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Myrmecium

(235 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Patricius (Μυρμήκιον; Myrmḗkion). Harbour town on the European shore of the Bosporus [2] on Cape M. (Μ. ἄκρον; M. ákron), founded in the second quarter of the 6th cent. BC. It is uncertain whether M. had been an autonomous Ionian colony or a foundation by Panticapaeum (Ps.-Scyl. 68; Str. 7,4,5).  It is located close to the modern Karantinnaya. Quite early on, M. joined the  Bosporan League, led by Panticapaeum. M. experienced its greatest prosperity in the Hellen…

Venethi

(180 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] People between the central reaches of the Vistula (modern Wisła, German Weichsel) and the modern Daugava (German Düna), to the north of the Sarmatae and the Sciri (Plin. HN 4,97; Tac. Germ. 46,2; Ptol. 3,5,19: Οὐενέδαι/ Ouenédai). According to Iord. Get. 34 they settled between the Peucini and the Fenni and incorporated various Slav tribes in the region. It is assumed that the V. were bearers of the Przeworsk culture (2nd-6th cents. AD). From the term V. the name for a Slavonic people, the Wends, developed. It is un…

Sestus

(242 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Thraci, Thracia | Colonization | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Σηστός/ Sēstós). City on the European shore of the Hellespont (Hom. Il. 2,836) where it is narrowest (known as the Heptastádion, Str. 2,5,22; 7a,1,52), connected over a stretch of about 60 m by walls with the anchorage of Apobathra (Theop. FGrH 115 F 390; Str. 13,1,22), probably near modern Yalıkavat. Founded c. 600 BC on the site of a Thracian settlement by Lesbos (Ps.-Scymn. 709 f.). It was …

Aprus

(68 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia Originally Thracian settlement on the   via Egnatia , near the modern Kestridze at the turn-off towards Aenus and Thracian Chersonesus (Plin. HN 4,47; Ptol. 3,11,7; on vessels found at Rogozen). Seat of a bishopric; in 312 noted by Hierocles as Theodosioupolis. Incursions by  Goths (Procop. Goth. 8,27,8). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Albani

(148 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀλβανοί; Albanoí). Group of tribes in  Albania (Str. 11,4), in modern Dagestan. They fought with  Darius against  Alexander III [4] (Arr. Anab. 3,8,5; 11,4; 13,1). A. appear again in connection with the 3rd Mithridatic War (74 to 63 BC): Oroizes, the king of A., attacked Pompey in 65 BC with 60,000 men infantry and 22,000 riders at Cyrus (today Kura), when the former was on the march from Armenia to the Caspian Sea through their land. Beaten, they made peace with Rome (Liv. Per. 1…

Neuri

(90 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Νεῦροι/ Neûroi). Tribe (not of the Scythae) on the Hypanis [1], to the west of the Borysthenes and south of the source lake of the Tyras (Hdt. 4,17); easterly neighbours of the Androphagi and Melanchlaeni (Hdt. 4,17; 51; 100; 125). Various attempts have been made to associate them with cultures of southern Belrus, including the ancestor tribes of the Slavs, Balts or Finns. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A.I. Terenožkin, Predskifskij period na Dneprovskom Pravoberež'e, 1961, 234  E.A. Mel'nikovskaja, Plemena južnoj Belorusij v rannem ž…

Zesutera

(47 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Way station for swapping horses ( mutatio) on the Via Egnatia on the border between the late-antique provinces of Europa in the east and Rhodope in the west, 12 miles to the west of Aprus (It. Burdig. 602,1); not located. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Tisia

(265 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] ( Tiza, Pathissus, Parthiscus; Τίσσος/ Tíssos, Τήσα/ Tḗsa, Τίτζα/ Títza; modern Tisza). The largest tributary of the Danube (Ister [1]), flowing from the Carpathians to the west of Singidunum and into the Danube from the north (cf. also Pathissus); original name probably Parthisus (Str. 7,5,2). Herodotus (4,100) and Strabo (7,3,4) identify the lower reaches of the T. with the Maris (modern Maros). The T. plain (modern Bánság) was fertile and densely settled: Agathyrsi (Hdt. 4,78), Daci, Bo…

Xanthea

(95 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ξάνθεια; Xántheia). City in Thrace between the Bistonis limne (modern Lake Vistonida) and Maronea [1] on the northern coast of the Aigaion Pelagos (Str. 7a,1,44) on the southern slopes of Rhodope, not precisely locatable. In the Byzantine city of the same name no remains suggesting Antiquity have been discovered; it was on the Via Egnatia (Nikephoros Gregoras 727,24; 814,19); modern Xanthi. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography S. P. Kyriakidis, Περὶ τὴν ἱστορίαν τῆς Θρᾴκης, 1960, 27-32  P. A. Pantos, Ἱστορικὴ τοπογραφία τοῦ νομοῦ Ξάνθης…

Bistones

(95 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βίστονες; Bístones). Thracian tribe on the Aegean Sea from around the Βιστονὶς λίμνη ( Bistonìs límnē) to the lower reaches of the Nestus; neighbours of the Cicones and the Sapaei. On their territory,  Abdera,  Dicaea and Stryme were founded. Hdt. (7,110) only mentioned as an intermediate staging post of the Persian army They appear frequently in mythological tales and in genealogies (Str. 7 fr. (43) 44 mentions B. on Thasos, under the rule of Diomedes; Val. Fl. 3,159: homeland of Orpheus). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A. Fol, T. Spiridonov,…

