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(301 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] I. Liturgisch Ein psalmodisch strukturierter Sologesang vor dem Evangelium, der in der Fastenzeit und an Quatembertagen das Halleluja ersetzt. Der Name wird erklärt mit tractim (in einem Zug durchgesungen) oder mit tractus im Sinne von lange »ausgedehnt« oder als Übers. des Begriffs ει᾿ρμο´ς/eirmós, der als »Typusmelodie« zu deuten ist. Der T. wurde von einem Kantor »in directum«, d.h. ohne Kehrvers der Gemeinde, vorgetragen – als eine weitere Lesung und nicht als »Antwortgesang«. Vielfach wird angenommen, daß der T. zu…

Rite for the Christian Initiation of Children (RCIC)

(82 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] is the English version of the Roman Catholic Ordo Initiationis Puerorum qui aetatem catecheticam adepti sunt, published in 1985 by the International Committee on English in the Liturgy. This special section of the Rite for the Christian Initiation of Adults must not be confused with the rite of baptism for children. Franz Karl Praßl Bibliography The Rites of the Catholic Church, publ. International Committee on English in the Liturgy, vol. I, 1990.


(201 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] ( Officium tenebrarum) is the special form combining Matins and Lauds (Liturgy of the hours) on the Thursday, Friday, and Saturday of Passion Week which was in use until 1970. One of the 15 candles burning on a special candelabra was extinguished after each psalm (three times three in Matins and five in Lauds) or after the Benedictus, so that the end of the service took place in tenebris, in the dark. In the Middle Ages, the Tenebrae had special concluding prayers and songs, including congregational hymns; according to the Roman use Ps 51(50), the Miserere, was sung again. …


(194 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] Neumes (from Gk νεῦμα/ neúma, “nod, sign”), first attested in the early 9th century, are the earliest forms of musical notation. Neumes represented all the sound for a single syllable, either a single pitch or a group of pitches; in the 11th century, neumes were set down in tabular form, along with their names. The original neumes were lineless (adiastematic, in campo aperto) and intended primarily to guide interpretation (rhythm, segmentation, dynamics, rhetoric, etc.) of a choral repertoire learned by rote. Neumed manuscripts were meant for study, not for liturgical use. Neumes had regional variations; with the appearance of lined notation, these became standardized in square notation or Gothic “horseshoe-nail” notation. The clues to interpretation (musical performance, theology) provided by the neumes are studied by Gregorian sem…

Gregorian Chant

(1,196 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Music I. Liturgy 1. Catholic The Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy of Vatican II treats Gregorian chant as specially suited to the Roman liturgy; other things being equal, it should have pride of place (art. 116). This status, which does not judge other forms of church music, is based on the timelessly valid manner in which Gregorian chant is part of the liturgy itself; it is a musical expression of the biblical word in the context of liturgical theology and its primary mode of performance, proclamation, and prayer in musi…

Blume, Clemens Ferdinand Anton

(159 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] (Jan 31, 1862, Billerbeck – Apr 8, 1932, Königstein), Jesuit hymnologist and liturgist. After graduating from Stella Matutina, the Jesuit gymnasium in Feldkirch (A) (1878), he entered the Jesuit order. From 1886 to 1897 he was professor of classical languages at Stella …


(621 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] The term psalmody denotes the recital manner (cantillation) of the psalms and canticles of the Old and New Testaments (psalm tones). In its basic structure and function it resembles the reading tones and oration tones. Psalm tones follow the literary structure of the psalms and serve to make their acoustic quality clear (one verse consists of two half-verses: parallelismus membrorum). In the cantillation system of the Latin West, a psalm tone consists of three elements: recitation tone (tenor, tuba), intonation formula ( initium or reintonation at the start of …

Semiology, Gregorian

(402 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] Gregorian semiology (from Gk sēmeíon, “symbol, sign” and lógos, “meaning”) is the scholarly research required for an interpretation of Gregorian chant based on the performance practices recorded in the earliest notated manuscripts. In a culture of oral tradition, the purpose of representing the chants by lineless (adiastematic) neumes in the 10th and early 11th centuries was not primarily to record the melody but to convey broader interpretive instructions regarding rhetoric, rhythm, agog…

Chorale Book

(398 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. ( Choralbuch) is a collective term for collections of Gregorian chant. Since the 10th century, these have included the gradual, cantatorium, troper, sequentiarium, kyria…

Marian Antiphons

(545 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] conclude the daily Catholic liturgy of the hours (III); they are sung after Compline and in the German Stundenbuch also after Vespers (III). Although they were originally antiphons to psalms (IV) or the Magnificat , since the 12th/13th century they have been independent chants without psalmody – possibly resulting from the practice of commemoration – sung in praise of Mary at the time in the evening when, according to medieval belief, the archangel Gabriel spoke his χαῖρε/ chaíre (Luke 1:28): a daily memorial of the incarnation and a reference to the chris…


(830 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Liturgics A sequence is a non-biblical hymn …


