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Nehemia

(284 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
(Νεεμιας, hebräisch Nehæmjāh). [English version] I. Altes Testament Nach dem gleichnamigen Buch, in dem die sog. “N.-Denkschrift” in Neh 1-7 und 11-13 gesch. Grundlage ist, Mundschenk des pers. Großkönigs (Neh 1,11); kam im Auftrag Artaxerxes' [1] I. im J. 445 v.Chr. (Neh 1,1; 2,1ff.) nach Jerusalem und ließ dort gegen Widerstände (z.B. Esr 4,8ff.) in nur 52 Tagen (Neh 6,15) die von Nebukadnezar II. zerstörten Mauern neu errichten. Nach Art eines Synoikismos regelte er die Besiedlung von Jerusalem (Neh …

Dibon

(111 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[English version] Das Dorf Ḏı̄bān, 4 km nördl. des Arnon, hat den Namen des in der Nähe gelegenen ant. D. bewahrt, das von den israelitischen Stämmen Gad (Nm 32,34) bzw. Ruben (Jos 13,17) beansprucht wurde. Der Ort, in dem eine Steleninschr. des Moabiterkönigs Meša (TUAT 1, 646-650) gefunden wurde (vgl. 2 Kg 3,4), war seit dem 9. Jh.v.Chr. moabitisch (Nm 21,30; Is 15,2; Jer 48,18; 22). Von frühbrz. Spuren abgesehen, haben Ausgrabungen eine eisenzeitliche Besiedlung ergeben, deren Wohnarchitektur durch nabatä., röm. und byz. Überbauungen weitgehend zerstört ist. …

Arad

(102 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[English version] Platz im östl. Negev (Nm 21,1; 33,40; Jos 12,14; Ri 1,16), außerbiblisch in einer Ortsliste des Pharao Schoschenk (ca. 920 v. Chr.) erwähnt; war zunächst von ca. 3000-2650 v. Chr. besiedelt. Auf dem Tell entstand im 9. Jh. v. Chr. eine wiederholt zerstörte Festung mit Heiligtum. Im 1. Jh. v. Chr. gehörte ein röm. Fort zum herodianischen Limes Palaestinae. A. ist ein bedeutender Fundort für Ostraka mit hebr. und aram. Inschriften. Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin) Bibliography Y. Aharoni, Arad Inscriptions, 1981  Z. Herzog, M. Aharoni, A. F. Rainey, S. Moshkovitz, The Israelit…

Rhaphia

(140 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[English version] (Ῥαφία; äg. Rpḥ, akkadisch Rapiḫu). Zuerst in äg. Städtelisten des 2. Jt. v. Chr. erwähnt, sö von Gaza bei Ḫirbat Bir Rafaḥ zu suchen. Hier kam es zur ersten Auseinandersetzung zw. Assyrern und Ägyptern, als 720 v. Chr. Ḫanūnu von Gaza mit äg. Unterstützung erfolglos gegen Sargon II. kämpfte. 217 v. Chr. errang Ptolemaios [7] IV. Philopator bei Rh. einen Sieg über Antiochos [5] III. (Pol. 5,82-86; 3 Makk 1,4), der seinerseits 200 v. Chr. die seleukidische Herrschaft begründete und 193 v. Chr. durch…

Samaria, Samaritaner

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger | Zangenberg, Jürgen
[English version] I. Samaria (Hebr. Šomron, LXX Σαμάρεια/ Samáreia), seit Omri (882-871 v. Chr.; Juda und Israel) Regierungssitz der Könige des Nordreichs Israel. Die neu erschlossene Stadt, deren Name (Wurzel šmr, “bewachen”, “schützen”; “Wartburg”) auf ihre strategische Lage hinweist, war nicht, wie oft vermutet, ein kanaanäischer Stadtstaat neben Jesreel als dem israelitischen Zentrum. S. war Residenzstadt Israels, Jesreel königlicher Grundbesitz. Wie aus assyrischen und at. Texten hervorgeht, hatten seit Adad-nirārī III. (811-781 v. Chr.) die Herrsc…

