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Londinium

(806 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Christianity | | Commerce | Limes | Rome | Rome | Britannia (modern London). The Roman city of L. - the name possibly contains the Celtic personal name Londinos - lay, probably without pre-Roman precursors, at the most suitable crossing point of the Tamesis (Thames), which drew the attention of the Romans at the time of the invasion in AD 43. The early settlement was on hills on both sides of the swampy valley of the Walbrook that flows from the north into the Tamesis. Neither an early …

Iceni

(184 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the area of Norfolk and Suffolk (south-eastern England). First mentioned under the name Cenimagni as one of the tribes that submitted to Caesar in AD 54 (Caes. B Gall. 5,21,1). At the time of the conquest of Britain by Claudius (AD 43), they were prepared to accept the alliance with Rome. In AD 4…

Maeatae

(119 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)

Thule

(202 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Θούλη/ Thoúlē). T. was a concept, occasionally a literary term (Antonius [3]), less often a geographical location. The idea of a country in the northern Ocean, far to the north of Britannia, can be found in Verg. G. 1,30 and almost certainly refers to an account by Pytheas [4]. Strabo (1,4,2-5; 2,4,1; 2,5,8; 4,5,5)…

Mona

(231 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)

Viroconium

(158 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Οὐιροκόνιον/ Ouirokónion). Roman legionary camp, in c. AD 55 laid out in connection with military operations in the valley of the upper Sabrina (modern Severn) [1. 292 f.]; modern Wroxeter in Shropshire, England. Abandoned in

Camboricum

(30 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] ‘Ford on the river bend’ (It. Ant. 474,7), presumably modern Icklingham (Suffolk) [1. 294]. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith…

Ratae

(177 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Roman fort in Britannia, built before AD 50 at the site of an Iron-Age settlement on the present-day Soar River and held for c. 20 years. The fort and its vicus grew into the core of a prosperous town (It. Ant. 477,4; Ptol. 2,3,20: Ῥάγε/Rháge; CIL VII 1169; cf. CIL XVI 160), present-day Leicester [1. 52 f.]. Already before AD …

Cassi

(50 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] One of five tribes in Britannia, who surrendered to Caesar in 54 BC (Caes. B Gall. 5,21). Their settlement area, which cannot be localized exactly, was in the south-east of the island. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography A. L. F. Rive…

Glannaventa

(74 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (probably modern Ravenglass/Cumbria). The camp was laid out at the beginning of Hadrian's rule at an anchorage at the river (not excavated); especially striking is a bathhouse outside the walls; the building's walls with windows 3.5 metres high are still extant. G. was likely abandoned in the late 4th cent.…

Picti

(162 words)

Rutupiae

(242 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Harbour town in far southeastern Britannia, modern Richborough (Kent), on the now silted-up channel between the island of Tonatis (modern Is…

Ordovices

(114 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] British tribe who inhabited the region between Snowdonia and the Severn va…

Calleva Atrebatum

(135 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Britannia | Britannia (modern Silchester). An Iron Age oppidum, main centre of the Atrebates [2], it developed from 100 BC into a significant political centre. Through its links with  Commius, the settlement boomed in the mid 1st cent. BC. It is likely that, after AD 43, Calleva Atrebatum (CA) was incorporated into Cogidubnus' empire. The early Roman town was establi…

Mamucium

(101 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Roman fort near Manchester, on the road from Deva to Eboracum, first occupied in the Flavian period (AD 69-96), probably under Cn. Iulius [II 3] Agricola. Renovated in the early 2nd cent. [1]. An inscription on a Severan building suggests a further extension in the 3rd cent. [2. 581]. In the 4th cent., M. gained considerable strategic importance, before being abandoned after AD 370. A large vicus surrounded the fort. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 G. D. B. Jones, S. Grealey, Roman Manchester, 1974 2 R. G. Collingwood, R. P. Wight, The Roman Inscriptions of Brita…

Mons Graupius

(294 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] The Roman invasion of eastern Scotland under Iulius [II 3] Agricola brought Roman troops across the isthmus between the Forth and Clyde in AD 82 or 83 (Tac. Agr. 29,2-38,2; [1]). In contrast to the tribes of southern Scotland, the Caledonii to the north of the isthmus were very much more dangerous opponents. They were led against the Romans by Calgacus, who had probably been elected commander by the clans. He first evaded the legions, but, when the Roman advance made progress acro…

Margidunum

(184 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] On the great Roman road of the Fosse Way between Lincoln and Leicester lay various Roman settlements; one of the largest was M., near East Bridgeford, Nottinghamshire. Originally a Roman fort (late Claudian/early Neronian period), abandoned in around AD 70 [1; 2]. M. probably served as a military supply base, since the local iron ore was intensively smelted. After the end of the military occupation, the civilian settlement continued on both sides of the Fosse Way, possibly in conjunction with a mansio (or mutatio). Residential and other buildings were modest. Th…

Bremenium

(68 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] One of a line of Roman outposts north of Hadrian's Wall near the modern High Rochester. Established by Agricola (AD 77-84), the camp was renovated by Lollius Urbicus (AD 139-142), and again restored under Septimius Severus and Diocletian [1. 242-244]. CIL VII p. 178f.  Limes Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 E. B. Birley, Research on Hadrian's Wall, 1961. D. J. Breeze, The Northern Frontiers of Roman Britain, 1961, 138f.

Ictis

(143 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] British island connected to the mainland at low tide where, according to Diod. Sic. 5,22,2, the inhabitants of Belerion (Land's End in south-west-Britain) sold Tin from their mines - this was the beginning of the tin trade between Britannia and the Mediterranean region. The location of I. is still under debate. Possibilities include St. Michael's Mount in Mounts Bay, Cornwall [1. 176], which is connected to the mainland at low tide, and Mount Batten in the Plymouth Sound, Devon, w…

Durovernum

(150 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Britannia | Britannia Modern Canterbury; arose in the form of an Iron Age oppidum on the Stour in the late 1st cent. BC. The Roman city developed shortly after AD 43, perhaps revealing the pre-Roman character of the tribes of Cantion (Kent). Public buildings were erected in the late 1st and early 2nd cents. A large theatre was added in the late 2nd cent. [1]; defensive works were built in the late 3rd cent. An extra muros Christian church, probably from the 4th cent., survived until c. AD 700 (Bede, Hist. Eccl. 1,26). A…
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