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Demetrius Cydones

(756 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
Dēmētrios Kydōnēs; Dēmētrios Kydōnios Date of Birth: About 1324 Place of Birth: Thessaloniki Date of Death: End of 1397 Place of Death: Candia, Crete Biography Demetrius came from a distinguished family that for generations had served at the imperial court in Constantinople. His father was a good friend of John Cantacuzenus, a rich member of the military aristocracy and a confidant of Emperor Andronicus III Palaeologus. When Andronicus died in 1341, Cantacuzenus claimed imperial power in place of the heir, John V, who w…

 Letters

(616 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
- Demetrius Cydones Date: Approximately 450 letters written between about 1341 and 1394 Original Language: Greek Description The letters in Cydones’s correspondence that refer expressly to Islam as a religion are noted here. They are given in chronological order, first according to the numbering in Loenertz, Correspondance, and then, in brackets, according to the numbering in Tinnefeld, Demetrios Kydones, Briefe. 1. Letter 93 (59) to Simon Atoumanus, summer 1364; Demetrios Kydones, Briefe, i/2, p. 355. Cydones quotes from a letter sent by John V to Pope Urban V, in…

 Greek translation of Riccoldo da Monte di Croce, Libellus (or Tractatus) contra legem Saracenorum

(1,298 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
'Against the religion of the Saracens' Demetrius Cydones Date: Between 1360 and 1369 Original Language: Greek Description The Greek title of this work is given in different forms: 1. Rikardou anaskeuē tēs para tou kataratou Mouchamet tois Sarakinois tetheisēs nomothesias, metenechtheisēs de ek tēs Italikēs dialektou eis tēn Hellada dia tinos Dēmētriou.

 Dēmētriou tou Kydōnou Rōmaiois Symbouleutikos

(713 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
Oratio pro subsidio Latinorum'Advisory address by Cydones to the Byzantines' Demetrius Cydones Date: August 1366 Original Language: Greek Description While the Emperor John V was still on his way back from Buda, where he had tried in vain to get military help from the ‘barbarians’ (sc. the Hungarians under Louis the Great) against the Turks ( PG 154, cols 1000D-1001B), his cousin, Count Amedeus VI of Savoy (col. 993AB), had arrived in Byzantine waters in August 1366 with a small fleet and recaptured Kallipolis (Barker, Manuel II Palaiologos, pp. 7-8), a Byzantine stronghold on the…

 Symbouleutikos heteros peri tēs Kallipoleōs, litēsantos tou Mouratou

(411 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
Oratio de non reddenda Callipoli 'Advisory speech on Kallipolis, pursued by Murad' Demetrius Cydones Date: 1376/77 or 1371 Original Language: Greek Description The town and stronghold of Kallipolis (Gallipoli) on the European shore of the Hellespont was much sought after by the Ottomans as a stronghold, and a few years after its recapture by Amedeus VI of Savoy it was again lost to them. It is uncertain whether this happened in the summer of 1371 or as late as 1376/77; Barker ( Manuel II Palaiologos, pp. 30, 458-61) argues for the later date against an earlier consensus. It was…

Zirkusparteien

(188 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[English version] (lat. factiones; griech. μέρη/ mérē oder, weniger prägnant, δῆμοι/ dḗmoi; siehe dḗmos [2] C.). Heute vorwiegend gebräuchliche Bezeichnung für Vereine oder Clubs, die seit der röm. Kaiserzeit, zunächst in Rom selbst, später auch in anderen Städten des Reiches, die Wagenrennen in den Hippodromen ( hippódromos [1]) organisierten. Sie gruppierten sich - durch die Farben weiß, rot, blau und grün voneinander unterschieden - um erfolgreiche Wagenlenker und zeigten in der Spätantike, v. a. im Osten des Röm. Reic…

Skeuophylax

(45 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[English version] (σκευοφύλαξ). Klerikales Amt der byz. Kirche, zuständig für liturgische Geräte, Heiligtümer und kirchliches Ritual, mit der Leitung eines Büros und höherem Ansehen verbunden; an großen Kirchen wie der Hagia Sophia in Konstantinopolis. Tinnefeld, Franz Bibliography …

Vitalianus

(148 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[English version] Flavius V., oström. Heerführer, der 513 n. Chr. wegen mangelnder Versorgung seiner Truppen, aber auch als Anhänger der Christologie der Synode ( sýnodos II. D.4.) von Kalchedon gegen den monophysitisch gesinnten Kaiser Anastasios [1] I. rebellierte (Monophysitismus). Als V. dessen Neffe…

