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Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Mythography

(3,249 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(μυθογραφία; mythographía). [German version] I. Introduction Mythography is a commonly used term for ancient and post-antique literature that presents, collects and also interprets myths (and is therefore applied also to indigenous recording of comparable narrative traditions in other cultures or to ethnographic transcriptions of them). The term mythography, however, has to remain imprecise, if only because of the implicit problem in finding a definition for myth, especially in relation to its differe…

Phaestus

(984 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg)
(Φαῖστος; Phaȋstos). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Sicyon Mythical king of Sicyon, son Rhopalus the son of Heracles [1]; establishes divine worship of Heracles; because of an oracle emigrates to Crete, where the city of P. [4] is named after him (Paus. 2,6,6f.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Ally of the Trojans in the Trojan War Ally of the Trojans in the Trojan War, son of Borus from Tarne in Lydia, killed by  Idomeneus [1] (Hom. Il. 5,43). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Epicist, Hellenistic period Hellenistic epic poet, mentioned twice in the scholia o…

Nicander

(1,519 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Νίκανδρος; Níkandros). [German version] [1] Spartan king, c. 715 BC Spartan king, Eurypontid, the father of Theopompus (Hdt. 8,131). N. led the raid of Spartans and Asinaeans into Argolis, in retaliation for which the Argives destroyed Asine [1] ( c. 715 BC). The settlement was refounded a few years later on the Messenian Gulf (Asine [2]; Paus. 2,36,4f.; 3,7,4; 4,14,3f.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998, 74f., 93, 96. [German version] [2] Strategos in the Aetolian League, 190/189, 184/3 and 177/6 BC Son of Bittus of Trichonium (Syll.3 5…

Theopompus

(1,730 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Et al.
(Θεόπομπος/ Theópompos). [German version] [1] Spartan king, around 700 BC Among the early Spartan kings, the Eurypontid T. (Eurypontids), son of Nicander [1] (Hdt. 8,131), is the only one securely identified in a contemporary source: Tyrtaeus (fr. 2 Gentili/Prato) names him as a victorious king in the 1st Messenian War ( c. 700/690-680/70 BC). He was probably the colleague of the Agiad Polydorus [6] (Paus. 4,7,7), appears to have played a role in Spartan-Argive conflicts around Cynuria [1] (Paus. 3,7,5) and in disputes between Spartans and Arcad…

Hipparchus

(1,790 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἵππαρχος; Hípparchos). [German version] [1] Second son of Peisistratus, around 530 BC Second son of  Peisistratus and an Athenian woman. Together with his older brother  Hippias [1] and the younger Thessalus, H. assumed his inheritance (528/527 BC) after his father's death (Thuc. 6,55; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 18,1). In contrast to Hippias, H. exhibited no political profile. He dedicated himself to aristocratic social life and culture and invited, among others,  Anacreon [1] of Teos and  Simonides of Ceos to A…

Epaphroditus

(558 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἐπαφρόδιτος; Epaphróditos). [German version] [1] Freedman of Octavian Freedman of Octavian, who in the year 30 BC was supposed to keep Cleopatra from committing suicide, but was allegedly outwitted by the queen (Plut. Antonius 79,6; Cass. Dio 51,13,4f.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography K. Kraft, KS 1, 1973, 38f. [German version] [2] Freedman of Nero Freedman of Nero, therefore Ti. Claudius Aug(usti) lib(ertus) E. by his full name. First accepted as an imperial freedman into the city of Rome's decuriae, i.a. apparitor Caesarum and viator tribunicius; later a libellis o…

Philinne

(84 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Φιλίννη; Philínn ē). A papyrus fragment (PAmherst 11) contains three hexameters of a magical incantation (ἐπῳδή; epōidḗ) against headaches, attributed to a certain “P. of Thessaly”. This fragment is physically connected to another (PBerolinensis inv. 7504) from the same roll containing a magic spell by a Syrian woman from Gadara against burns of all sorts. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1 SH 900 2 PGM II2, p. 145 3 Pack, No. 1871 (with bibliography) 4 A. Henrichs, Zum Text einiger Zauberpapyri, in: ZPE 6, 1970, 204-209.

