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Tapae

(92 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Daci, Dacia Town at which L. Tettius [II 2] Iulianus was victorious over the Daci in 88/9 AD (Iord. Get. 10,12; Τάπαι, Cass. Dio 67,10,2; 68,8,1). It was from there that Trajan set out on his first campaign against the Daci in 101 AD. The identification of T. is uncertain (between Tibiscum and Sarmizegetusa or the 'Iron Gate'). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography J. Dobiáš, The History of Czechoslovacian Territory before the Appearance of the Slavs, 1964, 171 f., 176 (Czech).

Pathissus

(110 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] The biggest left-hand Sarmatian tributary of the Danube, the modern Tisa (Tisza, Theiß), which flows through the Ukraine, Romania, Slovakia, Hungary and Serbia and into the Danube near Acumincum (the modern Stari Slankamen) in Pannonia inferior (Plin. HN. 4,80; Parthiscus: Amm. Marc. 17,13,4; cf. Str. 7,5,2). The Latin name Tisia only appears in late-antique sources (cf. Iord. Get. 33). The river constituted a serious obstacle with its wide bed and its swampy environment. The area between the P. and the Danube was settled primar…

Oescus

(332 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Right bank tributary of the Danube in Moesia inferior Right bank tributary of the Danube in Moesia inferior (Plin. HN 3,149; Tab. Peut. 8,1: Escus; Hdt. 4,49: Σκίος/ Skíos; Thuc. 2,96,4: Ὄσκιος/ Óskios), modern Iskăr (Bulgaria). Burian, Jan (Prague) [German version] [2] Roman town This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia Roman town (Ptol. 3,10,10: Οἶσκος Τριβαλλῶν/ Oîskos Triballôn, cf. 8,11,6; Tab. Peut. 8,1: Escus), modern Gigen (Bulgaria), near the confluence of the O. [1] with the Danube. O. is to…

Anchiale

(384 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Ἀγχιάλη; Anchiálē). [German version] [1] Cretan nymph Cretan nymph, mother of the Idaan  Daktyloi Tities and Cyllenus (birth myth in Apoll. Rhod. 1,1129-31) and, as lover of Apollo, mother of Oaxes also, the founder of the Cretan city of Oaxus (Serv. ecl. 1,65). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] (Anchialos) City on the western coast of Pontus This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Christianity | Moesi, Moesia (Anchialus; Ἀγχίαλος; Anchíalos) City on the western coast of Pontus, present-day Pomorije, founded by and dependent on  Apollon…

Aquincum

(196 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce | Legio | Limes | Pannonia Originally a settlement of the  Aravisci; the military and administrative centre of  Pannonia inferior, on the right bank of the Danube, with camp and canabae (Ptol. 2,15,4; It. Ant. 254,7; Amm. Marc. 19,11,8; Not. Dign. occ. 33,54; Sidon. Apoll. Carm. 5,107), governor's residence of the beginning of the 2nd cent. AD; the modern Budapest, third district. In AD 124 municipium Aelium, AD 194 colonia Aelia Septimia. The legio II adiutrix was stationed here c. AD 114. Architectural …

Scordisci

(228 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Celtic tribe with Illyrian and Thracian elements. They originally settled in the northern central Balkans (Str. 7,5,12) - the 'Greater S.' to the east of the Noarus as far as the Margus [1] (modern Morava), and the 'Lesser S.' on the right bank of the latter. To the south the territory of the S. extended as far as the sources of the Margus. The precise boundaries of the tribal territory, however, are hard to ascertain; in the 1st cent. BC its nucleus was at the confluence of the Savus and the Danube. About the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC the S. and other Celtic tribes …

Breuci

(88 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Plin. HN 3,147; Suet. Tib. 9,2; Str. 7,5,3; Ptol. 2,15,3: Βρεῦκοι; Breûkoi). Illyrian tribe, settling in Pannonia Inferior along the lower reaches of the Save, subjugated by the Romans between 12 and 10 BC; the B. took part in the Pannonian revolt of AD 6 to 9. From then on, the B. were recruited as Roman auxiliaries -- eight cohortes Breucorum are attested for the imperial period. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography A. Graf, Übersicht der ant. Geogr. Pannoniens, 1938, 15 TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 40.

