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Atratinus

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (probably designation of origins [1]) of the Sempronii in the 5th/4th cents. BC and in M.  Asinius A. ( cos. AD 89). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 184

Barbatus

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the Bearded’) of the Cornelii, Horatii, Quincti, Valerii and other families (ThlL 2,1746; Kajanto, cognomina, 224). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Glaucia

(39 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (the identification with the Greek proper name Γλαυκίας ( Glaukías) is disputed, [1]) in the family of the Servilii (known is the praetor in 100 BC C.  Servilius Glaucia). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze 343.

Luscinus

(26 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘one-eyed’, Plin. HN 11,150), in the Republican period in the Fabricii family (Fabricius [I 3 and 4]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Nerius

(99 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Rare Roman proper name (epigraphic evidence for praenomen, family name and epithet). Also the name of a Gaulish-Roman goddess (Néris-Les Bains). [German version] [1] Money Lender Well Versed in Law Money lender well versed in law (Hor. Sat. 2,3,69 with Porphyrio ad loc.; cf. Pers. 2,14). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] N., Cn. (?) Accused P. Sestius of corruption in 56 BC Accused P. Sestius of gaining office by improper means ( ambitus; Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 2,3,5) in 56 BC; not identical with the quaestor urbanus 49 BC (RRC 441). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Schulz…

Glabrio

(37 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘bald-head’, cf. glaber) in the family of the Acilii ( Acilius [I 10-13]; [II 6-9]), in the Imperial period also in other families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR 254 Kajanto, Cognomina 236.

Folius

(157 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman gentile name (older form epigraphically Foslius, InscrIt 13,1,37,  folius [3]), attested in the early Republic solely for the family of the patrician Folii, which died out at the end of the 4th cent. BC; later common proper name of non-senatorial families. [German version] [1] Pontifex maximus, killed by the Celts in 387 BC Pontifex maximus, remained in Rome with other old men when Rome was taken by the Celts in 387 BC and was killed (Liv. 5,41,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] F. Flaccinator, M. Consular tribune in 433 BC Consular tribune in 433 BC (Liv. 4,2…

Mancinus

(16 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen in the family of the Hostilii (Hostilius [7-9]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Poppaedius

(220 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] (also attested epigraphically as Popaedius). Italian family name, possibly of Etruscan origin [2. 367]. It is well-known from Q. P. Silo, leader of the Marsi [1] in the Social War (Social Wars [3])of 90-88 BC and, with C. Papius [I 4] Mutilus, one of the two commanders-in-chief of the secessionists (Diod. Sic. 37,2,6; Str. 5,4,2; Liv. Per. 76 et passim; coins: [3; 4]). As a guest-friend of the people's tribune M. Livius [I 7] Drusus, he regarded the latter's murder as grounds for an uprising of the socii. As commander of the northern army, P. after fruitless nego…

Tertius

(34 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman praenomen (the numeral often indicating birth-order), common cognomen and Roman slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 74; 292 2 Salomies, 17; 116-118 3 H. Solin, Die stadtrömischen Sklavennamen 1, 1996, 152 f.

Arruns

(129 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Etruscan first name (in inscriptions arnth, arunth, arenth), Lat. Ar(r)uns. Only Romans of Etruscan origin bore this name (abbreviation Ar.). Praenomen in the gens Tarquinia [1; 2]. [German version] [1] Legendary Etruscan Legendary Etruscan in the army of Tarchon who was allied with Aeneas (Verg. Aen. 11,759-867). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Son of Porsenna Son of Porsenna, friendly toward Rome, fell in the battle of Aricia (Plut. Poplicola 18-19; Liv. 2,14,5 among others). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] High-ranking Etruscan (Early…

Dolabella

(20 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, became hereditary in the family of the Cornelii Dolabellae ( Cornelius [I 23-29]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Emperors, child

(228 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] The term child emperors (after Lat. principes pueri, SHA Tac. 6,5; Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7, 533) has been applied, since Hartke [1], to the members of the Valentinian-Theodosian dynasty (genealogical tree see  Theodosius) who ascended the throne as one- to eight-year-old boys: the sons of Valentinianus I, Gratianus [2] (born in AD 359; Augustus in 367), and Valentinianus II (born in 371; Augustus in 375); the sons of Theodosius I, Arcadius (born in 377; Augustus in 383) and Honorius (born in…

Vicellinus

(15 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen of Cassius  [I 19] Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 163.

