; Dýmē). [German version] [1] City on the west coast of Achaea This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Dark Ages | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture City on the west coast of Achaea near the modern Kato-Achaia, on a broad plateau on the left bank of the Peirus, protected on three sides by precipices. Protected by a fortress (Pol. 4,59,4), D. was able to exploit the natural riches of the land on Cape Araxus. One of the old 12 cities of Achaea (Hdt. 1,145), D. arose from the amalgamation of eight villages (δῆμοι; dêmoi) (Str. 8,3,2), among them Pal…

Aegissus

(109 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Αἰγισσος; Aígissos). Thracian fortress (1st cent. BC, Ov. Pont. 1,8,13), modern Tulĉa (Romania) in the Danube delta. Necropolis from the 6th to 1st cents. BC. Under  Rhoemetalces at the time of Augustus controlled by Rome (Cass. Dio 54,20,1-3). In about 12 BC destroyed by northern tribes, but rebuilt; from the 2nd cent. BC onwards, growing in military and civilian importance.   Statio between Noviodunum and Salsovia (It. Ant. 226,2). Fortified under Justinian (Procop. Aed. 4,7,20). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography G. Simion, Les Gètes de …

Saumacus

(106 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Killer of Paerisades [6] V, who surrendered the Regnum Bosporanum to Mithridates [6] VI. According to the decree honouring Diophantus [2] (IOSPE 12 no. 352, 34-35), S. had begun a rebellion with the Scythae, which gripped the European part of the empire. He was captured by Diophantus and handed over to Mithridates. This rebellion was evidently directed against the new political leadership. The view that S. was a slave is based on a wrong translation. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A. Gavrilov, Skify Savmaka - vosstanie ili vtorženie?, i…

Tanais

(391 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Τάναϊς/ Tánaïs). [German version] [1] River A 1970 km long river forming the border between the Scythae and the Sarmatae (Hdt. 4,21; according to Plin. HN 6,20 called Silis by the Scythae) and flowing into the Maeotis, modern Don. Sarmatian tribes lived around its lower reaches from the 4th cent. BC onwards; some 15 ancient settlements are known from archaeology there. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] City This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Commerce | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius | Rome City founded in the 3rd …

Iyrcae

(111 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἰύρκαι/ Iýrkai, Hdt. 4,22; Tyrcae, Plin. HN 6,19; Mela, 1,116). Tribe of hunters east of Thyssagetae, east of Tanais, probably in the Ural region, in the plains of Kama, Vjatka, Belaja and Volga. The precise localization and ethnic identification are debatable and cannot be determined on the basis of the sources. Russian research links the I. with the Ananino culture (8th-3rd cents. BC), of which burial mounds and fortified settlements are known and whose trading reached as far as the Caucasus. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography J. Harmatta, Quel…

Chersonesus

(1,017 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
(Χερσόνησος; Chersónēsos). [German version] [1] Modern Peninsula Gallipoli The peninsula nowadays called Gallipoli (more than 900 km2); traces of prehistoric settlement, a strategically favourable position, and fertile. First mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,844f., as homeland of the Thracians Acamas and Peirous. Aeolian colonization in the 7th cent. BC (Alopekonnesos, Madytus, Sestus); Ionian (Cardia, Limnae by Miletus and Clazomenae, Elaeus by Teos) somewhat later. The powerful Thracian tribes (Apsinthi, Dolonci) lon…

Hieron oros

(147 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ἱερὸν ὄρος; Hieròn óros). [German version] [1] Holy mountain Holy mountain, name of a mountain range on the  Propontis, modern Tegirdağ. Religious centre of the  Thraci (Str. 7, fr. 55). The fortress of the Odrysae bearing the same name (Xen. An. 7,1,14) was situated there. Cotys I entrenched himself there in 362 BC at the time of the revolt of Miltocythes (Dem. Or. 23,104). Philip II conquered H. in 346 (Dem. Or. 9,15; Aeschin. Leg. 2,82f.; 3,73f.). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography C. Danov, Altthrakien, 1976, 122f. [German version] [2] Foothills on the south …

