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(252 words)

Author(s): Christes, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (γραμματικός; grammatikós). The profession of the grammaticus formed in the course of the 3rd cent. BC. These teachers taught the children of the upper citizenry. The grammaticus took over from the elementary teacher ( grammatistḗs/ grammatodidáskalos) the children of the well-to-do, in order to lay the foundations for a rhetorical education by means of language and literature lessons [1. 235-257]. In Rome the custom developed after the adoption of Greek education in the 2nd cent. BC ─ Roman education was bilingual from then on ─ to first visit the grammaticus Graecu…


(2,458 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Christes, Johannes (Berlin) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, derived from the first name Lucius [II], widespread from the 2nd cent. BC onwards. The satirical poet L. is the best-known of them. [I 6]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] A friend of M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus, who wanted to protect the latter in 42 BC at Philippi by pretending to be him (App. B Civ. 4,542-545). After that he followed M. Antonius [I 9] with similar loyalty until they both died in the year 30. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] L., Sex. People's tribune 87 BC, thrown from the Tarpeian rock beca…

Enkyklios paideia

(1,074 words)

Author(s): Christes, Johannes (Berlin)
(ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία; enkýklios paideía). [German version] A. Term The term enkýklios paideía (and similar ones, e.g., enkýklia mathḗmata/ paideúmata) is only attested since c. 50 BC [1. 370-375; 2. 6-18; 3. 263-293]. Diogenes Laertios (2,79; 7,32) and Stobaeus (2,206,26-28; 3,246,1-5) seemingly ascribe the expression to Hellenistic philosophers, but perhaps it was only an attempt to provide ancestry for their own terminology (contrary [2. 6f.]). That the concept of e.p. originally supposedly described the musical training acquired by Attic citizens united in …

Artes liberales

(1,177 words)

Author(s): Christes, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] A. Concept Artes liberales (AL) is the expression that became canonical in late antiquity for a curriculum of educational subjects, the study of which befitted the rank of a freeman. Cassiod. Inst. 2 praef. 3-4 and Isid. Orig. 1,4,2 no longer understand this derivation; they derive liberalis from liber, book. Essentially, it involves adopting the Greek ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία (  enkyklios paideia ) [1. 366-375; 2. 3-18]. For the time being there was no set name [3. 196-206]. The expression AL, evidence of which was first fou…


(4,451 words)

Author(s): Christes, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] A. Concept Education is understood here as the act of imparting techniques and skills, also as the shaping of morals, character, and mental development ─ in short: ‘the sum total of a society's reaction to development’ [1. 13] ─ whereby the growing human being is ‘raised’ to take his/her place in the world of adults. The concept of education differs from the concept of ‘socialization’ in that ‘the decisive criterion of education lies in the fact that the process is intentional’ (E. …

Seven Sages

(413 words)

Author(s): Christes, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] Plato (Prot. 343a) is the first to mention seven names. Of those Thales of Miletus, Pittacus of Mytilene, Bias [2] of Priene and Solon [1] of Athens firmly belong to the circle of the SS (οἱ ἑπτὰ σοφοί/ heptà sophoí; Latin septem sapientes), whereas Cleobulus [1] of Lindus, Myson of Chen and Chilon [1] of Sparta compete with altogether ten others (primarily Pythagoras [2]) (Diog. Laert. 1,40-42). In contrast to Plato, Demetrius [4] of Phalerum (10,3 DK) replaces Myson with Periander of Corinth. With this the final catalog…

Education / Culture

(3,700 words)

Author(s): Christes, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] A. Term On one hand, the Greek term  παιδεία ( paideía), like παίδευσις ( paídeusis; Aristoph. Nub. 986,1043), describes an  education that comprises both intellectual and ethical teaching as a process (Aristoph. Nub. 961; Thuc. 2,39,1), but on the other hand also education as an asset and as the result of the teaching process (Democr. 180; Pl. Prt. 327d; Grg. 470e; Resp. 378e; Aristot. Pol. 1338a30). Today, a distinction is usually made between education = teaching by means of theoretical ins…


(224 words)

Author(s): Christes, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (παιδονόμοι; paidonómoi, lit. 'guardians of boys'). The Greek office of the paidonómos was regarded by Aristotle (Pol. 1300a 4-6) as a specifically aristocratic one. It presupposes a state education. In Sparta (Xen. Lac. 2,2; Plut. Lycurgus 17,2,50d) and on Crete (Ephorus FGrH 70 F 149), the paidonómoi acted as inspectors, supervising the education ( agōgḗ ) of boys between the ages of 7 and 20 [1. 2387; 2. 60-63, 201 n. 8]. Aristotle argues (Pol. 1336a 30-41) that their competence should be extended to pre-school c…


(724 words)

Author(s): Christes, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (παιδεία; paideía). Disregarding Sparta ( agōgḗ ), paideia, along with paídeusis (παίδευσις), is the main Greek term for the education (Education / Culture and Education) of a child ( paîs, παῖς) and above all of a young person, which is why paideia also means 'childhood', 'youth'. It therefore refers both to the process of raising and educating and to the result, the education, and as such to the asset of the adult that cannot be lost. In Aesch. Sept. 18, paideia is not distinguished from trophḗ ('rearing'), but in general it is understood as something that must …


(3,376 words)

Author(s): Christes, Johannes (Berlin) | R.BAU.
[German version] I. Ancient Near East See Scribes Christes, Johannes (Berlin) II. Greece [German version] A. Terminology The Greek language had no actual term for the school as educational institution. Although the English word 'school' is a loan-word from Greek, the word σχολή/ scholḗ (s. addenda) at first meant 'free time', and only came to denote what we understand as a school by way of the Latin schola . The expression didaskaleîon denoted not the institution but the building in which children were taught (at first choral singing; Antiph. 6,11; Thuc. 7,29; Pl. …


(360 words)

Author(s): Christes, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (παιδαγωγός/ paidagōgós, Latin paedagogus). A household slave of low standing (Pl. Alc. 1,122b; Pl. Ly. 223a-b) who was the attendant of a school-aged child, first attested for the year 480 BC (Hdt. 8,75). Images on vases and terracotta depict him as a bald foreigner with a shaggy beard and a stick [1. 28ff.]. He was constantly with the child and protected it from danger. He taught it proper conduct and good manners; some paidagog also supervised the home-work [2. 276, 282; 3. 75]. In Rome in the course of acquiring a Greek education (C. 2.) a slave was chosen to be paidadgo…


(206 words)

Author(s): Christes, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (παιδοτρίβης/ paidotríbēs, 'boy-trainer'). Paidotríbai were originally (beginnings hard to date [1. 96]; first in Aristoph. Nub. 973f.; a 'Solonic' law in Aeschin. 1,12) responsible for the sports training of boys in the palaístra (wrestling-school, sports grounds). From the time of Plato onward palaístrai are recorded that are named after their paidotríbai. Employed in gymnasia [1. 247; 2. 2389f.] they may also have trained professional athletes [2. 2390]. On the distinction from teachers of gymnastic exercises ( gymnastḗs) and teachers of athletes ( aleíp…