Sebastos

(52 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[English version] (Σεβαστός). Urspr. griech. Äquivalent für den lat. Titel Augustus, wurde am byz. Hof erst im 11. Jh. n. Chr. als Titel eingeführt, der nach 1081 von den Komnenenkaisern - auch in Kombinationen wie Sebastokrátōr - vornehmlich an Mitglieder ihrer Familie verliehen wurde. Tinnefeld, Franz Bibliography A. Kazhdan, s.…

Staurakios

(108 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[English version] [1] byz. Kaiser, 9. Jh. Byz. Kaiser (811 n. Chr.), Sohn Nikephoros' [2] I., in der Schlacht gegen den Bulgarenkhan Krum, in der sein Vater fiel, schwer verwundet; wurde nach kurzer Anerkennung als Thronfolger von Michael [3] I. abgelöst. Tinnefeld, Franz Bibliography P. A. Hollingsworth, s. v. S., ODB 3, 1945 f. [English version] [2] Eunuch, 8. Jh. n. Chr. Eunuch im Rang eines πατρίκιος ( patríkios ), seit 781 n. Chr. λογοθέτης τοῦ δρόμου ( logothétēs tu drómu), siegreich über die Slaven in Griechenland 783, bis 797 sehr einflußreicher Ratgeber der K…

Zoë

(215 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[English version] (Ζωή). Regierende Kaiserin von Byzanz 21.4.-12.6.1042 n. Chr. (geb. 978), entstammte als Tochter des Constantinus [10] VIII. (1025-1028) der Makedonischen Dynastie und legitimierte aufgrund dieser Herkunft auch das Ka…

Scholae Palatinae

(215 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[English version] Berittene Gardetruppen im Dienst der röm. Kaiser seit Constantinus [1] I., gemäß der Notitia dignitatum fünf Regimenter im Westen und sieben im Osten des Reiches zu je 500 Mann, anfangs meist germanischer Herkunft, die insgesamt nicht zum Reichsheer gehörten, sondern dem magister officiorum unterstanden und von je einem Tribunen befehligt wurden [2]. Aber bereits seit Kaiser Zenon wurden die S. P. nur noch als Paradetruppen im Hofzeremoniell verwendet, und ihre Rolle als Schutzgarde des Kaisers wurde faktisch von der damals entstandenen …

Superindictio

(67 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[English version] Eine von mehreren Bezeichnungen (wie z. B. adscriptio, extraordinaria munera) für Sondersteuern, die im röm. und byz. Reich zum Ausgleich zusätzlicher Ausgaben, z. B. in Notzeiten, aufgrund kaiserlicher Anordnung von allen oder auch nur von den reichen Grundbesitzern erhoben wurden und als unerwartete Belastungen durchweg verhaßt waren. Steuern Tinnefeld, Franz Bibliography J. Karayannopulos, Das Finanzwesen …

Herakleios

(166 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[English version] [8] H. der Jüngere oström. Kaiser (Jan./Febr.-20. April? 641), Sohn des Kaisers Herakleios [7] aus dessen erster Ehe mit Fabia Eudokia, geb. in Konstantinopel 3.5.612, Augustus seit 22.1.613; auch, in Erinnerung an Constantinus [1] I. d. Gr., Νέος Κωνστάντινος/ Néos Kōnstántinos (lat. Novus Constantinus) genannt (zur Bed. des Beinamens [3. 1-9]) und deshalb in der mod. Forsch. auch, in Konkurrenz zu einem Usurpator im Westen des Reiches (Constantinus [3]), als Constantinus III. gezählt. Nach dem Tode des Vaters erbte H.…

Theophano

(138 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
(Θεοφανώ). [English version] [1] Th. Anastaso (Θ. Ἀναστάσω). Byz. Kaiserin (ca. 941 bis nach 976 n. Chr.), Gattin Romanos' [3] II. (959-963), dem sie die späteren Kaiser Basileios [6] II. und Constantinus [10] VIII. gebar; sie wurde 963 Gattin Nikephoros' [3] II., an dessen Ermordung 969 sie als Anstifterin beteiligt war. Tinnefeld, Franz Bibliography A. Kazhdan, s. v. Th., ODB 3, 2064 f. [English version] [2] Frau Ottos II., um 1000 n. Chr. (auch Theophanu, ca. 960-991 n. Chr.). Gattin des abendländischen Kaisers Otto II. seit 972, Nichte des byz. Kaisers Iohann…