Maezaei

(189 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Μαιζαῖοι; Maizaîoi, Ptol. 2,16,5; Μαζαῖοι; Mazaîoi, Str. 7,5,3; Cass. Dio 55,32,4; Mazaei, Plin. HN 3,142; Maezei in inscriptions). Tribe to the north of Dalmatia near the Dalmatian-Pannonian border. According to Plin., Ptol. and Cass. Dio, it belonged to the Dalmatini, according to Str. to the Pannonii. The Pannonian origin of the M. is more probable although they were attached to the conventus Salonitanus (‘legal district of Salona’). Their extensive area was subjugated by the Romans in 12 BC. They formed a peregrine tribal district that was administered by a praef…

Marsonia

(83 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Fort and settlement in Pannonia inferior on the river Savus and on the road from Siscia to Sirmium, modern Slavonski Brod in Croatia. The road starting at Siscia bifurcated north of Marsonia; the northern branch led to Sirmium via Cibalae, the southern branch via Marsonia and Saldis. In late antiquity, auxilia ascarii are mentioned as the garrison of Marsonia (Not. Dign. Occ. 32,43). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography M. Fluss, s.v. M., RE 14, 1981 TIR L 34, Budapest, 1968, 78.

Mediolan(i)um

(673 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Et al.
(Μεδιολάν[ι]ον/ Mediolán[i]on). [German version] [1] Modern Milan This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Pilgrimage | Regio, regiones | Rome | Batavian Revolt The modern city of Milan. It was founded in the early 4th cent. BC by the Insubres (Liv. 5,34,9) at the juncture of several Alpine valleys in the Padus/Po plain (Pol. 2,34,10); in 222 BC, it was captured by Cn. Scipio; it was later to become the most important city of that region (Pol.…

Brigetio

(136 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Legio | Limes | Pannonia | Pertinax Important Roman settlement (1st -4th cent. AD; municipium, later colonia); legion camp on the right bank of the Danube in Pannonia inferior, now Szöny/Komárom (Hungary). The legio I adiutrix was stationed in B. As the counter fort Celamantia (now Iža/Komárne in Slovakia) on the left bank of the Danube, B. was a strong military base in the defence against the tribes settling beyond the Danube. In B. Emperor Valentinian I died in 375 du…

Savus

(81 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Σάουος; Sáouos). Right-hand tributary of the Danube in the south of  Pannonia (Plin. HN 3,128; 147 f.; Ptol. 2,16,1 f.; 3,9,1;  Str. 4,6,10; Geogr. Rav. 4,20), modern Sava (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia). In its middle and lower reaches it was navigable. On its banks there were important communications nodes (Neviodunum, Siscia, Sirmium, Singidunum). S. was also worshipped as a river deity (CIL III, 4009). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 33 Tergeste, 1961, 65  TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 100.

Lugio

(174 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Λουγίωνον; Lougíōnon, Ptol. 2,15,3; Lugione, It. Ant. 244; Tab. Peut. 6,1; Lucione, Cod. Iust. 9,20,10f.). Roman auxiliary fort in Pannonia inferior, modern Dunaszekcsö (in the Hungarian county of Baranya), in the post-Diocletian period Florentia. The camp was probably established under Domitian to protect the crossing of the Danube and the road junction situated in L. The first garrison was made up of the cohors II Asturum et Callaecorum and the cohors VII Breucorum. After the withdrawal of the cohors II Asturum (under Commodus), the cohors I Noricorum moved into…

Cibalae

(92 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia Important road junction in Pannonia inferior, modern Vinkovci (Croatia). Municipium since the time of Hadrian (CIL III 3267), colonia Aurelia from the 3rd cent. AD (CIL VI 2833). Monuments: remains of buildings, water pipes, thermae, graves, inscriptions, small finds. In AD 314 Licinius was defeated in a battle near C. by Constantine the Great (Eutr. 10,5; Zos. 2,18,4, also describing the location of C.). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 46f.

Brongus

(63 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Βρόγγος, Βάργος, Μάργος; Bróngos, Bárgos, Márgos). River in Moesia superior, rising on the eastern slope of the Scardus mountain range (Stara Planina) and flows into the Danube above Viminacium; now Morava (Hdt. 4,49; Str. 7,5,12; Ptol. 3,9,3; Eutr. 9,13). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography D. Dečev, Die thrak. Sprachreste, 1957, 90 Vl. Georgiev, La toponymie ancienne de la péninsule Balcanique, 1961, 33.

Tiarantus

(59 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Τιαραντός; Tiarantós). Left bank tributary of the Danube (Ister [1]), rising in the lands of the Scythae; smaller and turned farther westward than the Pyretus (Hdt. 4,48,2 f.), possibly identifiable with the modern Seret. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s. v. T., RE 6 A, 762  A. Corcella, in: S. M. Medaglia (ed.), Erodoto, Le Storie, 4, 1993, here 272 (with comm.).

