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Meliton of Chalcedon

(143 words)

Author(s): Kallis, Anastasios
[German Version] (metropolitan of Chalcedon; secular name: Sotirios Hacis; 1913, Istanbul – ¶ Dec 27, 1989, Istanbul). After his studies at the theological college at Chalki, he worked for more than half a century in the ecumenical patriarchate, first as deacon (1934–1941) and assistant secretary to the Holy Synod (1938–1941), priest (1941–1950) and vicar general of Patriarch Maximos V (1947–1950), then as bishop of the patriarchate (1950–1989). After his election as metropolitan of Imbros and Tenedos (1950–…


(4,137 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph | Kallis, Anastasios | Dan, Joseph | Schibilsky, Michael | Schmid, Heinz
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Denominations – III. Diakonia Today I. Church History 1. General In Protestantism the act of Christian love in the form of care for the poor (Poor, Care of the) has long played an important role. After decreasing in importance in the thought of theology and the church in the 18th century and also diminishing in its practical …

Makarios III of Cyprus

(215 words)

Author(s): Kallis, Anastasios
[German Version] (secular name: Michael Mouskos; Aug 13, 1913, Ano Panayia, district of Paphos – Aug 3, 1977, Nicosia) was a prominent personality in the recent history of Cyprus. He became a novice in Kikkos Monastery at the age of 13, was ordained deacon in 1938, priest in 1946, and consecrated bishop of Kition in 1948. He studied theology, jurisprudence, and sociology in Athens and Boston. Elected archbishop of Cyprus in 1950 as Makarios III, he assumed the leadership as ethnarch (“leader of the nation”) of the island's Greek population group who aimed to achieve the enosis (union) of t…


(13,361 words)

Author(s): Ritschl, Dietrich | Luz, Ulrich | Mühlenberg, Ekkehard | Kallis, Anastasios | Döring, Heinrich
Overview Overview Christology is systematic reflection on the basis and significance of the apostolic witness to Jesus Christ, along with its expression and application throughout the history of the church. It has long been a classic part of theological teaching. It seeks to fashion explicit statements that can be tested and used in close connection with other central areas of Christian doctrine (e.g., Church; Anthropology; Justification; Hope; Ethics; Pastoral Theology). It begins, however, with implicit as well as explicit Christological statements. The…


(614 words)

Author(s): Kallis, Anastasios
The word “Philocalia” (love [Gk. philia] of what is beautiful [ kalos]), along with kalokagathia (the beautiful and the good), expresses the Greek ideal of a combination of the aesthetic and the ethical (Aesthetics; Ethics). It denotes love of, or striving for, the beautiful, good, and noble. In the Orthodox Church we find that the term is used more specifically for anthologies that have influenced Orthodox theology and spirituality. 1. The oldest Philocalia goes back to Basil of Caesarea (ca. 330–79) and his friend Gregory of Nazianzus (329/30–389/90), who compiled the Ōrigenous p…


(1,197 words)

Author(s): Kallis, Anastasios
1. Term and Definition The term “icon” denotes a sacred picture (eikōn) in the Eastern church. On the Orthodox view (Orthodox Church) it points to the suprasensory original, presenting it in realistic symbolism. As distinct from religious pictures in the West, which are aesthetic tools of instruction (“art for the sake of religion”), devotion, and meditation, the icon is a revelation of the transcendent in the immanent (Immanence and Transcendence). The metaphysical ontology of the icon as a manifestation of heavenly realities…


(177 words)

Author(s): Kallis, Anastasios
From Gk. anapherō (lift up, lead back), “anaphora” strictly denotes relation, connection, reference, report, appeal, and, in theological usage, offering or sacrifice (cf. Heb. 7:27; 13:15). It is thus used to bring out the meaning of the eucharistic action (Eucharist). This is the offering of a sacrifice (§3) in reflection of the original sacrifice, the unique sacrifice ¶ of Christ (Heb. 10:12), which finds representation in the eucharistic celebration. In a narrower liturgical sense the Anaphora is the core of Eastern liturgies, corresponding to the canon (canon actionis)

Orthodox Church

(4,448 words)

Author(s): Kallis, Anastasios
1. Terminology and Self-Understanding In keeping with their flexible and liberal spirit, which opposes defining the concept of orthodoxy (§§1–2) as a doctrinaire rigidity of binding belief, the Orthodox churches have no required term for themselves. The many terms used are to be understood in their historical contexts as reactions against church developments that at various times required emphases on identity and uniqueness and authenticity of this or that particular expression of the original Chris…