Vitalis

(40 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[English version] Heerführer im Krieg Ostroms gegen die Goten in It., nur bei Prokopios [3] (BG 3,10,2) unter dem Namen Βιτάλις als magister militum per Illyricum ca. 539-544 n. Chr. bezeugt. PLRE 3, 1380 f., Nr. 1 (s. v. Vitalius). Tinnefeld, Franz

Solomon

(256 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[1] s. Salomo (Σολομών) s. Salomo Tinnefeld, Franz [English version] [2] byz. Heerführer, 6. Jh. n. Chr. (Σολόμων). Byz. Heerführer unter Iustinianus [1] I., Eunuch aufgrund eines Unfalls in der Kindheit. Seit 527 n. Chr. im Dienst des Belisarios, kämpfte er gegen Perser und Vandalen und übernahm von ihm, 534 zum magister militum ernannt, den Oberbefehl im Vandalenkrieg. 534/5 wurde er auch praef. praet. Africae mit Sitz in Karthago. 535 siegte er in der Prov. Byzacena zweimal über die Berber. Eine Revolte seines Heeres konnte erst der aus Sizilien herbeige…

Strategius

(64 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[English version] [1] s. Musonianus s. Musonianus Tinnefeld, Franz [English version] [2] oström. Beamter, 6. Jh. n. Chr. (Strategios). Oström. Beamter, praef. Augustalis in Alexandreia ca. 518-523 n. Chr., erhielt den Titel patricius ( patríkios ) spätestens 530 und war Chef des Finanzressorts ( comes sacrarum largitionum) 535 bis ca. 538 n. Chr. Tinnefeld, Franz Bibliography PLRE 2, 1034-1036, Nr. 9  Stein, Spätröm. R. 2, 433, 476 f.

Spatharios

(50 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[English version] (Σπαθάριος, “Schwertträger”). Vom 5. bis zum 12. Jh. n. Chr. Angehöriger einer Abteilung von Kämmerern (Eunuchen) am röm.-byz. Kaiserhof, welche seit etwa dem 8. Jh. einem prōtospathários im Senatorenrang unterstanden. Seit dem 10. Jh. sind auch Nichteunuchen als prōtospathárioi bezeugt. Tinnefeld, Franz Bibliography A. Kazhdan, s. v. Proto-S., ODB 3, 1748; s. v. S., 1935 f.

Waräger

(75 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[English version] (Βάραγγοι). Skandinavier, die etwa ab dem frühen 10. Jh. n. Chr. über das Gebiet der Kiever Rus' nach Byzanz gelangten (deshalb auch oft als Rus'/Ῥώς bzw. Tauroskythen bezeichnet), ab dem 11. Jh. auch Angelsachsen, die im byz. Heer (wo sie als bes. zuverlässig galten), v. a. aber in der kaiserlichen Garde dienten. Ihre kennzeichnende Waffe war die Streitaxt, die ihnen den Beinamen “Axtträger” (πελεκυφόροι/ pelekyphóroi) eintrug. Tinnefeld, Franz Bibliography S. Franklin, A. Cutler, s. v. Varangians, ODB 3, 2152.

Silentiarii

(95 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[English version] (σιλεντιάριοι). Ordnungshüter an den Kaiserhöfen des röm. Reiches seit Constantinus [1] I., benannt nach dem zeremoniellen Schweigen, das den Kaiser umgab. Sie unterstanden dem kaiserlichen Oberkämmerer ( praepositus sacri cubiculi); seit 437 n. Chr. sind am Hof von Konstantinopolis 30 s. unter drei decuriones bezeugt. Ihr Rang in der Hofhierarchie erhöhte sich bis zum 6. Jh.; danach nahm ihre Bed. ab. Doch werden die letzten s. noch in Quellen des 12. Jh. erwähnt. Tinnefeld, Franz Bibliography A. Kazhdan, s. v. Silentiarios, ODB 3, 1896  R. Guilland, Titre…

Urbicius

(95 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[English version] (Οὐρβίκιος). Als oström. praepositus sacri cubiculi unter Theodosius [3] II. seit 434 n. Chr. und wieder unter Leo(n) [4] I. und Zenon bezeugt. Gegen Zenon begünstigte er zwar 475 den Usurpator Basiliskos, trug aber 476 zu dessen Sturz bei. Er stand Verina, der Witwe Leons I., nahe und unterstützte wo…