Semus

(217 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Σῆμος/ Sêmos) of Delos. Greek antiquarian c. 200 AD. The Suda s. v. Σ. (where ὁ Ἠλεῖος is a corruption [1; 4]) mentions him as a 'scholar' (γραμματικός/ grammatikós) and the author of Δηλιακά/Dēliaká ( Delian history, 8 books; in other sources invariably called Δηλιάς sc. συγγραφή/ Dēliás sc. syngraphḗ) and a work On Delos (FGrH 396 F 1-22, for the most part from Athenaeus). It dealt with cultural and religious antiquities and curiosities on and near Delos, presumably in a periegetic structure. Of his work On Paeans a further fragment (FGrH 396 F 24 =  Ath. 14, 62…

Pamprepius

(395 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Παμπρέπιος/ Pamprépios) of Panopolis in Egypt. The sources on his biography [1. 7-9] are detailed but often tendentious: Suda s.v. Π. = vol. 4, 13,28-15,28 Adler, with excerpts from Malchus (also in Phot. cod. 242); Hesychius = Suda vol. 4,13,25-27 Adler; the horoscope of P. preserved in Rhetorius; Damascius, Vita Isidori (esp. antipathetic). Born in AD 440, P. studied at Alexandria, where he became acquainted with Hermias and came into contact with Neoplatonic circles. Around the…

Hegesander

(324 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] [1] Athen. rhetor, middle of 4th cent. BC Athenian rhetor, son of Hegesias from the deme Sunium and brother of  Hegesippus [1], in 361/60 BC treasurer (Aeschin. In Tim. 55f.; 95) of the strategos Timomachus and despite the latter's sentence for bribery shortly afterwards   tamias of Athena (Aeschin. In Tim. 110f. and schol.), implying that he was a rich man. In the trial against Timocrates  Aeschines [2] most likely slanderously accused him of illegal enrichment. H. was considered an opponent of Aristop…

Sostratus

(572 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Σώστρατος/ Sṓstratos). [German version] [1] Of Cnidus, Greek architect, 1st half of 3rd cent. BC Son of Dexiphanes of Cnidus; architect of the early Hellenistic period (1st half of 3rd cent. BC), mentioned several times in ancient literature (Plin. HN 36,83; Lucian, Amores 11; Lucian, Hippias 2). He was also diplomatically active, as one of the philoi of Ptolemaeus [3] II (Str. 17,1,6). As well as with various canal constructions linked to the conquest of the Egyptian city of Memphis and buildings at Cnidus and Delphi (FdD III/1 nos. 198 and 299), h…

Parthenius

(1,172 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Marek, Christian (Zürich) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] I Greek (Παρθένιος; Parthénios). [German version] [I 1] Prolific writer from Nicaea or Myrlea, 1st cent. BC 1st cent. BC; from Nicaea or Myrlea; according to the Suda (π 664 = T 1 Lightfoot), our only source of biographical information (based on Hermippus of Berytus), P. may have been born in Myrlea and then moved to Nicaea (cf. [5. 9] with literature). Prolific writer, author of poems in a variety of metres. Captured by Cinna during a campaign against Mithridates [6] in 73 BC, but freed ' because of his education', P. is believed to have lived until the time of Empe…

Oppianus

(811 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ὀππιανός/ Oppianós). [German version] [1] From Corycus, Author of a didactic poem on fishing O. from Corycus in Cilicia, author, to be distinguished from O. [2], of a didactic poem entitled Ἁλιευτικά/ Halieutiká, 'On Fishing', 3506 verses in 5 books, which is dedicated to Marcus [1] Aurelius and Commodus (177-180 AD). Sources for his biography: vitae in a series of manuscripts; according to which O. was banished by Septimius Severus and received back into Rome by Caracalla (Suda s.v. Ὀ.; Athen. 1,13c). Content: books 1 and 2 …

Ancient languages, teaching of

(6,842 words)