Vetus Salina

(220 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman auxiliary fort and civilian settlement ( canabae and vicus) on the Aquincum - Intercisa - Altinum Limes road (Ptol. 2,16,4: Σαλίνον/ Salínon; It. Ant. 245,4: Vetus Salinae; Not. Dign. Occ. 33,16,37: Vetusalina; Tab. Peut. 5,4: Vetusalo; Geogr. Rav 220,8: Belsalino = Bet(u)salino?; CIL III 10305: ' cives Romani ad Vetussalinas consistentes'/"Roman citizens settled at VS"), modern Adony in the megye of Fejér in Hungary. Originally a wood-and-earth fort was built in VS (three building periods from the middle of the 1st cent. until the 12…

Naissus

(645 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: | Commerce | Moesi, Moesia | Pertinax | Pilgrimage [German version] I. Site; Roman period Municipium in Moesia Superior (or Dardania; Ναϊσσός/ Naïssos: Ptol. 3,4,9; Νάϊσ(σ)ος/ Náïs(s)os: Zos. 1,45,1; 3,11,1f.; Procop. Goth. 3,40,2; Ναϊσσούπολις/ Naïssoúpolis: Procop. Aed. 4,1,31; Naissus/ Naisus is the usual form in Latin sources; Naessus: Amm. Marc. 21,10,5), modern Niš in Serbia. Originally a Thracian settlement, which by the 1st cent. AD was evidently used by the Romans as an occasional base. Its indig…

Tibiscum

(216 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Daci, Dacia (Τιβίσκον/ Tibískon). Roman base in Dacia superior (Daci with map) on the upper Tibiscus (or Tibisia, modern Timiş), a left tributary of the Danube (Ister [1]; cf. Ptol. 3,8,10; 3,8,1; Iord. Get. 24,178; Geogr. Rav 4,14; 4,18; Tab. Peut. 7,4), modern Jupa (county of Caraş-Severin, Romania); on road from Viminacium via Lederata to Sarmizegetusa, where a road branched off to Dierna. In the camp of T., (320 m × 170 m) auxiliary units were stationed ( Cohors I Vindelicorum, Cohors I Sagittariorum, Num…

Bessapara

(91 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman settlement on the road from Serdica to Philippopolis (It. Ant. 136; Procop. Aed. 4,11 Βεσούπαρον; Besoúparon), modern Sinitovo/Pazardžik, southern Bulgaria. Flourished in the imperial age. Thanks to its location, it retained its supraregional importance throughout late antique and the early Byzantine period. Its fortifications date from the time of Justinian I. Greek inscriptions and votive reliefs. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography V. Velkov, Gradât v Trakija i Dakija prez kâsnata antičnost, 1959, 109 (Bulgarian with German resumé: …

Moesi, Moesia

(984 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Geography The members of a group of tribes of Thracian origin who lived in the northeastern part of the Balkan peninsula were referred to, in Greek, as Moisoí (Μοισοί), Mysoí (Μυσοί), and in Latin as M. or Moesae. Other tribes settled there as well, such as the Dardani, Triballi, Timachi and Skythae, who were later counted among the Moesicae gentes as inhabitants of the province of Moesia (Plin. HN 3,149; 4,3). After the territory of the Getae was incorporated into the province of Moesia inferior, its inhabitants as well were referred t…

Dinogetia

(177 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia (Δινογέτεια; Dinogéteia). Roman fortification in Moesia inferior (Scythia minor) on the right bank of the lower Danube in a strategically important location north of Troesmis near the delta, modern Garvăn, Tulcea in Romania. A pre-Roman Geto-Dacian settlement is attested. In the Roman period the town (πόλις in Ptol. 3,8,2; 10,1) represented a significant starting-point for travel along the Pyretus into the Scythian hinterland. In the…

Ulmetum

(106 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman vicus and fort, node of important roads in Moesia Inferior (Scythia Minor; Moesi), modern Pantelimon de Sus (district of Constanţa in Romania; Dobrugea). The vicus presumably came into being under Traianus [1] (there is evidence of magistri and principes loci). The population was ethnically mixed (Bessi, Romans and a number of Greeks). Destroyed by the Slavs, U. was rebuilt by Iustinianus [1] I (Procop. Aed. 4,7,17). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography E. Popescu, Inscriptiones intra fines Dacoromaniae repertae, 1976, 213 ff. A. G. Poulter, Rural Communi…

Daci, Dacia

(1,413 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Kramer, Johannes (Trier)
(Roman province of Dacia). [German version] A. Origins The Dacian group of tribes originally settled an extensive territory north of the lower Danube; in the west it reached to the Pathisus (Theiss), in the east possibly to the Hierasus (Sireth) or the Pyretus (Pruth); it was bordered to the north by the crescent of the Carpathians. The D. were a Thracian people. The location of their settlements enabled them to enter into various kinds of relations with neighbouring peoples, e.g. the Scythians and Gepi…

