[German Version] Greek δαίμων, may be etymologically related to δαίω “disperse” (i.e. the fateless?); originally “divine being, divine power” (= ϑεός, “god”) (Hom.
Iliad 1.222 etc.), but already in Hes.
Erga 121–126 it referred to the “soul of a deceased person.” The two concepts fuse in the image of daimons as punishing avengers (souls of the ¶ murdered execute vengeance as daimons). The concept of the “personal” daimon that influences the fate of the individual appeared from the 6th century bce (Theognis 161–164, Heraclitus 22 B 119 D.-K., Pindarus,
Olympia 13.28, 105, Sophoc.
Trachiniae 910f., Eurip.
Medea 1347; Plato
Phaid. 107d). This daimon ultimately became not just the “internal voice” (Socrates called it his
daimonion: cf. Plato
Apol. 31cd), but even the self, the human ego (thus already Empedocles 31 B 115 D.-K.; cf. later Plato
Tim. 90a-c). Proper “demonologies” were repeatedly produced after Plato. For Plato a