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(46 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin)
[German version] Name of a region and a principality in the southeast of central Anatolia. On its political role in the late Hittite period see Asia Minor III.C.1. Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) Bibliography S. Aro, T. Zur Gesch. und materiellen Kultur des zentralanatolischen Hochplateaus von 1200-600 v. Chr., 1998.

Rawlinson, Henry

(682 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva
British officer, diplomat and archaeologist. Born Henry Creswicke R., Chadlington (Oxfordshire), 11. 4. 1810, died London 5. 3. 1895. Brother of George Rawlinson. Entered the army in 1826, then pursued military career from 1827 in the ¶ service of the British East India Company (EIC), mainly in India and Afghanistan. Active as an EIC agent in various key positions in the Near East, including, from 1843, British Consul at Baghdad, then consul general at Baghdad in 1851. 1851–1855 excavations for British Museum in Near East. From 185…

Jensen, Peter

(381 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva
German Assyriologist. Born Peter Christian Albrecht J., Bordeaux, 16. 8. 1861, died Marburg/Lahn 16. 8. 1936. Studied theology at Univ. of Leipzig from 1880, changing to Oriental studies and Assyriology there with Friedrich Delitzsch, then at Berlin with Eberhard Schrader and Eduard Sachau. 1884 doctorate at Berlin; thereafter librarian at Kiel and Strasbourg. 1888 habil. and priv.-doz. at Univ. of Strasbourg. 1892–1928 prof. ord. at Marburg, succeeding Julius Wellhausen. Work and influence The main focus of J.’s work was the study of the Assyrian and Babylonian tra…

Schrader, Eberhard

(776 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva
German theologian and Assyriologist. Born Konrad Eberhard S., Braunschweig 7. 1. 1836, died Berlin 4. 7. 1908. From 1856, studied theology and Semitic languages at Göttingen; doctorate 1860 with a thesis on Ethiopian. priv.-doz. from 1862 at the theological faculty of the Univ. of Zurich, from 1863 prof. ord. in theology there. 1870 prof. of Old Testament studies at Univ. of Giessen. From 1873 at Univ. of Jena; 1875 first prof. of Assyriology at Friedrich-Wilhelms-Univ., Berlin, and member of Königlich-Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften in Berlin. Works and influence The speci…

Rawlinson, George

(501 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva
British antiquarian and historian. Born Chad-lington (Oxfordshire) 23. 11. 1812, died Canter-bury 6. 10. 1902. Brother of Henry Rawlinson. 1834–1841 studied at Trinity College, Oxford; 1841 MA. Holy orders 1842; 1861–1889 Camden Prof. of Ancient History at Oxford. Canon at Canterbury from 1872. Work and influence In the course of his historical research, R. devoted himself to the translation of primary sources of ancient history. His translations of Herodotus’ Histories were especially important. He furnished them with a substantial commentary written jointly wit…

Grotefend, Georg Friedrich

(684 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva
German classical philologist and linguist. Born Hannoversch-Münden 9. 6. 1775, died Hannover 15. 12. 1853. Studied theology and classical philology at Göttingen from 1795; 1797–1802 substitute teacher at Göttingen Gymnasium; 1803–1821 schoolteacher and prorector at Städtisches Gymnasium Frankfurt. 1812–1814 prof. at Lyceum Carolinum, Landesuniversität Frankfurt. 1821–1849 director of Hannover Lyzeum. Work and influence G. was a pioneer of historical study of the ancient Near East. His great achievement was to develop a systematic approach to decip…

Jensen, Peter

(364 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva
Dt. Assyriologe. Geb. am 16. 8. 1861 in Bordeaux als Peter Christian Albrecht J., gest. am 16. 8. 1936 in Marburg/Lahn. Ab 1880 Studium der Theologie an der Univ. Leipzig, dort Wechsel zur Orientalistik und Assyriologie bei Friedrich Delitzsch, später in Berlin bei Eberhard Schrader und Eduard Sachau. 1884 Prom. in Berlin; danach Bibliothekar in Kiel und Straßburg; 1888 Habil. und Privatdozentur an der Univ. Straßburg. 1892–1928 o.Prof. in Marburg als Nachfolger Julius Wellhausens. Werk und Wirkung Im Zentrum von J.s Interesse stand die Erforschung v. a. der assyr. u…

Schrader, Eberhard

(745 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva
Dt. Theologe und Assyriologe. Geb. als Konrad Eberhard Sch. am 7. 1. 1836 in Braunschweig, gest. am 4. 7. 1908 in Berlin. Ab 1856 Studium der Theologie und der semitischen Sprachen in Göttingen; Prom. 1860 mit einer Arbeit zum Äthiopischen. Ab 1862 PD an der theologischen Fakultät der Univ. Zürich, ab 1863 o.Prof. für Theologie ebda.; 1870 Ruf an die Univ. Gießen auf die Professur für AT. Seit 1873 an der Univ. Jena; 1875 erster Inhaber des Lehrstuhls für Assyriologie an der Berliner Friedrich-Wilhelms-Univ. und Mitglied der Königlich-Preuß. Akad. der Wiss. zu Berlin. Werk und Wirken D…