Philister

(433 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[English version] (hebräisch plištīm; LXX Φιλιστιείμ, Gn 10,14 u.ö.; Ἀλλόφυλοι, 1 Chr 14,10 u.ö.; Vulgata Philistim). Im AT die Bewohner einer Pentapolis mit den Städten Gaza, Askalon, Asdod, Ekron und Gat in der südl. Küstenebene östl. des Mittelmeeres (Palaestina). Zum ersten Mal bezeugt sind sie als prst/ pw-r-s­-ṯ im Zusammenhang einer See- und Landschlacht 1177 v.Chr. in Inschr. und Reliefs des Totentempels Ramses' III. in Madinat Hābū (Theben-West) neben anderen Gruppen der sog. Seevölker (Seevölkerwanderung) [4. 53-112]. Seit Mitte…

Salomo

(359 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[English version] I. Altes Testament S. (hebr. Šelomō, wörtl. “sein Friede” oder “sein Ersatz”). Thronfolger Davids [1] (2 Sam 9-1 Kg 2) im 2. Drittel des 10. Jh. v. Chr. Seine 40jährige Regierungszeit (1 Kg 11,42, vgl. 1 Kg 2,11) ist eine ideelle Dauer. Sie resultiert aus der Würdigung des Weisen und Tempelerbauers (1 Kg 3,6-8, vgl. Sir 47,12-18). Kritik gilt seinen Altarbauten für fremde Gottheiten (1 Kg 11,1-13) und der Einführung von Zwangsarbeit (1 Kg 5,27-32). Die Erzählungen über S. (1 Kg 3-11) …

Ezra

(666 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin) | Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Priest A priest (Ezra 7,1-5; 7,12), who, on behalf of the Persian high king  Cyrus II, promulgated a legal code that was binding for the members of the Jerusalem cult (Ezra 7). According to theological history, E. came to Jerusalem in 458 or 398 BC with authority for the temple (Ezra 7:7), solved the problem of mixed marriages there (Ezra 9f.) and later gave a definitive reading of the Torah (Neh 8-10). The description ‘E. the scribe’ (Ezra 7:11; Neh 8:1 et passim) resulted in E…

Ioppe

(125 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Diadochi and Epigoni | Commerce | Hasmonaeans | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pompeius (Egyptian ypw, Assyrian yāpu, yappû, Hebrew yāpô ‘be beautiful’), Greek or Latin name for the modern Jaffa south of Tel Aviv. A place of settlement from the 2nd millennium BC to the Hellenistic-Roman period, I. is the only location in Palestine ( Palaestina) of a Greek myth. It is in I. that Perseus rescued  Andromeda who had been left at the mercy of a sea-monster (Ov. Me…

Samaria, Samaritans

(1,265 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin) | Zangenberg, Jürgen
[German version] I. Samaria (Hebrew Šomron, LXX Σαμάρεια/ Samáreia), seat of government of the kings of the Northern Kingdom of Israel from the reign of Omri (882-871 BC; Judah and Israel). The newly-founded city, whose name (root šmr, 'to guard, protect; watch-tower') refers to its strategic location, was not, as is often assumed, a Canaanite city-state alongside Jezreel as the Israelite centre. S. was the Israelite royal seat, and Jezreel a royal demesne. As is evident from Assyrian and OT texts, the rulers of S. were compelled to deliver tribute to the Assyrians b…

Beisan

(211 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | Zenobia | Hasmonaeans (Besan). 25 km south of Lake Galilee (Lake Tiberias) on the Tall al-Ḥiṣn; the ancient city was settled from Chalcolithic time to the Crusades. The Arabic name is derived from the Hebrew bēt-šean (Egyptian btsr, Cuneiform script Bı̄tšāni). Owing to its strategic and economic significance, B. became a military and administrative centre for Egyptian Asian policy from the 15th cent. to the middle of the 12th cent. BC. It was the only city in Israel to…

Dibon

(134 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] The village of Dhiban, 4 km north of the Arnon, has retained the name of the nearby Dibon of antiquity, one claimed by two of the Israelite tribes: Gad (Num. 32,34) and Ruben (Josh. 13,17). A stele, the Moabite Stone, with an inscription of Mesha king of Moab (TUAT 1, 646-650; cf. 2 Kg. 3,4), was found here in 1868, confirming it as Moabite from the 9th cent. BC (Num. 21,30; Isa. 15,2; Jer. 48,18; 22). Apart from some remains of the Early Bronze Age, excavations revealed an Iron …