Stotzas

(87 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[English version] (Στότζας). Angehöriger der Garde des Martinus [2], den er 533 n. Chr. auf dem Feldzug des Belisarios gegen die Vandali begleitete. Rebellische Truppen in Afrika wählten ihn 536 zu ihrem Anführer. Nach einem vergeblichen Versuch, Karthago zu erobern, wurde er 537 von Germanos [1] besiegt u…

Verina

(159 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[English version] (Aelia V., griech. Βηρίνη). Oström. Kaiserin, Gattin Leo(n)s [4] I., gest. 484 n. Chr., begünstigte nach dem Tod ihres Gatten 474 zunächst die Herrschaft des Isauriers Zeno(n) [18], Gatte ihrer Tochter Ariadne und Vater ihres Enkels Leo(n) [5] II., unterstützte aber 475 vorübergehend eine Revolte ihres Bruders Basiliskos gegen Zenon. 478 versuchte sie zusammen mit Epinikos [2], den mächtigen magister officiorum Illos zu stürzen; doch kam ihr dieser zuvor und verba…

Leo VI

(164 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[German Version] (Sep 19, 866, Constantinople – May 11, 912, Constantinople), Byzantine co-emperor from Jun 1, 870, and emperor from Aug 29, 886; a major lawgiver and man of letters, student of Patriarch Photius of Constantinople, propagandistically called “the Wise” after the analogy of King Solomon in the Old Testament (cf.

Michael Cerularius

(198 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
[German Version] (c. 1005/1010, Constantinople – Jan 21, 1059, Abydus), patriarch of Constantinople (Mar 25, 1043 – Nov 1058). Michael early on evinced an aristocratic sense of power that brought him into conflict with the Byzantine emperor and the Roman ¶ church. In 1054 a papal legation under Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida went to Constantinople to resolve the dispute between Rome and Byzantium over the use of unleavened (azyme) or leavened (enzyme) bread in the liturgy (Unleavened bread controversy) in favor of Rome. When Michael snubbed the legates and accused Rome of further errors, in parti…

Adolius

(77 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Silentiarius at the court of Justinian I, Armenian, son of the proconsul of Armenia I Arsacius, who was …

Logothetes

(254 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (λογοθέτης; logothétēs). Byzantine term for an office attested from the 6th cent. AD, initially for more lowly finance officers (tax collectors in the province or pay administrators in the army), and from the 7th/8th cents. for the following high offices: 1) logothetes genikoú (‘general logothetes’, i.e. logothetes of the state treasury), initially still subordinate to the sakellários but soon the highest finance officer in the empire corresponding …

Zoe

(232 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Ζωή; Zōḗ). Empress regnant of Byzantium 21 March - 12 June AD 1042 (born 978), as the daughter of Constantinus [10] VIII (1025-1028) a descendant of the Macedonian dynasty, therefore she also legitimated the emperorship of her three husbands [2; 4]. She was presumably the bride from Byzantium intended for Otto III who did not arrive in Italy until shortly after his death on 24 January 1002. By having her first husband Romanos [4] III, imposed on her by her dying father in 1028, mu…

Sabbatius

(32 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Σαββάτιος/ Sabbátios). Father of the emperor Iustinianus [1] I, Illyrian, mentioned only in passing in Procop. Arc. 12,18 and Theophanes p. 183,9 de Boor. PLRE 2, 966. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)

Nika revolt

(264 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Revolt against Iustinianus [1] I in Constantinople, AD 13-18. 1. 532, named after the cry of níka (νίκα, ‘be victorious!’) of the rebels in the Hippodrome. The outward reason was the decisive action of the city prefect Eudaemon against rampaging members of the so-called circus parties (‘green’ and ‘blue’, factiones ), the real cause, however, was the strict rule of the emperor, particularly his fiscalism occasioned by expensive war campaigns. The growing unrest among the citizens, further stirred up by oppositi…

Artabasdus

(58 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Artavasděs, AD 742-743). Armenian, brother-in-law of the emperor of Byzantium, Constantine V, who began his rule on 19 June 741. A. revolted against him some time later, supposedly as the defender of image-worship. He was defeated by Constantine in November 743 and overthrown. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography ODB 1, 192 I. Rochow, Kaiser Konstantin V., 1994.

