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Timoclea

(73 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Τιμόκλεια; Timókleia). Sister of the Theban general Theagenes [3]. During the Macedonian sacking of Thebes (in 335 BC) she was attacked in her house and raped, but was ultimately able to outwit and kill the perpetrator. Impressed by her courage, her dignity and her pride, Alexander [4] the Great refrained from convicting her (Plut. Alexandros 12; Plut. Mor. 259d-260d; Polyaenus, Strat. 8,40). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Berve 2, Nr. 751.

Telliads

(26 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Τελλιάδαι; Telliádai). Family of seers in Elis (Hdt. 9,37). Hegesistratus [2] and Tellias are known by name (Hdt. 8,27,3-4). Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Keryx

(287 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (κῆρυξ/ kêryx, ‘crier’, herald). Sometimes synonymous with ἄγγελος ( ángelos) or πρεσβευτής ( presbeutḗs), without any strict distinction. The functions of the kêryx encompass political, diplomatic, judicial and ritual matters (cf. Poll. 8,103). In the Homeric age kḗrykes appear as heralds of basileús as well as servers in sacrificial rites (Hom. Il. 1,320-336; 3,116-120). The high regard in which they were held apparently dates back to the Mycenaean age (Linear B ka-ru-ke) [1; 2]. With the development of the polis authorities, the kêryx increasingly took on th…

Theagenes

(873 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Et al.
(Θεαγένης/ Theagénēs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Megara, 7th cent. BC Tyrant of Megara [2] in the last quarter of the 7th cent. BC; he probably descended from a noble family and maintained hospitality with aristocrats all over Greece. According to a later tradition, when he seized power, he is said to have won the people's confidence in his fight against the city's landowners (by slaughtering their flocks: Aristot. Pol. 5,1305a 21-26) and to have been granted a body guard by the assembly (Aristot. Rh.…

Timarchus

(555 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Τίμαρχος/ Tímarchos). [German version] [1] Athenian from Sphettus, politician, 4th cent. BC Son of Arizelus from the demos of Sphettus, Athenian politician in the 4th cent. BC who held several offices from 361/0 on (member of the council and of the financial office, legate). The speech of Aeschines [2] (who was about the same age as T.) of 345 in which he defended against a parapresbeías graphḗ filed by T. was directed against T., who was a follower of Demosthenes [2] and an adherent of pronounced anti-Macedonian politics. The accusatio…

Iphicrates

(278 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἰφικράτης; Iphikrátēs). Son of Timotheus, an Athenian from Rhamnous, and an important general in the first half of the 4th cent. BC. In the Corinthian War, I. achieved prominence by creating a powerful corps of peltasts with which he operated in the Peloponnese between 393 and 390 and annihilated a Spartan   mora near Corinth (Xen. Hell. 4,5,11-18; Diod. Sic. 14,91,2; 15,44; Nep. Iphicrates 1). As commander he was victorious at the Hellespont against  Anaxibius in 389 BC (Xen. Hell. 4,8,34-39). Following the  Ki…

Nicon

(255 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(Νίκων; Níkōn). [German version] [1] Theban military leader, 413 BC Theban leader of 300 Boeotian hoplites who, together with some Spartan units, crossed over to Sicily in 413 BC in order to defend Syracuse (Thuc. 7,19,3). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Comedy writer, 4th/3rd cent. BC Comedy writer of the 4th or 3rd cent. BC; there is a preserved fragment of a play Kitharōdós, in which apparently the direct speech of a non-Greek slave is quoted (fr. 1). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG 7, 1989, 38. [German version] [3] Co-founder of the anti-Roman alliance of…

Pelopidas

(407 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Πελοπίδας; Pelopídas). Distinguished Theban, son of Hippocles, after to Epaminondas the outstanding commander and politician of the Boeotian League during the Theban hegemony (Boeotia, Boeotians with map). In 382 BC, P. was a young man: his year of birth was therefore probably around 410. As a supporter of the democratic faction of Ismenias [1], he fled to Athens after the Spartan occupation of the Kadmeia (Thebes), from where he apparently organized the resistance to the regime of Leontiades [2] (Plut. Pe…

Leobotes

(65 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] [1] see Labotas see Labotas Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian, 5th cent. BC (Λεωβώτης; Leōbṓtēs). Athenian of the Alcmaeonid family; around 467/6 BC he issued an eisangelia against the already banished Themistocles ( Eisangelia ) because of high treason and achieved his conviction (Plut. Themistocles 23; Plut. Mor. 605E; Craterus FGrH 342 F 11). Davies 9688,XII. Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Phyllidas

(98 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Φυλλίδας/ Phyllídas, also Φιλλίδας/ Phillídas). Theban, in 379 BC scribe of the polemarch Archias [3]. He established contact with exiled Thebans around Melon and Pelopidas in Athens and made the necessary preparations for an attempt on Archias' life. Xenophon (Xen. Hell. 5,4,2-9) also ascribes to P. the murder of Leontiades [2] (but see Plut. Pelopidas 7-11; Plut. Mor. 577b-d; 588b; 594d; 596; 598). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography R. J. Buck, Boiotia and the Boiotian League, 1994, 72-78  J. DeVoto, The Liberation of Thebes in 379/8 BC, in: R.F. Sutton (ed.), Stu…