Myrcinus

(163 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Μύρκινος; Mýrkinos). Edonian settlement (Edones), later Greek polis, east of the lower Strymon; both its ancient and its modern name is M. (Str. 7a,1,33). In 513 BC, Darius [1] gave M. to Histiaeus [1] who expanded and fortified the town. After the collapse of the Ionian Revolt,   Aristagoras [3] led more colonists to M.; after his death (497 BC), the Edonians regained M.  (Hdt. 5,11; 124ff.; Thuc. 4,102,2). In 423 BC, after …

Zygactes

(23 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ζυγάκτης; Zygáktēs). Coastal river to the east of Philippi (App. B Civ. 4,105; 4,128); not identified. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Eupator

(81 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Ti. Julius E., king of the  Regnum Bosporanum, from AD 154/5 to c. 174, follower of  Rhoemetalces. Coins to 170. Roman vassal, financially supported by the Romans (Lucian, Alex. 57). As the first king of the Bosporus he had a Sarmatic sign as his emblem. Most of the inscriptions come from  Panticapaeum where his residence was located (IOSPE 2, 422, 438 et al.). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 348 n. 42; 351.

Constantinople

(1,725 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
( Constantinopolis). [German version] I. Site Imperial residence, founded in 324 by  Constantine [1] the Great on the site of  Byzantium. Bounded to the north by the Golden Horn, with the  Bosporus [1] to the east and the  Hellespont to the south, the city could only be attacked from one side by land. By virtue of its site it dominated trade and commerce between Europe and Asia, between the Aegean and the Black Sea ( Pontos Euxeinos; Hdn. 3,1,5; Pol. 4,38-45). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] II. Topography The city plan did not follow the customary imperial…

Haemus

(322 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (Αἷμος; Haîmos). Mountain range in Thrace, the Balkan mountains (Turkish Balkan, Bulgarian Stara Planina. The name is probably Thracian). The H. stretches from Timacus to Pontus and represents a distinctive watershed. According to ancient opinion the H. began at the Adriatic (Str. 7, fr. 10). As it is not very high but hard to cross it was often also an ethnic and political border. The first mention is in Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 169). Numerous myths are connected with the H. (Apollod. 1,6,3; Ps.-Plut. De fluviis 11,3; Serv. Aen. 1,317; 321; Steph. Byz. s.v. Αἷ.). Ovid gives th…

Crobyzi

(165 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κρόβυζοι). Large Getic subtribe ( Getae) living between the Athrys (modern Jantra), the lower Oescus (modern Iskar) and the  Pontus Euxinus (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 170; Arr. Anab. 1,1; 1,3; Ptol. 3,10,4). In their land (Κροβυζική) the rivers Athrys, Noes and Artanes (modern Vit?, Hdt. 4,49) flowed. After the collapse of the kingdom of the  Odrysae, it seems to have expanded to the south to the northern slope of the  Haemus (Str. 7,5,12). Phylarchus (FGrH 81 F 20) reports of Isanthes, a …

Seleucus

(2,908 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Et al.
(Σέλευκος/ Séleukos, Lat. Seleucus). [German version] [1] Co-regent in the Regnum Bosporanum, c.400 BC Co-regent with Satyrus [2] I in the Regnum Bosporanum, 433/2-393/2 BC (according to Diod. Sic. 12,36,1). As Satyrus is elsewhere (Diod. Sic, 14,93,1) described as a sole ruler, and other sources do not mention his name, his existence is not certain. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 231  E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks, 1913, 571  R. Werner, Die Dynastie der Spartokiden, in: Historia 4, 1955, 419-421. …