Naulochus

(127 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ναύλοχος/ Naúlochos). Small port on the western shore of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) beneath the southern slopes of the Haemus mountains, north of Mesambria [1], from where N. was probably founded at the turn of the 4th/3rd cents BC (Str. 7,6,1; 9,5,19; cf. also Plin. HN 4,45), modern Obzor. Mentioned as a port (ὅρμος ναυσί/ hórmos nausí), but without giving its name, in Arrian Peripl. p. eux. 36 and Anon. Peripl. m. eux. 81. The mansio on the Mesambria - Philippopolis road was called Templum Iovis in the Roman period (Tab. Peut. 8,4), and Kozeakos i…

Corpili

(94 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κορπῖλοι; Korpîloi). Thracian tribe east of the lower course of the  Hebrus (Str. 7a,1,48). The Thracian strategia of Corpilice (Ptol. 3,6,9) also extended over the earlier territory of the  Apsinthii as far as  Aenus [1] (Str. 7a,1,58). In 188 BC the C. took part in the uprising against the troops of Cn. Manlius Vulso together with the Caeni and Maduateni (Liv. 38,40,7). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Chr. Danov, Die Thraker auf dem Ostbalkan. ..., in: ANRW II 7.1, 1979, 21-185, esp. 84f. M. Tačeva, Istorija na bălgarskite zemi 2, 1987, 58ff.

Ganus

(103 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γάνος; Gános). A mountain above modern Gaziköy on the European Propontis coast, modern Ganos Dağı (945 m). Its region was Ganiás (Γανιάς) with the local deity theà Ganḗa (θεὰ Γανήα). A fortified settlement was located below the mountain tò Gános (τὸ Γάνος, Scyl. 67). In the 5th cent. BC, G. was part of the Thynian tribal territory under Seuthes II, who promised  Bisanthe, G. and Neon Teichos to Xenophon (400-399 BC., Xen. An. 7,5,8). G. is also mentioned in association with the advance of Philip II into Propontis against Kersebleptes (346 BC, Aeschin. In Ctes. 3,82). von…

Carpathians

(209 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καρπάτης ὄρος/Κάρπαθον ὄρος; Karpátēs óros/ Kárpathon óros, Lat. Carpates montes, Carpatae, Alpes Bastarnicae). Arch-shaped mountain range, rich in forests and water, between the Balkans ( Haemus) and the Alps, the natural border between the Balkan peninsula and the steppes of north-eastern Europe. Marinus (Ptol. 3,5,6; 15; 18; 20; 7,1; 8,1) was the first to recognize the C. as a separate mountain range, whereas they were previously mainly seen as being part of the Alps or the Haemus. Gold, …

Phanagoria

(311 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Commerce | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius (Φαναγόρεια; Phanagóreia). Port founded by Teos (Ps.-Scymn. 886f.) in the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC in the area of the Sindi (Ps.-Scyl. 72) (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 212; Colonisation IV.) on the Korokondamitis limne (Gulf of Taman) on the Asiatic coast of the Bosphorus [2], on the peninsula of Taman about 3 km south-west of modern Sennaja. As the Hypanis [2] in ancient times flowed with …

Sale

(104 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σάλη; Sálē). City on the northern shore of the Aegean Sea, west of Doriscus in the south east of the foothills of the Serrheum, probably at present-day Alexandrupolis. Built as part of the peraia of Samothrace (Hdt. 7,59,2), S. belonged to the territory of Maronea [1] in 188 BC at the time of the Syrian Wars (Liv. 38,41,8: vicus Maronitarum). In the Roman Imperial Period, S. was a road-station ( mutatio) on the road from Traianopolis to Philippi (It. Burd. 602). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography B. Isaac, The Greek Settlements in Thrace until th…

Xerogypsos

(38 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ξηρόγυψος; Xērógypsos). Small river near Perinthus in southeatern Thrace (Anna Komnena, Alexias 7, 378,14 Niebuhr; Theophylaktos Simokattes 6,245,2 Bekker), presumably modern Çorlusuyu  (in Turkey). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography C. Danov, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2094.

Panticapaeum

(370 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Wine | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius | Rome (Παντικάπαιον; Pantikápaion). Milesian colony on the European side of the Bosporus [2], founded in the 7th/6th cent. BC, modern Kerč (Ps.-Scyl. 68; Scymn. 836). With its strategic and commercially commanding position and its fertile hinterland P. soon took on a leading role under the Greek poleis on the Bosporus (Str. 7,4,4; Plin. HN 4,87). Thus in about 480 BC the Regnum Bosporanum

Burgas

(151 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] City on the west coast of the Black Sea. Several prehistoric and ancient settlements have been recorded in modern B. (the oldest from the Chalcolithic period up until the Late Bronze Age). There was a Thracian settlement in Zlatkite kladenci; from the 6th cent. BC into the 2nd cent. BC possibly an empórion of  Apollonia [2]. There were three necropolises; on the height of Siloto there was a Thracian fortress and 6 km away from this were copper mines (today Vărli brjag) owned by Thracian princes. A Thracian settlement, Tyrsis, was l…

Maeotis

(144 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαιῶτις; Maiôtis, Latin lacus or palus Maeotis). The Asov Sea north-east of the Krim with an area of c. 38,000 km2, with an outlet to the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos in the south through the Cimmerian Bosporus [2], in the north-east confluence of the Tanais in the M. The M. is exceptionally shallow (average depth 9 m) so that it easily freezes over. In spring, south-west winds drive the water of the Pontos Euxeinos into the M. Many rivers flow into the M., which has an abundance of fish (Str. 7,4,6).…
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