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Birth Control

(1,916 words)

Author(s): Stolz, Fritz | Reiter, Johannes | Badry, Roswitha
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Ethics – III. Islam I. Religious Studies The notion that birth can be understood, not as a “natural” but a “cultural” process includes, among other things, what we today call birth control. Whether and how a child is accepted into the framework of human society is, thus, not least the object of a – both socially (or religiously) and individually determined…

Libya

(929 words)

Author(s): Badry, Roswitha
[German Version] (Arab. Lībiyā, based on the Italian or Greek name, possibly from Egypt. Libu, the name of a North African tribe), official name (since 1986) “Great Socialist Libyan Arabic People's Jamahiriya” (Arab. al-Ğamāhīrīya al-ʿArabīya al-Lībīya aš-Šaʿbīya al-Ištirākīya al-ʿUẓmā), is the easternmost of the four Maghreb states and has a relatively homogeneous native population of roughly five million (approx. 90% Arabs and Arabized Berbers, over 95% of whom are Sunnis of the Maliki school of jurisprudence). Ibadis (Ḫāriğites; …

Politics

(7,247 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert | Hutter, Manfred | Schieder, Rolf | Thiemann, Ronald | Badry, Roswitha | Et al.
[German Version] I. Social Sciences Since its Greek origins, politics has meant (a) an action with a specific object, aiming to achieve the best way for all the inhabitants of the ancient city-state ( pólis) to live together and hence achieve the common good of the ¶ community ( koinón), and (b) the theory of this action (Sellin; see also Political science). Given that we no longer live in small urban societies but in large, open, and functionally complex societies (Society), politics includes – but cannot be limited to – the system of state g…

Journals, Religious

(4,530 words)

Author(s): Hübinger, Gangolf | Mürmel, Heinz | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Felmy, Karl Christian | Schwarz, Johannes Valentin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religio-Cultural Journals – II. Journals of Religious Studies – III. Christianity – IV. Judaism – V. Islam I. Religio-Cultural Journals During the second half of the 19th century, the publication of German-language journals experienced a tremendous upsurge. While the year 1890 saw the publication of 3,203 individual titles, the number had grown to 5,231 by the year 1900 and to 6,689 by 1914. Journals became the preferred medium in academia and culture. In the field of theology, the proportion …