Sveshtari

(250 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] To the north of S. (district of Razgrad Oblast in Bulgaria) a Thracian burial complex (first half of the 3rd cent. BC) was discovered in 1982. In the southeastern part of the Ginina Mogila burial mound is the grave of a Getic king ( dromos with relief frieze of bucrania, rosettes and garlands, three square chambers, i.e. ante-, burial and side chambers); 12 caryatids on the burial chamber, which can be linked to Thracian afterlife beliefs. In the chamber there are two stone catafalques, and above the larger one also wall pa…

Macrocephali

(71 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μακροκέφαλοι; Makroképhaloi, ‘the large-headed’). Apparently a tribe west of Colchis (Hes. fr. 153). But the name probably comes from the mythical or fictitious reports on the peoples on the Pontos Euxeinos (cf. Str. 7,3,6 as an example of his mythical criticism), even though geographers continued to use it (Mela 1,19; Plin. HN 6,2). According to Scyl. 37 they are identical with the Macrones. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Odrysae

(476 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ὀδρῦσαι; Odrỹsai). Thracian tribe in the eastern part of the Rhodope Mountains and on the lower reaches of the Tonzus (modern Tundža) as far as Cabyle (Hdt. 4,92). At the beginning of the 5th cent. BC, a kingdom was founded by Teres with the O.'s help. (Thuc. 2,29,2f.). He expanded their settlement area in the north to the Ister [2], in the south to the river Agrianes (also called Erginus). His successors were his sons Spartacus (until about 440: Thuc. 2,101,5) and Sitalces, who e…

Coelaletae

(105 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κοιλαλῆται; Koilalêtai, Lat. Coelaletae). Ethnonym referring to two different Thracian tribes: the ‘Greater Coelaletae’ below the  Haemus (Plin. HN 4,41) and the ‘Lesser Coelaletae’ below the  Rhodope; in AD 21 they fought together with the Odrysae and Dii against the Romans (Tac. Ann. 3,38f.). The Thracian strategia Koiletike was situated there (Ptol. 3,11,9). C. are found several times as soldiers on inscriptions of the 1st cent. AD (cf. CIL XVI 33 of AD 86). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Chr. Danov, Die Thraker auf dem Ostbalkan ..…

Gylon

(111 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γύλων; Gýlōn). Athenian, is said at the end of the 5th cent. BC to have been responsible for the northern Pontic  Nymphaeum that belonged to Athens being ‘Handed to the enemies’, for which he was given the death penalty (Aeschin. In Ctes. 171); probably his offence was less serious (Dem. Or. 28,3). G. was allocated by the Bosporanian rulers the town of Kepoi with its territory, from which he collected high taxes. He married a rich Scythian and returned to Athens with her. One of his daughters was the mother of  Demosthenes [2] (Traill, PAA 282005). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigh…

Avares

(187 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] Turkish tribe partly in the wake of the Huns and driven from central Asia by the Turks, that moved westwards in the 6th cent. AD (Sync. 5,15f.). In 558/59 the A. lay north of the Caucasus with c. 20,000 warriors. Constantinople turned them down, whilst under their leader Khagan Baian they embarked on a triumphal march through the southern Russian steppes. Their petition for areas to settle south of the Danube was rejected by Constantinople (Theophanes Byzantius FHG 4, 270b). Between 562 and 566 they attacked the  Fra…

Apsinthii

(81 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀψίνθιοι; Apsínthioi). Thracian tribe on the Thracian  Chersonesus, east of the Dolonci. It was against them that  Miltiades had a wall built from Cardia to Pactye (Hdt. 6,36 f.). After the conquest of Sestus by the Athenians in 478 BC, the A. took the Persian Oiobazos prisoner and sacrificed him to their god Pleistorus (Hdt. 9,119). The A. took their name from the River Apsinthus (=  Melas). The  Hieron oros was in Apsinthis.  Sestus von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Ismaris

(36 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἰσμαρίς; Ismáris). Lake near the Aegean coast between Maronea and the River Strymon (Hdt. 7,109) with a sanctuary of Maron (Str. 7, fr. 44), probably near modern Paguria. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Rhecusporis

