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Micah/Book of Micah

(1,683 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Rainer
[German Version] I. The Prophet – II. Message – III. Growth of the Book – IV. Reception The prophetic book ascribed to Micah stands in the middle of the Book of the Twelve (Prophetic books). The biographical data in the other books make him the first prophet (Prophets and prophecy: II) from the southern kingdom. I. The Prophet The superscription in Mic 1:1 distinguishes Micah from others with the same name by identifying his place of origin as Moresheth-Gath, making him a Judahite from the Shephelah. His message, however, indicates that he was also…


(4,377 words)

Author(s): Heesch, Matthias | Kessler, Rainer | Harrill, J. Albert | Luker, Ralph E. | Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] I. General The word slavery denotes a social structure (including its normative legal and ethical standards) in which certain individuals are considered and treated as objects. A slave owner has the right to decide what the slaves do, as well as where and how they live; the owner also has an absolute right of disposition over their bodies and lives and the right to sell them like any other property. The far-reaching implications of this definition distinguish slavery from other forms of unfreedom such as debt servitude, serfdom, and bondage. Slavery was widespread in antiquity. There were many ways for a person to be enslaved: being taken as a prisoner of war, being captured (often by pirates at sea), over-indebtedness (although debt servitude was not at all points identical with slavery), as punishment for a crime, or by birth. Poverty and dependence as such – widespread in Late Antiquity – were not the same as slavery, although de facto


(3,846 words)

Author(s): Grundmann, Stefan | Bayer, Stefan | Schneider, Helmuth | Kessler, Rainer | Strohm, Christoph | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Legal Aspects – III. Economics – IV. Non-Christian Antiquity – V. Bible – VI. Christianity – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. Concept Interest is payment in exchange for a right of use or exploitation, typically on a temporary basis and always agreed for a fixed period of time. Money later gained increasin…


(10,133 words)

Author(s): Gutmann, Emanuel | Knauf, Ernst Axel | Otto, Eckart | Niehr, Herbert | Kessler, Rainer | Et al.
[German Version] I. The State of Israel – II. History – III. Society I. The State of Israel The formal full name, State of Israel (Heb. Medinat Yisrael), calls attention to the spatial divergence between the political entity and the geographical and historical Erets Israel (Land of Israel, Palestine and its linguistic equivalents). Israel is located in southwest Asia, on the southern stretch of the eastern coast of the Mediterranean. In its northern half, inland from the shore, is the coastal area and…