Praepositus

(216 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] A term used during the Roman Imperial Period and in Late Antiquity to refer to leadership functions in a variety of areas of public service [3], in the 4th-6th cents. AD in the expanded form praepositus sacri cubiculi (Greek praipósitos toû eusebestátou koitônos) to refer to the court position of imperial high chamberlain, which was reserved for eunuchs, under whom the chamberlains (see Cubicularius) served. The office of praepositus is first attested under Constantius [2] II for Eusebius [3]. As a confidant of the emperor, the praepositus often played a key role …

Protobestiarios

(28 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (πρωτοβεστιάριος/ prōtobestiários, Latin protovestiarius). Overseer of the Byzantine emperor's wardrobe, 5th-15th centuries, eunuch office second to the parakoimṓmenos . ODB 3, 1749. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)

Euphemia

(163 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] E. Aelia Marciana Wife of the emperor Anthemius, AD 467 elevated to Augusta Only daughter of the emperor Marcianus, married Anthemius [2] in c. AD 453 who was later emperor in the west and had four sons and a daughter with him. In 467 she was elevated to Augusta. Her fate after the execution of her husband in 472 is unknown. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography PLRE 2, 423f. No. 6. P. Grierson, M. Mays, Catalogue of Late Roman Coins, 1992, 260f. [German version] [2] Concubine, later wife of emperor Iustinus I Originally a slave of ‘Barbarian’ origin by the name …

Varangians

(82 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Βάραγγοι/ Bárangoi). Scandinavians who from about the early 10th cent. AD arrived in Byzantium by way of the territory of the Kievan Rus (hence also often described as Ῥώς/ Rṓs or Tauroscythae), from the 11th cent. also Anglo-Saxons who served in the Byzantine army (in which they were considered particularly trustworthy), but primarily in the Imperial Guard. Their characteristic weapon was the battle-axe, which earned them the nickname 'axe-bearers' (πελεκυφόροι/ pelekyphóroi). Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography S. Franklin, A. Cutler, s. v. Varangia…

Mauricius

(425 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Μαυρίκιος; Mauríkios). Flavius M. Tiberius, East Roman emperor (A.D. 582-602), born in 539 in Arabissus (Cappadocia), died on 27th Nov. 602 in Calchedon. M. replaced the caesar and later emperor Tiberius II in 574 as chief of the guard and was given the command in 577 as magister militum per Orientem to continue the Persian war. After victories near Callinicus in 580 and near Constantina in 581, he was given a triumphal reception in 582 in Constantinople. Tiberius, emperor since 578, affianced him to his daughter Constantina and…

Heraclonas

(74 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Ἡρακλωνᾶς; Hēraklōnâs). Son of the emperor  Heraclius [7] and his second wife Martina, born c. AD 626. After his father's death in 641, he was to assume the succession as a minor represented by his mother together with Heraclius' oldest son Constantinus III, but was already deposed and exiled with his mother in Sept. 641 at the instigation of the Senate. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography PLRE 3, 587f. ODB 2, 918.

Protonotarios

(46 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (πρωτονοτάριος, Latin protonotarius). Superintendent of notarii (Greek notárioi) in Byzantine public authorities, primarily as 'state secretary' of the logothétēs toû drómou ( Logothétēs ), 9th-12th centuries. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography R. Guilland, Les logothètes, in: REByz 29, 1971, 5-115, esp. 38-40 ODB 3, 1746.

Kouropalates

(73 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (κουροπαλάτης; kouropalátēs; from Lat. cura palatii). Initially a term for an official responsible for palace business, used for the first time by Justinianus [1] I as a higher court title for his successor Iustinus [4] II. In the period following it was mainly reserved for members of the imperial family or for foreign princes. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography ODB 2,1157 R. Guilland, Titres et fonctions de l'Empire byzantin, 1976, III.

Katholikos

(66 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (καθολικός; katholikós). In the early 4th cent. AD the designation of a financial supervisor in an imperial diocese, later used only in the ecclesiastical sense: in the Byzantine world, used of an abbot in charge of several monasteries, in the Christian East used of bishops and above all for ecclesiastical leaders of whole countries (Armenia, Georgia). ODB 2, 1116. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)

Gloriosus

(52 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (and gloriosissimus). Unofficial epithet of the Roman emperor and of high officials in correspondence and in the intitulatio of laws, having the same meaning as the official inclitus, Greek éndoxos (ἔνδοξος), a result of translating the Greek word back into Latin. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography G. Rösch, Ὄνομα βασιλείας, 1978.