(313 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
Kings of the Regnum Bosporanum with the name Tiberius Julius R. (for name variations see Rhascypolis). [German version] [1] R. (II.) King of the Regnum Bosporanum from AD 68/9 to AD 91/2 Son of Cotys [II 1] I., ruled from AD 68/9 to AD 91/2 (IOSPE 2,52; 355; 358); he minted gold stateres and pursued a policy which was more independent of Rome PIR2 I 512; [1. 14-17, 93-103]. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] R. (III.) King of Bosporus and the surrounding peoples AD 210/1- AD 226/7 Son of Ti. Julius Sauromates II., ruled as 'king of Bosporus and the surroun…

Callip(p)idae

(90 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καλλιπ(π)ίδαι; Kallip(p)ídai). Name of the inhabitants of the region neighbouring the emporium of Borysthenes on the modern Dnieper, characterized as Hellenoskýthai (Ἑλληνοσκύθαι, Hdt. 4,17; cf. Str. 12,3,21; Mela 2,7). They seem to be identical with the Graeco-Scythian population, referred to as Mixhéllēnes (Μιξέλληνες) in decree IOSPE 12 32, Z. 26f. The name alludes both to the Scythians as an equestrian people and to the derisive nickname of C. (‘unlucky fellow’). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography I. von Bredow, Der Begriff der Mixh…

Pautalia

(241 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Moesi, Moesia (Παυταλία; Pautalía). City in a fertile plain on the upper Strymon (Ptol. 3,11,12) between the River Bantčica and Hizarlak Hill, overbuilt by modern Kjustendil (in Bulgaria). Founded under Trajan (98-117 AD) over a settlement of the Thracian Danthaletae (traces from the early Hallstatt period onward, end of the 8th century BC), P. was an administrative, economic and cultural centre. Mining (iron, copper, lead, and sil…

Cynossema

(67 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κυνὸς σῆμὰ; Kynòs sêma, ‘dog grave’). Cape on Thracian Chersonesus south of Madytus near modern Kilit Bahır where the Hellespont is at its very narrowest, well known for the sea victory of the Attic fleet over the Peloponnesians in 411 BC (Thuc. 8,104-107; Diod. Sic. 13,40,6; cf. also regarding the name ‘dog grave’ Eur. Hec. 1270ff.; Ov. Met. 13,569). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Scribonius

(2,206 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, probably from Caudium (CIL I2 1744 f.) and attested from the time of the 2nd Punic War. The branch of the Libones (S. [I 5-7; II 4-7]) attained the consulship with S. [I 7] and was part of the Roman high nobility in the early Imperial period. The Curiones (S. [I 1-4]), prominent in the 2nd and 1st cents. BC, disappeared with the Republic. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S. Curio, C. As aedile in 196 BC, he built the Temple of Faunus on the Tiber Island. Praetor urbanus in 183 and the second plebeian to be elected curio [2] maximus

Neapolis

(2,079 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Νέα πόλις/ Néa pólis, Νεάπολις/ Neápolis, ‘New City’). [German version] [1] Town on the northern coast of the Aegean This item can be found on the following maps: | Macedonia, Macedones | Moesi, Moesia Town on the northern coast of the Aegean to the west of the mouth of the Nestus river, across from the island of Thasos, modern Kavalla (Str. 7a,1,36; Ps.-Scyl. 67), probably a Thasian colony but the exact period of foundation is unknown. Early in the 6th cent. BC, autonomous silver coinage modelled on that of Eretria [1] (HN 196…

Neon Teichos

(247 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Νέον τεῖχος; Néon teîchos). [German version] [1] Fortified town on the northern coast of the Propontis Fortified town on the northern coast of the  Propontis, south of  Bisanthe (Ps.-Scyl. 67). It was founded by  Bisanthe or by  Samos, and from the end of the 5th cent. BC it was  in the hands of the Odrysae. NT was said  to have belonged  to Alcibiades [3] temporarily (Nep. Alcibiades 7,4). Seuthes offered  Xenophon the gift of N. together with  Bisanthe and Ganos (Xen. An. 7,5,8). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography U. Kahrstedt, Beiträge zur Geschichte der thraki…