Maius

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman surname and cognomen [1. 61; 2. 13]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina 2 Walde/Hofmann 2.

Macedonicus

(19 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Victor's epithet of Q. Caecilius [I 27] Metellus M. ( cos. 143 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Tertia

(39 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Woman's praenomen (Varro Ling. 9,60), more commonly a cognomen. The best-known bearers are Clodia [3] T., Iunia [2] T. and Mucia T. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 292 2 H. Solin, Die stadtröm. Sklavennamen 1, 1996, 153 f.

Iullus

(34 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Name (also in manuscripts Iulus) of the son of Aeneas ( Iulus); epithet in the family of the Iulii [I 13-16]; first name of I. Antonius [II 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Saburra

(69 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] ( Saborra). Military commander of Juba [1] of Numidia, in 49 BC he helped to bring about the defeat of Caesar's governor C. Scribonius Curio, but was himself defeated and killed in 46 by the Caesarean P. Sittius (Caes. B Civ. 2,38-42; Bell. Afr. 48,1; 93,3; 95,1; App. B Civ. 2,181-186; 4,232; Frontin. Str. 2,5,40). For reasons of metre, Lucan (4,722) wrote Sabbura. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Cispius

(97 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Plebeian family name, historically first attested in the 1st cent. BC (ThlL, Onom. 460). According to later invention, a C. Laevius gave his name to the Cispius mons in the time of King Tullus Hostilius (Varro in Fest. p. 476). [German version] C., M. as people's tribune, called for Cicero's reappointment in 57 BC (Cic. Red. Sen. 21; Sest. 76). In 56 (?) he was accused of ambitus, defended by Cicero without success (Cic. Planc. 75f.) and went into exile. Perhaps he was a praetor under Caesar (ILLRP 383; MRR 2, 463). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Trigeminus

(15 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman Cognomen ('Triplet'), see Curiatius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 295.

Scipio

(36 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('gnarled stick, staff') in the Cornelii family (Cornelii [I 65-85] Scipiones); a representation of a staff was also used as the family emblem. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 19 f.; 91; 345.

Ravilla

(20 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('grey-eyed'), byname of L. Cassius [I 17] Longinus R. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 228.

Bellienus

(130 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman proper name (also Billienus; Schulze 429; ThlL 2,1816; 1989). [German version] [1] see Annius [I 10]  Annius I 10 B. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Billienus, C. Praetor around 107 BC praetor around AD 107 (MRR 1,551), then legate and praetor pro consule (of Asia?, IDélos 1710; 1854; cf. MRR 3,34f.). According to Cic. Brut. 175, he did not receive the office of consul towards the end of the 2nd cent. because of C.  Marius' superior position. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] B., L. Praetor 105 BC in Africa praetor in 105 BC in Africa (Sall. Lug.…

Axilla

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘armpit’) used by the Sempronii, older form of  Ahala (Cic. Orat. 153). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Isauricus

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Victory epithet (‘Victor of the Isauri’) of P.  Servilius Vatia (consul in 79 BC), bequeathed to his son P. Servilius I. (consul in 41). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Mallius

(209 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman gens name (in manuscripts commonly confused with Manlius and Manilius). [German version] [1] M. Maximus, Cn. Homo novus, consul in 105 BC Homo novus (Cic. Planc. 12), praetor at the latest in 108 BC, consul in 105 together with P. Rutilius Rufus. The war against the Cimbrians ( Cimbri) in the Rhone area was assigned to him. Because his predecessor, proconsul Q. Servilius Caepio, did not want to obey his supreme command and provoked the Cimbrians to attack, their two armies were severely beaten at Arausio; M. last…

Atilia

(38 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Daughter of an (Atilius) Serranus, first wife of M.  Porcius Cato (Uticensis), who separated from her in the early 60s BC (Plut. Cat. Min. 7,3; 24,6; family tree in [1. 333]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Münzer.