Philomelus

(290 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Φιλόμηλος; Philómēlos). [German version] [1] Son of Iasion and Demeter Son of Iasion and Demeter, brother of the wealthy Pluto (different Hes. Theog. 969f.) and father of Pareas, the founder of Parium (but Parios, son of Iasion, is more frequently named as the founder). P. lived in extreme poverty and was regarded as the inventor of the wagon, which he harnessed to two oxen. In recognition of his ingenuity his mother placed him amongst the stars as Bootes (Petellides of Knossos in Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,4, s. FHG 4, p. 472). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Leader of the Phocian League S…

Peisander

(929 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Πείσανδρος/ Peísandros). [German version] [1] Son of Maimalus Son of Maimalus, general under Achilles [1], best spear-fighter of the Myrmidones after Patroclus [1] (Hom. Il. 16,193ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Antimachus Son of Antimachus [1], brother of Hippolochus, killed by Agamemnon because his father had advised killing  Menelaus [1] in Troy when he had been sent into the city on embassy (Hom. Il. 11,122ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan killed by Menelaus in single combat Trojan, killed by Menelaus [1] in single…

Oenobius

(54 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (ᾨνόβιος/ Ōinóbios). Athenian from the dḗmos of Decelea. In the year 410/409 B.C. he was in Thrace as a strategos (IG I3 101, l. 47). O. is probably identical to the person who requested  in the year 404/3 that Thucydides be recalled (Paus. 1,23,9). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Develin, 2191  PA 11357.

Olympiodorus

(850 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Brisson, Luc (Paris)
(Ὀλυμπιόδωρος; Olympiódōros). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (end of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian, managed between 307 and 301 BC to induce Aetolia to enter into an alliance against Cassander and to relieve Elatea (Paus. 1,26,3; 10,18,7; 34,3). Although Demetrius [2] Poliorketes twice illegally appointed him (in 294/3 and 293/2) as eponymous árchōn (Dion. Hal. De Dinarcho 9; IG II2 378 = [1. D 70]; IG II2 389 and SEG 21,354; IG II2 649 = [2. 7f.]; Agora 16, 167; [3. 124 No. 9]; cf. in general Plut. Demetrius 34), O., when Athens seceded from Demetrius in 2…

Maeandrius

(177 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μαιάνδριος; Maiándrios). [German version] [1] M. of Samos Tyrant of Samos, 6th cent. BC Confidant of the tyrant Polycrates, conducted negotiations with the Persian satrap Oroetes (Hdt. 3,123; cf. Lucian. Charidemus 14) for him. After the death of Polycrates, M. himself managed to become tyrant in about 521 BC but soon had to give way to Syloson, who was appointed by the Persians (Hdt. 3,142-6). He fled to Sparta but was expelled from the country by the ephors because of his wealth (Hdt. 3,148; Plut. Mor. 224a-b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. Roisman, M. of Samos, in: Historia …

Themison

(339 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Θεμίσων; Themísōn). [German version] [1] Tyrant from Eretria [1], 4th cent. BC Tyrant of Eretria [1], who occupied Oropus in 366 BC with some of the town’s exiles. The people controlling the operation were based in Thebes, and assistance also came from there in order to fend off an Athenian counter-attack. After an arbitration tribunal the pólis went to the Thebans, who maintained T.’s regime (Diod. Sic. 15,76,1; Dem. Or. 18,99; Xen. Hell. 7,4,1). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. Buckler, The Theban Hegemony, 1980, 193 f. [German version] [2] Th. from Laodicea Greek doctor, …

Tagos

(144 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (ταγός; tagós). Tagos (etymologically from táxis, cf. German Herzog) is usually seen as an elected (originally for life, later in the event of war: IG IX 2,257) highest official of the Thessalian League [1. 237-249; 2]. The effect of the dominance of the noble 'clans' (Aleuadae; Echecratidae; Scopadae) in the 5th cent. BC was that the office of tageía lost its significance [3. 125-127]; under Iason [2] the office temporarily gained a new prestige [5]. Recent studies, in contrast, see tagos as a genuinely local official (the official term for a high office instead being a…

Timosthenes

(347 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(Τιμοσθένης/ Timosthénēs). [German version] [1] Of Euboea, c. 300 BC Son of Demophanes from Carystus [1] in Euboea. After his homeland had joined the anti-Macedonian alliance, he was actively involved in fighting in the Lamian War. In 306/5 BC he was honoured in Athens for his services (Syll.3 327). A commendation of his grandson as late as the year 229/28 recalls his commitment (Syll.3 496,23-24). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] From Rhodes, naval commander and geographical author, 3rd cent. BC T. from Rhodes, naval commander of Ptolemaeus [3] II, author of a wor…

Oxythemis

(75 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ὀξύθεμις/ Oxýthemis) from Larisa. Close confidant of Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes (Phylarchus FGrH 81 F 12), awarded citizenship and cultic honours after the liberation of Athens from Macedonian occupation in 307 BC (IG II2 558; cf. Demochares FGrH 75 F 1). In 289 he led negotiations for Demetrius with Agathocles [2] (Diod. 21,15f.). Antigonus [2] had him executed (Ath. 578b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Ch. Habicht, Gottmenschentum und griechische Städte, 1956, 55-58  Id., Athen, 1995, 87.

Neogenes

(42 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Νεογένης/ Neogénēs) from Euboea. In about 378/7 BC with the help of Iason [2] of Pherae he established a tyranny in Histiaea, but was expelled soon after by the population with Spartan help (Diod. Sic. 15,30,3f.). Beck, Hans (Cologne)
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