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D̲j̲abala b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲

(467 words)

Author(s): Shahid, I. A.
, Ghassānid chieftain [see G̲h̲assān ] of the pre-Islamic period, who made his début in G̲h̲assānid - Byzantine relations ca. 500 A.D., when he mounted an offensive against Palestina Tertia but was beaten by Romanus, the dux of that province. Shortly afterwards in 502, Byzantium concluded a treaty with the G̲h̲assānids and recognised them as its new allies ( foederati ). Throughout the remaining part of the reign of the emperor Anastasius (491-518), the sources are silent on D̲j̲abala, who was probably not yet the G̲h̲assānid king b…

Ḏj̲abala b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲

(465 words)

Author(s): Shahîd, I. A.
, chef g̲h̲assānide [voir G̲h̲assān] de l’époque préislamique qui, vers 500 de J.-C, se manifesta dans les rapports entre Byzantins et G̲h̲assānides en menant une offensive contre la Palestina tertia, mais fut battu par Romanus, dux de cette province; peu après, en 502, Byzance conclut un traité avec les G̲h̲assānides, les reconnaissant comme ses nouveaux alliés ( foederati). Pendant toute la dernière partie du règne de l’empereur Anastasc (491-518), les sources ne font aucune allusion à Ḏj̲abala, qui n’était probablement pas encore le roi g̲h̲assānid…


(5,221 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | I.A. | Folkerts | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Crubellier, Michel (Villeneuve d'Ascq) | Et al.
I. Mesopotamia [German version] A. Numerical systems Before systems for representing numbers in writing were (further) developed, counting stones, known as calculi or tokens, were used in arithmetic. As first-order representations they enabled operations such as increasing, decreasing, combining, separating, and distributing. Their relationship to the numerical notations recorded in the oldest ‘texts’ ( c. 3300 BC; Uruk) is still discussed [2]. The numerical signs in these texts do not represent absolute numbers but context-dependent units of counting or measurement. They are tied  in fixed relationships (sexagesimal, bisexagesimal) within linear systems of number signs. Hitherto, six basic systems and numerous variants have been identified (Uruk, Ǧamdat Naṣr, beginning of the 3rd millennium). Some of the signs are semantically ambiguous, with numerical values varying according to (metrological) context. …


(4,877 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva | I.A. | Folkerts, Menso; Crubellier, Michel | Folkerts, Menso | Crubellier, Michel; Ü:B.v.R. | Et al.
I. Mesopotamien [English version] A. Zahlensysteme Bevor Systeme zur Darstellung von Z. im Rahmen der Schrift (weiter)entwickelt wurden, dienten Zählsteine, sog. Calculi, als arithmetisches (Hilfs-)Mittel. Als Repräsentationen erster Ordnung ermöglichten sie Operationen wie Vermehren, Vermindern, Vereinigen, Abtrennen, Verteilen. Ihre Beziehung zu den in den ältesten “Texten” (ca. 3300 v. Chr.; Uruk) belegten numerischen Notationen wird noch diskutiert [2]. Die Z.-Zeichen dieser Texte repräsentieren n…