Arvina

(23 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (from arvina, ‘bacon’) in the families of the Cornelians and Papirians. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 91, 340.

Canuleia

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] According to Plutarch (Numa 10,1), one of the first Roman Vestals installed by king Numa. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Rutilus

(41 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('red haired') found in several noble families (Cornelii, Marcii, Nautii, Sempronii, Verginii) in the Republican Period. It became very common in the Imperial Period in the fuller form Rutilianus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 230.

Aviola

(23 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (from avis) used by the Acilii and the Calpurnii amongst other families (ThLL 2,1431). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Mus

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman Cognomen (‘Mouse’) in the family of the Decii (Decius [I 1-3]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 328.

Thorius

(234 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Th., Sp. People's tribune in the period after the death of C. Sempronius [I 11] Gracchus in 121 BC and author of an agrarian law (Agrarian laws) which brought to an end the work of the Gracchian commission for distributing the ager publicus . The identification and dating of the author and the precise content of the law are unclear: according to Cicero (Brut. 136, cf. De or. 2,284), T. freed the a ger publicus "from leasehold by means of a damaging and worthless law" or "with a lease by means of a damaging and worthless law". According to Appian (B C…

Cloelius

(386 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of a Roman patrician clan (also Cloulius, RRC 260, 332 and Cluilius) that was reputed to have moved to Rome (Liv. 1,30,2) after the destruction, by King Tullus Hostilius, of Alba Longa, of which a C.C. had sovereignty (Liv. 1,22,3f.). According to later tradition, the clan was descended from a companion of Aeneas (Fest. p. 48) and was accorded particular respect in the earliest Republic. The connection between this family and the bearers of this name in the later Republic is unclear. [German version] [1] Commander of the Volscians in 443 BC Commander of the Volscians in 443 BC, def…

Ovius

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Oscan praenomen, also a rare Roman family name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Salomies, 82 2 J. Reichmuth, Die lat. Gentilicia, 1956, 35 3 Schulze, 37; 202; 431f. 4 Walde/Hofmann 2, 229.

Laeca

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, perhaps of Etruscan origin, in the family of the Porcii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Schulze, 358.

Veiento

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, originally indicating origin (Veii); Fabricius [II 2] and Perperna [5]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 119; 189 f.

Merenda

(38 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Cognomen of M. Antonius [I 13] and among the Cornelii Cognomen of M. Antonius [I 13] and of the Cornelii family. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 340. [German version] [2] see Meals see Meals.

Laetorius

(319 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman family name of Etruscan origin [1. 187; 200; 205]. The gens is attested firmly from the end of the 4th cent. BC; 5th century bearers of the name are annalistic inventions (the people's tribune 471 BC: Liv. 2,56, 6-15; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 9,46,1-48,5). Originally plebeian, the family was patrician from the time of Caesar or Augustus (Suet. Aug. 5,1; [2. 89f.]). [German version] [1] L., C. Curule aedile in 216 BC Curule aedile in 216 BC, propraetor in Gaul in 209, legate in Greece (?) in 205, in Upper Italy in 200, Triumvir at the foundation of the colony in Croton in 194 (Liv. 34,45,4). Elvers,…

Genucius

(698 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of an old family, perhaps immigrants from Etruria [1. 456f.]. One of the leading families of plebeian nobility in the 4th and 3rd cents. BC: G. [9] occupied the office of consul immediately after it was opened up to plebeians (in 367/6), G. [1] belonged to the first plebeian augurs. The historicity of the patrician name-bearers of G. [5]-[7] is contested [2. 111; 3. 12f.]. The family died out at the end of the 3rd cent. BC. [German version] [1] G., C. One of the plebeian augurs 300 BC One of the first plebeian augurs appointed following the lex Ogulnia of 300 BC (Liv. 10,9,2). The cognomen Aug…

Hirtuleius, L.