(839 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. In Catholic usage, German Choral is a collective term for the genuine liturgical music of the Western Latin liturgies (Liturgy). The music for the Gallo-Roman liturgy, which developed c. 750 in France (Metz), was initially called cantus romanus (Charlemagne) or cantilena romana (Paul the Deacon); later, on the basis of a legend concerning its origin, it came to be called Gregorian (the trope Gregorius praesul, c. 800; John the Deacon, 878). After the 12th century, oth…

Wagner, Peter Josef

(218 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] (Aug 19, 1865, Kürenz, near Trier – Oct 17, 1931, Fribourg), musicologist. After training with Michael Hermesdorff at the cathedral in Trier, he studied in Straßburg (Strasbourg) with Gustav Jacobsthal and in Berlin with Heinrich Bellermann and P. Spitta. In 1893 he received his habilitation from Fribourg and taught there as a lecturer; he was appointed associate professor in 1897 and full professor in 1902. In 1920/1921 he served as rector. In 1901 he …

Oratio Tone

(177 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] The oratio tone is the model for the chant of the priest’s prayers in the name of the congregation, or liturgies, especially oratios (collects/prayer of the day, super oblata/prayer over the gifts, post communionem/concluding prayer/prayer of thanksgiving), in the broader sense also cantillation formul…

Rite for the Christian Initiation of Adults

(89 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] (RCIA) ist die vom inzw. durch Rom aufgelösten »International Committee on English in the Liturgy« (ICEL) 1985 publizierte engl. Version des röm. kath. »Ordo initiationis christianae adultorum« (1972), der Eingliederung von Erwachsenen in die Kirche durch Katechumenat und Initiation (Taufe, Firmung, erste Eucharistie), zu dt.: »Die Feier der Eingliederung Erwachsener in die Kirche« (21991). Franz Karl Praßl Bibliography The Rites of the Catholic Church, prepared by the ICEL, Bd.1, 1990. …

Tempus per annum/Grüne Sonntage

(177 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] . Außerhalb des Oster- und Weihnachtsfestkreises gab es in der röm. Liturgie drei Meßformulare für – je nach Ostertermin – sechs mögliche Sonntage nach Epiphanias (Epiphanie: V.) und 23 für 28 mögliche Sonntage nach dem Pfingstfest, die im MA sowohl »nach Pfingsten« (bis 1970 kath. Usus) als auch »nach Trinitatis« (Trinitatisfest; ev. Usus…


(357 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] Semiologie, gregorianische (von griech. sēmeíon, »Zeichen«, und lógos, »Sinn, Bedeutung«), ist die wiss. Grundlagenforschung für eine Interpretation des gregorianischen Gesangs, die sich an den aufführungspraktischen Angaben der ältesten notierten Hsn. orientiert. Eingebettet in eine Kultur mündlicher Überlieferung, liegt das Interesse bei der Aufzeichnung der Gesänge durch linienlose (adiastematische) Neumen im 10. und teilweise 11.Jh. nicht primär bei der Melodieüberlieferung, s…


(90 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] ist ein lat. Amt oder eine stille Messe (mit dt. Meßliedern) vor dem in der Monstranz ausgesetzten Allerheiligsten (: II.), an deren Ende mit der Monstranz gesegnet wird, mancherorts auch am Anfang. Die in Süddeutschland und Österreich volkstümliche S. wurde wegen ihrer theol. Problematik kirchenamtlich nur mit Restriktionen geduldet, seit 1973 ist sie ausdrücklich verboten. Franz Karl Praßl Bibliography Ph.Hartmann, Repertorium Rituum, 101904, 400–404 J.A. Jungmann, Missarum sollemnia, 41958 H. Hollerweger, Die Reform des Gottesdienstes z.Z. des…


(153 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] Puccini, Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria (22.12.1858 Lucca – 29.11.1924 Brüssel). Wie sein Vater Michele P. sollte Giacomo Kirchenmusiker werden, er studierte jedoch ab 1880 bei Amilcare Ponchielli in Mailand und wurde Opernkomponist. Nach den ersten Opern »Le Villi«, »Edgar« und »Manon Lescaut« gelang der internationale Durchbruch als Großmeister des Verismo mit »La Bohe`me« (1896), »Tosca« (1900) und »Madame Butterfly« (vier Fassungen 1904–1906). Nach dem Opernwes…


(152 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] Orationston, Modell für den musikalischen Vortrag der im Namen der Gemeinde vollzogenen Gebete des Priesters bzw. Liturgen, bes. der Orationen (Collecta/Tagesgebet, Super oblata/Gabengebet, Post communionem/Schlußgebet/Dankgebet), im weiteren Sinne auch Kantillationsformeln für das Hochgebet (bes. Präfation, Verba Testamenti), das Vaterunser usw. mit gleicher Struktur und Bedeutung wie Lektionstöne. Kantillierte Gebete sind die Urform sprachlicher liturgischer Kommunikation; dies…
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