Xyline

(102 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Brandt, Hartwin (Chemnitz)
(Ξυλίνη; Xylínē). [German version] [1] Coastal town in Colchis Coastal town in Colchis between the mouths of the Archabis (modern Arhavi) and the Cissa (modern Kise; Ptol. 5,6,6), not locatable more precisely. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. X., in: RE 9 A, 2163 f. [German version] [2] Settlement in Pisidia to the north of Termessus [1] Settlement in Pisidia to the north of Termessus [1], to the south of Cormasa (not located with certainty: [1. 67]); precise location unclear. Cn. Manlius [I 24] Vulso stayed there in 189 BC (Liv. 38,15,7). Bran…

Machares

(103 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαχάρης; Machárēs). Son of Mithridates VI; M. went over to the Roman side as early as 70 BC as amicus et socius (Plut. Lucullus 24). He sent Lucullus ( Licinius [I 26]) auxiliary troops and food at the siege of Sinope. In 65 he attempted to flee Mithridates from Panticapaeum to the Chersonesus [3], burnt the ships behind him in the harbour and committed suicide in view of the hopelessness of his situation (Memnon, FGrH 434 F 37f.; App. Mith. 102) or was murdered (Cass. Dio 36,50). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporanische Rei…

Pelagones, Pelagonia

(257 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πελαγόνες/ Pelagónes, Πελαγονία/ Pelagonía). Inhabitants and region in northern Macedonia, the plateau between the south of modern Macedonia and northwestern Greece, surrounded by hilly country and mountain chains with an extent of c. 100 km north-south and c. 20 km east-west. Originally P. was taken to relate only to the region around modern Prilep on the middle reaches of the Erigon (Str. 7,7,8f. [1. 283]; Str. 7a,1,20; 38f.; 9,5,11.). There were only four simple ways of reaching P. Among those living in P. beside…

Lysimachia

(508 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Λυσιμάχεια; Lysimácheia). [German version] [1] City on the Thracian Chersonesus This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni | Natural catastrophes City founded by one of the Diadochi Lysimachus, in 309 BC - in place of the city of Cardia destroyed by him - as the capital city of Thracian Chersonesus and the seat of government (Str. 7, fr. 51; Liv. 23,38,11; Ptol. 3,11) there on the southern coast of Melas Kolpos near modern Bakla Burnu. In the Hellenistic period L. was the most important trans-sh…

Sarmatae

(900 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σαρμάται/ Sarmátai, Σαυρομάται/ Sauromátai; Lat. Sarmatae). Iranian nomadic tribes who include, among others, the Alani, Aorsi, Iazyges, Rhoxolani and Sirachi. They lived until the mid 3rd cent. BC east of the Tanais (modern Don), regarded as the border between Scythae (with map) and S. (Hdt. 4,21), in the steppes north of the Caucasus (τὰ τῶν Σαρματῶν πεδία/ tà tôn Sarmatôn pedía, Str. 11,2,15). The Syrmatae probably lived in the outermost western region (Steph. Byz., s.v. Συρμάται; in Ps.-Scyl. 68 already west of the Tanais). From the m…

Scupi

(504 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Macedonia, Macedones | Moesi, Moesia | Rome (Σκοῦποι/ Skoûpoi, Lat. Scupi). [German version] I. Location, Roman Period City of the Illyrian Dardani [4] on the Axius, on the road from Stobi to Naissus (Ptol. 3,9,6; 8,11,5; Scunis, Tab. Peut. 7,4; Hierocles, Synecdemos 655,8), 5 km northwest of present-day Skopje. S. was a Roman colonia beginning in the Flavian Period (AD 69-96; ILS 2461), fortified under Hadrianus (ILS 3860). As evidenced by veteran inscriptions, S.…
▲   Back to top   ▲