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(2,865 words)

Author(s): Gödde, Susanne
(Ξέρξης/ Xérxēs; Old Persian Hšayāŗšā or Xšayāršā; Hebrew Achašweroš or Ahasveros; Latin Xerxes) A. Historical dimension The image that prevails today of the Persian Great King X. I (519–465 BC), the son of Darius I and Atossa who reigned from 486 BC until his death, is dominated by his campaigns against Greece. After putting down rebellions in 484 or 482 (dating uncertain [11.249]) in Egypt (Hdt. 7,5; 7,7) and Babylon (Hdt. 1,183), X. in 480/79 embarked on campaigns against the Greeks, following on from the Battle of Marathon (490 BC) fought and lost by Darius I. Engagements took place under X.' command at Thermopylae (481) and Salamis (480). The Battles of Plataea and Mycale, which decided the Persian Wars (both 479 BC), took place after X.' withdrawal from Greece. Despite the destruction of Athens, the numerically inferior Greeks succeeded in repelling the Persian army. Besides the Greek campaigns (Hdt.…
Date: 2016-02-22