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(362 words)

Author(s): Winterfeld, Dethard v.
[German Version] A chapter-house is the building or hall where the monks of a monastery or the canons of a collegiate foundation assemble to discuss religious and economic questions, make work assignments, judge offenses, and make decisions affecting the community. The name derives from the common practice of reading aloud a chapter of the monastic rules (Order, Rules of a religious). Later the term was extended to certain other institutions (Cathedral cha…

Choir Stall

(607 words)

Author(s): Winterfeld, Dethard v.
[German Version] (Lat. sedilia, stalla, also subsellia, formae, formulae scamna). The choir stall is the most important piece of furnishing of the liturgical choir (II) and defines it as such, along with the choir screen and the jube, in all cathedrals, collegiate and minster churches, and also, during the late Middle Ages, in the larger parish churches. It provides seats or standing room for the local clerical community during the liturgy of the hours and mass, and consists of two or more rows of seats separated by partitions, those at each end of the choir ¶ being of larger size than the…


(553 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold | Winterfeld, Dethard v.
[German Version] I. Bishopric and Cathedral School – II. The Cathedral of Notre-Dame I. Bishopric and Cathedral School The bishopric of Chartres probably goes back to the 4th century. The first documented bishop is Adventinus (511). The bishops Fulbert of Chartres (1006–1028), Ivo of Chartres (1090–1116), John of Salisbury (1177–1180), and Peter of Celle (1180–1183) engaged in scholarly activities. The see of Chartres was suffragan to Sens and, from 1622, to Paris. The cathedral sch…


(2,264 words)

Author(s): Brusniak, Friedhelm | Winterfeld, Dethard v.
[German Version] I. Music – II. Architecture I. Music 1. In modern usage, choir or chorus (from Gk χορός/ chorós, Lat. chorus) denotes a company of singers in which the individual both interprets and listens to ¶ “choral music” a cappella or with instrumental accompaniment (Chant and song; Music and musical instruments). Since the early Middle Ages, as the forms of choral music have changed for diverse purposes and functions, choral groups have come together as monophonic or polypho…