(123 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Probably quaestor in 86 or 85 BC (introduction of the dual accounting system for debts under the lex Valeria, Cic. Font. 2), 79-75 BC proquaestor of the renegade Q.  Sertorius in Spain and his most capable officer. In 79 he defeated the governor M. Domitius [I 11] Calvinus at the Anas, in 78 the proconsul of Gallia Transalpina, L. Manlius (MRR 2, 83; 87). In 76 he was defeated by Q. Caecilius [I 31] Metellus Pius near Ilerda and fell shortly afterwards together with his brother near Segontia at the…

Braetius

(63 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman personal name (ThlL 2,2163). [German version] [1] B. Sura, Q. Legate in Macedonia, 87 BC Legate ( pro quaestore) of C.  Sentius Saturninus in Macedonia, successfully fought against Mithridates VI's troops in Boeotia in 87 BC (H. Gaebler, Die ant. Münzen v. Makedonia und Paionia 1, 1906, no. 225; name: IG IX 2,613; Plut. Sull. 11,6-8; App. Mith. 113-115). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Cynegius

(137 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] (Maternus Cynegius, ILS 1273). Probably born in Spain, Christian. Under  Theodosius I in AD 381 vicarius (?), 383 comes sacrarum largitionum, 383/ 384 quaestor sacri palatii. As praefectus praetorio Orientis 384-388, C. is said to have improved the state of the municipal curiae on behalf of the emperor (Lib. Or. 39,3). On two trips through the east of the empire (in 384 and 388) he intensively fought pagan religious practice (probably without explicit imperial permission) (Zos. 4,37; Chron. min. 1,244f. Mommsen) and in s…

Gallius

(186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Latin family name (Schulze 424), possibly originally denoting descent from a Gallus. [German version] [1] G., M. Supporter of M. Antonius 43 BC Praetor in 44 BC or earlier, served under M. Antonius at Mutina in 43 [I 9] and also fought against Octavian; in his will he adopted the later emperor Tiberius (Cic. Phil. 13,26; Suet. Tib. 6,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] G., Q. Defended by Cicero for bribing voters Aedilis plebis in 67 BC, held magnificent games in 66, as praetor he chaired the trial against C. Cornelius [I 2] in 65 and was probably s…

Cossus

(61 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen, maybe of Etruscan origin and probably initially a praenomen (Schulze, 158, 519; Kajanto, Cognomina 178). Nickname of one of the oldest branches of the Cornelii ( Cornelius [I 20-22]). Meaning as the nickname ‘woodworm’ is uncertain [1], in the early imperial period also a praenomen of some Cornelii Lentuli (Cornelius [II 26-27]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Walde/Hofmann 1,281

Dexter

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Widespread Roman cognomen in the families Afranius, Calpurnius, Cassius, Cestius, Claudius, Cornelius, Domitius, Egnatius, Nummius, Pomponius, Subrius, Turpilius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Rufillus

(44 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Fictitious Roman cognomen, affectionate form of Rufinus (as in Hor. Sat. 1,2,26 f.; cf. 1,4,92 for an overbred dandy). Rufilla was the name of an alleged lover of Octavianus (Augustus) (Suet. Aug. 69,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 27; 229.

Pansa

(78 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen; according to ancient tradition a reference to a ‘ flatfoot’ (Plaut. Merc. 640; Plin. HN 11,254; Quint. Inst. 1,4,25); very common in the Imperial period. Its most famous bearer was C. Vibius Pansa ( cos. in 43 BC); the addressee of Cato's [1] speech In Pansam is not known (ORF I4, fr. 205). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 261  Degrassi, FCap 147  Kajanto, Cognomina, 105; 241  H. Rix, Das etruskische Cognomen, 1963, 249f.  Schulze, 242; 365.

Chrysogonus

(69 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Influential freedman of Sulla (therefore his full name L. Cornelius C.), who enriched himself significantly during the Proscriptions. He had Sex. Roscius retroactively placed on the Proscription list for the purpose of acquiring his property for little money. According to Cicero that is why he backed the patricide trial of the victim's son, Sex.  Roscius in 80 BC (Cic. Rosc. Am. passim). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
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