Marcianopolis

(322 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Moesi, Moesia | Rome City founded by Trajan and named after his sister Marcia (cf. Zos.1,42,1; 4,10,3; Greek authors call it Μαρκιανούπολις; Markianoúpolis. M., modern Reka Devnia in north east Bulgaria, about 20 km west of Odessos, today's Warna, was the administrative centre of Moesia inferior. M. was a junction of strategically important roads: from Constantinople to Durostorum, from Odessus to Nicopolis (modern Nikiup) and from M. to Noviodunum (Amm. Marc. 27,5,6, modern Babadag). Under Commodus M. w…

Bononia

(430 words)

Author(s): Susini, Giancarlo (Bologna) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Now Bologna This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Villanova Culture | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Italy, languages | Colonization | Regio, regiones | Batavian Revolt Now Bologna. Villanova Culture settlement on the Reno, above an earlier Late Bronze Age settlement, then an Etruscan city (mythological founder Ocnus: Serv. Aen. 10,198; Sil. Pun. 8,600), called Felsina (Plin. HN 3,115); necropolises, abundant production of steles. Important Celtic centre,…

Aravisci, Eravisci

(111 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the north of  Pannonia inferior (Plin. HN 3,148; Tac. Germ. 28); today the communities of Pest, Fejér and Tolna. Under Roman rule a   civitas (CIL III 10418; AE 1951, 15) governed by native principes (CIL III 3546). Used as auxiliary troops (AE 1944, 102; CIL XVI 112; 123); scarcely romanized. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography A. Graf, Übersicht der ant. Geogr. von Pannonien, 1936, 29 M. Pavan, La provincia romana della Pannonia Superior, in: Atti della Academia Nazionale dei Lincei 1955, Vol. 8/6, 427, 483, 502 f. A. Mócsy, Die Bevölkerung von Panno…

Tricciana

(68 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman fort ( beneficiarii station?, approximately 296 m × 268 m) in Pannonia Inferior, station on the Sirmium - Carnuntum road (It. Ant. 267,7), modern Ságvár (megye of Somogy in Hungary). Finds of terra sigillata, cemetery (also with Christian burials). T. was still of significance in the 4th cent. AD. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 113  A. Moćsy, Pannonia and Upper Moesia, 1974, 305 f.

Transaquincum

(90 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Small fort, probably originating under Commodus (Not. Dign. Occ. 33,65: Transiacinco), on the left bank of the Danube (Ister [1]), linked by means of a wooden bridge with Aquincum in the province of Pannonia inferior, now near Budapest-Rákospatak. Remains of buildings, a statue of Victoria, inscriptions, tiles of the legio IV Flavia and legio II Adiutrix are preserved. In the 4th cent. AD the seat of a praef. legionis. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 32 Budapest, 1968, 112 f.  Z. Visy, Der pannonische Limes in Ungarn, 1988, 84 f.

Mursella

(108 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Small town in Pannonia superior Small town in Pannonia superior, probably modern Kisárpás (district of Sopron-Csorna, Hungary), on the Savaria-Arrabona road, a municipium from the reign of Hadrian (?) (CIL III 4490). Burian, Jan (Prague) [German version] [2] Municipium in Pannonia inferior This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia Municipium in Pannonia inferior, modern Petrijevci (district of Osijek, Croatia), on the Poetovio-Mursa road, north west of Mursa. Military base, checkpoint (Itin. Burdigalense 562: mutatio Mersella). Burian, Jan (…

Surveyors

(545 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Marking out  fields or extensive farmlands, cities, temple districts and military camps and determining the directions of roads, aqueducts, etc., presupposed a number of measuring tasks which were carried out by technically trained surveyors. In Roman sources, from which our only  knowledge of the variety of problems of this specific discipline comes, these workers were termed, e.g. mensores ( agrorum), agrimensores, metatores, finitores and gromatici. The last term is derived from groma , the bearing apparatus used for measuring ta…

Zaldapa

(133 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Ζάλδαπα/ Záldapa). Late Roman and early Byzantine settlement and fort (Iohannes Antiochenus FHG 4,32; Procop. Aed. 4,11,20; name probably Thracian) in Moesia inferior (Scythia minor). Formerly identified with Abrit(t)us, today Z. is equated with modern Abtaat to the southwest of Tropaeum Traiani (modern Adamclisi). There were road connections with Tropaeum Traiani, Scopis, Durostorum and Tomis. Z. was the birth-place of Vitalianus, a usurper against Anastasius [1] I. Towards the end of the 6th cent., the settlement was destroyed by Avari and Slavs. Burian, Jan…
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