Author(s): Apel, Hans Jürgen (Bayreuth RWG) | Raeburn, David Antony (Oxford RWG) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
Apel, Hans Jürgen (Bayreuth RWG) I. Germany (CT) [German version] A. Definition (CT) Methodical instruction in the classical languages Latin and Greek (in earlier times also Hebrew) as well as guided reading and interpretation of Latin and Greek texts is designated as instruction in the classics. Apel, Hans Jürgen (Bayreuth RWG) [German version] B. History (CT) Classical languages have been taught since ancient times, when Greek was studied in Rome. In medieval preparatory schools/Latin schools, Latin was the focus of instruction. Grammar, rhetoric a…

Colluthus

(381 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Κόλλουθος; Kóllouthos). A Greek native of Lycopolis in Egypt, who lived during the reign of Anastasius I (AD 491-518). Biography: Suda s.v. Κόλουθος, 3,1951, according to this Cod. Ambrosianus gr. 661; for the form of the name cf. [1, XI-XII]. Epic poet, author of a poem about the Calydonian Boar Hunt ( Kalydōniaká in six bks.), of encomia (hymns of praise) in hexameters and of an epic poem Persiká, which may have dealt with Anastasius's triumphs over the Persians in the year 505 (cf. [4]). His surviving work is a small epic poem in 392 verses, the ‘Rape of Helen…

Phoronis

(129 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Φορωνίς/Phorōnís). Epic by an anonymous author, 7th/6th cent. BC. It received its name from a hero from Tiryns, Phoroneus, the 'father of all men' (fr. 1 PEG). The frequency of the word πρῶτος/ prȏtos, 'the first', in the fragments indicates the poet's interest in the first beginnings of human life. Fr. 2: the Daktyloi Idaioi discover the art of Hephaestus. Fr. 4: Callithoe [2] is the first to adorn the great statue of the 'Argive' Hera: the epithet is problematic (bibliography in [1. 120]). Paus. 2,15,5 and 2,1…

Soterichus

(104 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Σωτήριχος/ Sōtḗrichos). Epic writer of the 3rd/4th cents. AD from Hyasis (in Libya), lived under Diocletianus (AD 284-305), and, according to Suda s. v. Σ., wrote an encomium to him. Further works: Bassariká or Dionysiaká (4 books), Pantheia of Babylon, Ariadne, Life of Apollonius of Tyana, Python or Alexandriacus (on the storming of Thebes by Alexander [4] the Great) and an epic on his own homeland; Schol. Lycoph. 486 [2. 64111] also mentions Kaledōniaká (on the myth of the Caledonian boar) [2]. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1 FGrH 641 2 M. Ch. G. Müller,…

Eudaemon

(181 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Εὐδαίμων; Eudaímōn). Correspondent of  Libanius (Ep. 167; 255; 633) and his ‘fraternal’ friend for over thirty years (cf. Ep. 108; 132; 164; 315; 632; 826; 1057), from Pelusium in Egypt, born before AD 337 (probably c. 314/24: [2. 279]), died before AD 392. According to the Suda (ε 3407) a ‘grammarian’ (but he may also have taught rhetoric), author of a Τέχνη γραμματική/ Téchnē grammatikḗ (‘Grammar’) and an Ὀνοματικὴ ὀρθογραφία/ Onomatikḕ orthographía (‘Orthography of Names’) (cf. Lib. Ep. 255,7, regarding E.'s opinion on the vocative of Ἡρακλῆς/ Heraklês), which …

Epimerismi

(588 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] ἐπιμερισμοί ( epimerismoí) are ‘subdivisions’ (Apollonius Dyscolus, Syntaxis 491,13 Schneider-Uhlig; Lat. partitiones,  Priscianus) ‘of verses or sentences into words’ (this is the sense, in which Sext. Emp. Adv. Math. 1,159-168 in the 2nd cent. AD used μερισμός; merismós): each word was analyzed grammatically and prosodically, and sometimes also semantically. It is a teaching aid of the Byzantine School (Tzetzes on Hes. Op. 285); in the 11th-12th cents., it was referred to as schedographia (‘writing of didactic pieces’, σχέδη ( schédē), of uncertain etymolo…
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