(a.) or, apparently preferred by purists,
ris̲h̲wa/rus̲h̲wa , pl.
rus̲h̲ā , Persian
rus̲h̲wa , Turkish
rüşvet , the legal term for “bribe.” Like English “bribe”, its connotation is absolutely negative and whatever is called
ras̲h̲wa is strictly forbidden by law. The word itself does not occur in the Ḳurʾān. More general passages like II, 188, and V, 42, 62-3 (
suḥt ) were interpreted to include the prohibition of bribe-taking. The
ḥadīt̲h̲ , however, makes the matter perfectly clear. One of the most explicit statements invoke…