Grotefend, Georg Friedrich

(652 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva
Dt. Klass. Philologe und Sprachforscher. Geb. am 9. 6. 1775 in Hannoversch-Münden, gest. am 15. 12. 1853 in Hannover. Ab 1795 Studium der Theologie und Klass. Philologie in Göttingen; 1797–1802 Hilfslehrer am Gymnasium Göttingen; 1803–1821 Gymnasial-Lehrer und Prorektor am Städtischen Gymnasium Frankfurt a. M.; 1812–1814 Prof. am Lyceum Carolinum der Landesuniv. Frankfurt. 1821–1849 Direktor am Lyzeum Hannover. Werk und Wirkung G. gehört zu den Pionieren der histor. Erforschung des Alten Orients. Sein großes Verdienst bestand in der Entwicklung eines…

Rawlinson, Henry

(642 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva
Brit. Offizier, Diplomat und Archäologe. Geb. am 11. 4. 1810 in Chadlington (Oxfordshire) als Henry Creswicke R., gest. am 5. 3. 1895 in London. Bruder von George Rawlinson. 1826 Eintritt in die Armee, ab 1827 militärische Karriere im Dienst der East India Company (EIC) v. a. in Indien und Afghanistan; als Bevollmächtigter der EIC auf verschiedenen Schlüsselpositionen im Vorderen Orient tätig, u. a. ab 1843 als brit. Konsul, 1851 als Generalkonsul in Bagdad. 1851–1855 Ausgrabungstätigkeit in Vorderasien im Auftrag des British Museum…

Rawlinson, George

(460 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva
Brit. Altertumsforscher und Historiker. Geb. am 23. 11. 1812 in Chadlington (Oxfordshire), gest. am 6. 10. 1902 in Canterbury; Bruder von Henry Rawlinson. 1834–1841 Studium am Trinity College in Oxford; 1841 M. A.; 1842 Priesterweihe; 1861–1889 Camden Prof. für Geschichte des Altertums in Oxford; ab 1872 Kanonikus von Canterbury. Werk und Wirkung Im Rahmen seiner histor. Forschungen widmete sich R. der Übersetzung von Primärquellen zur Alten Geschichte. Von besonderer Bedeutung waren seine Übertragungen von Herodots Historien, zu denen er gemeinsam mit seinem Brud…


(37 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva
[English version] Bezeichnung einer Region und eines Fürstentums im SO Zentralanatoliens. Zur polit. Rolle in späthethitischer Zeit s. Kleinasien III.C.1. Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva Bibliography S. Aro, T. Zur Gesch. und materiellen Kultur des zentralanatolischen Hochplateaus von 1200-600 v. Chr., 1998.

Time, concepts of

(3,691 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | H.WE.
[German version] I. Ancient Orient The concept of time in cuneiform cultures is characterized by cyclic and linear rhythms, ideas of beginning and end, before and after, repetition and change, progress, past, present, future, and 'eternity'/perpetuity. All these aspects can be grasped both notionally and conceptually in the transmitted sources, but are not the subject of a systematic, theoretical discourse. The languages of the cuneiform cultures had several means available to describe events, circum…


(3,298 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva | H.WE.
[English version] I. Alter Orient …


(535 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva; Renger, Johannes | Eder, Walter
[English version] I. Alter Orient…


(3,548 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | R.NE.
[German version] I. Mesopotamia The framework for the emergence of science, i.e. of a socially organized, systematic search for discoveries and their transmission, existed in Mesopotamia from the early 3rd millennium BC. It included social differentiation and the development of a script (Cuneiform script) which was soon applied outside administrative and economic contexts. The potential of numeracy and literacy, sustained by the professional group of scribes, was developed beyond concrete, practical…


(2,483 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Kahl, Jochem (Münster) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] I. General Rulership is here understood as political rulership, i.e. a reciprocal social relationship serving to create and permanently preserve the social order through political organization. Rulership is based on fixed rules applying both to the ruler(s) and the ruled; thus those ruled generally assent blindly to the authority of the ruler(s), or are at least so minded as to tolerate it. As a system of order, rulership appears in different forms: in the ancient Near East and Egyp…


(2,915 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Kahl, Jochem (Münster) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. Terminology Designations for rulers include: (1) descriptive terms like the Sumerian LUGAL (literally 'big man'), equated in vocabularies with the Akkadian šarru ('shining one(?)'), malku ('adviser', Hebrew melek), Hittite ḥaššu- ('well-born one'); furthermore, Sumerian NUN and Akkadian rubāum ('most excellent one'), and Sumerian EN, Akkadian bēlu, Hittite išḫa- ('lord'); these apply regardless of the size and structure of the area of rule. Feminine forms are recorded. (2) Culture and epoch specific titles (a…


(3,932 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Winterling, Aloys (Bielefeld) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] I. Mesopotamia In contrast with cultic  rituals, the secular ceremonies of Mesopotamia have up to now rarely been the subject of academic research. On the whole, it has to be assumed that individual and communal life in the societies of the Ancient Orient in general and that of the  ruler in particular were dominated by numerous rules, resulting in more or less standardized patterns of behaviour. The reconstruction of such non-cultic ceremonies is largely dependent on secondary refe…


(3,691 words)

Author(s): Rüpke | Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
I. General [German version] A. Notions of measuring time Most cultures have some method of measuring time, frequently based on periodical changes within nature or the stars. The oldest of these is the pars-pro-toto method, in which it is not a certain period of time as a whole that is connected, but a regularly recurring phenomenon within that time [1. 9 f.] (e.g. lunar phases). Metaphors of time or the measuring thereof play no great role in antiquity, with the exception of the field of  metrics. Usually, the focus was not on …
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