Philistines

(518 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] (Hebrew plištīm; LXX Φιλιστιείμ/ Philistieím, Gn 10:14 et alibi; Ἀλλόφυλοι/ Allóphyloi, 1 Chr 14:10 et alibi; Vulgate Philistim). In the Old Testament the inhabitants of a pentapolis with the cities of Gaza, Ascalon, Ashdod, Ekron and Gath in the southern coastal plain east of the Mediterranean Sea (Palaestina). They are attested for the first time as prst/ pw-r-s­-ṯ in the context of a sea and land battle in 1177 BC in inscriptions and reliefs from the mortuary temple of Ramesses III in Madinat Hābū (western Thebes) along with other…

Tyrus

(942 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Writing | Syria | Christianity | Zenobia | Coloniae | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | Commerce | Hasmonaeans | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Mesopotamia | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Rome | Aegean Koine (Tyre. Phoenician, Ugaritic ṣr; Egyptian Ḏwr, Dr; Akkadian Ṣurru; Hebrew Ṣor; Greek ἡ Τύρος/ hē Týros; Latin Tyrus, feminine; Arabic Ṣūr) was a Phoenician island city that was connected to the mainland when Alexander [4] the Great had a causeway built for its conques…

Solomon

(684 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[1] Son of King David [German version] I. Old Testament S. (Hebrew Šelomō, literally 'his peace' or 'his restitution'). Successor to David [1] (2 Sam 9-1 Kg 2) in the second third of the 10th cent. BC. His 40-year reign (1 Kg 11:42, cf. 1 Kg 2:11) is of ideal duration, resulting from his esteem as a wise man and temple-builder (1 Kg 3:6-8, cf. Sir 47:12-18). He is criticized for building altars to foreign deities (1 Kg 11:1-13) and his introduction of forced labour (1 Kg 5:27-32). Stories about S. (1 Kg 3-1…

Beth Shemesh

(149 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] The Hebrew (Sam. 1 6; Kgs 2 14,11) term (‘house of the sun’) probably refers to veneration of the sun god (Jos. 19,41). The name is preserved in the Arab village Ain Šams (‘source of the sun’) that earlier lay east of Tall ar-Rumaila

Judah and Israel

(2,193 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin) | Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. Definition Juda (= J.) and Israel (= I.) are names that, in the course of history, have displayed geographical, political, ethnic and theological components. J. was initially the name of a region in southern  Palaestina; later, it referred to the fictitious founding hero of a tribe and thus became the name of the tribe itself. J. became a political construct with David's kingdom (10th cent. BC). The name J. (in OT yhwdh, in Ancient Hebrew texts outside the OT yhd/yhwd, Assyrian ia-u/ ʾu-da-a-a, Babylonian ia-a-ḫu-du) possibly means ‘ Yahweh is v…

Manasse

(506 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Kutsch, Ernst (Vienna)
(Hebrew Menašše; Greek Μανασσῆ(ς)/ Manassê(s)). [German version] [1] Israelite tribe Israelite tribe in Middle Palestine, east of the Jordan ( Judah and Israel). Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin) [German version] [2] King of Judah King of Judah. During his unusually long reign ( c. 696-642 BC), Judah was restricted to Jerusalem and its environs after the Assyrian conquests of 701 BC ( Judah and…

Aqaba

(201 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] Arabic, ‘steep track’, situated at the north-eastern end of the gulf of the same name, first mentioned by medieval geographers as aqabat ayla (steep track of Aila). Aila, 1 km north of the place today known as Aqaba, was, in the Nabataean-Roman-Byzantine era, the name of the settlement replacing the OT Elat. In 1 Kg 9,26-28 the Edomite city of Elat/A. serves as the topographical approximation for the site of the port Ezjon-Geber, from where King Solomon is supposed to have condu…

Nehemiah

(342 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
(Νεεμιας/ Neemias, hebräisch Nehæmjāh). [German version] I. Old Testament According to the book of the same name, of which the so-called ‘Nehemiah-Memoir’ in Neh 1-7 and 11-13 forms the historical basis, Nehemiah is the cupbearer of the great king of Persia (Neh 1:11). In 445 BC (Neh 1:1; 2:1ff.), he came to Jerusalem on the instructions of Artaxerxes' [1] I. Amidst opposition (e.g. Ezr 4:8ff.), he supervised the rebuilding of the walls, which had been destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar II,  in only 52 days (Neh 6:15). He administered the settlement in Jerusalem in accordance with a type of syn…
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