Staurakios

(121 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Byzantine emperor, 9th cent. Byzantine emperor (AD 811), son of Nikephoros [2] I, seriously wounded in the battle against the Bulgarian Khan Krum, in which his father fell. After a short period of recognition as successor to the throne, he was succeeded by Michael [3] I. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography P. A. Hollingsworth, s.v. S., ODB 3, 1945 f. [German version] [2] Eunuch, 8th cent. AD Eunuch in the rank of a πατρίκιος/ patríkios (Patrikios), from AD 781 λογοθέτης τοῦ δρόμου/ logothétēs toû drómou (Logothetes), victorious over the Slavs in Greece i…

Indictio

(389 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Originally ‘levy, tax’ (Dig. 19,1,13,6; Cod. Just. 1,51,11 and 12,52,3), from the 4th cent. AD also a term in chronology and from the 6th cent. solely used as a term in chronology. In the Imperial period Indictiones temporariae were extraordinary duties on grain. In 287 emperor  Diocletianus introduced an annual tax census that in each case involved a five-year assessment. It was initially called ἐπιγραφή ( epigraphḗ), and after 297 also indictio (ἰνδικτίων, indiktíōn). A 15-year tax cycle was introduced in 314, retroactively effective as of September…

Philippicus Bardanes

(113 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Φιλιππικὸς Βαρδάνης/ Philippikòs Bardánēs). Byzantine emperor (November AD 711 -June 713). Of an Armenian family at Constantinople (hence his Armenian name Bardanes), d. at Constantinople in 714/5. While participating in an expedition against Cherson, he was proclaimed emperor there under the Greek name P.B. as a rival to Iustinianus [3] II, who, while attempting to stall him on his way to Constantinople, was killed. As an adherent to Monotheletism, P.B. revoked the rulings of the 680/1 Council of Co…

Verina

(174 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Aelia V., Greek Βηρίνη/ Bērínē). Eastern Roman empress, wife of Leo [4] I, died AD 484. After the death of her husband in 474 she initially favoured rule by the Isaurian Zeno [18], the husband of her daughter Ariadne and the father of her grandson Leo [5] II, but for a time in 475 she supported the rebellion of her brother Basiliscus against Zeno. In 478 she and Epinicus [2] tried to overthrow the powerful magister officiorum Illus; but he anticipated it and banished her to Tarsus. He was able to win her over in 484, however, to suppor…

Patrikios

(49 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (πατρίκιος/ patríkios, from Lat. patricius). From the time of Constantine [1] I until about the 11th cent., a court title (court titles) in the Roman-Byzantine empire for high officials and officers. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography LMA 6, 1789-1791  ODB 3, 1600  W. Heil, Der konstantinische Patriziat, 1966.

Amorian dynasty

(247 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Sovereign family, ruled the Byzantine Empire for three generations (AD 820-867). Its founder Michael II (820-829) from Amorion in Phrygia asserted himself in 823 against the usurper Thomas the Slav. His son Theopilus (829-842) was the last of the iconoclast emperors (opponents of religious cult images). During his rulership the Arabs achieved a significant success in 838 by taking the fortress Amorion. Under his widow Theodora, who first ruled for her son Michael III (842-867, bor…

Skeuophylax

(49 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (σκευοφύλαξ; skeuophýlax). Clerical post in the Byzantine Church, responsible for liturgical equipment, sanctuaries and ecclesiastical ceremonies, associated with the headship of an office and highly prestigious. At major churches such as Hagia Sophia at Constantinople. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography P. Magdalino, A. M. Talbot, s.v. S., ODB 3, 1909f.

Circus factions

(202 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Latin factiones; Greek μέρη/ mérē or, less succinctly, δῆμοι/ dêmoi; see Demos [2] C.). Modern term for the associations or clubs that from the Roman Imperial Period onwards, initially in Rome itself and later also in other cities of the Empire, organised chariot races in hippodromes ( Hippódromos [1]). They were grouped - distinguished from one another by the colours white, red, blue and green - around successful charioteers and in Late Antiquity, primarily in the East of the Roman Empire, occasionally exhibited a clear political orientation (Nika Revolt; Factiones
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