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Kleinasien

(13,916 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Genz, Hermann (Istanbul) | Schoop, Ulf-Dietrich (Tübingen) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Et al.
[English version] I. Name Als Einheit wird die Halbinsel K. westl. vom Tauros erstmals von Strabon (2,5,24; 12,1,3; vgl. Plin. nat. 5,27f.; Ptol. 5,2) Asia im engeren Sinn gen., im Gegensatz zum Erdteil Asia. Asia minor begegnet in dieser Bed. erstmals bei Oros. 1,2,26 (Anf. 5. Jh.n.Chr.). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [English version] II. Geographie Der westlichste Teil des asiat. Kontinents zw. 36° und 42° nördl. Br, zw. 26° und 44° östl. L, zw. Ägäis und Euphrates (ca. 1200 km), zw. dem Schwarzen Meer und dem Mittelmeer (ca. 600 km); K. ist im…

Griechenland

(10,520 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg i. Br.) RWG | Tsakmakis, Antonis (Nikosia) RWG | Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin) RWG
Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg i. Br.) RWG I. Allgemein (RWG) [English version] A. Chronologie und Abgrenzung (RWG) “G.” läßt sich in einem doppelten Sinne verstehen: Einmal meint man damit den ngriech. Staat seit seiner Gründung (1830); “G.” kann aber auch, ohne unmittelbar staatliche Bed., jene Gebiete des ehemaligen byz. Reiches bezeichnen, in denen sich nach 1204 oder 1453 die griechischsprachige Kultur artikulierte, sei es im Rahmen des Osmanischen Reiches (OR), sei es innerhalb des venezianischen Herrschafts…

Nauplia

(355 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Ναυπλία, byz. τὸ Ναύπλιον oder τὸ Ἀνάπλι, h. Nafplio). [English version] I. Lage Hafenstadt auf felsiger Halbinsel am Kolpos Argolikos (Strab. 8,2,2; Skyl. 49; 6,11; Ptol. 3,16,11) am Nordhang des Stadtbergs Akronafplio (ehemals Iç Kale, 85 m H) mit größeren Teilen der hell. Akropolismauer unter der späteren byz.-venezianisch-türkischen Festung, nordwestl. des Palamidhi (215 m H) mit der 1711-1714 von den Venezianern erbauten Festung. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [English version] II. Entwicklung bis in spätantike Zeit Vom Neolithikum an sind Si…

Megara

(2,316 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Genf) | Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athen) | Ziegler, Konrat † (Göttingen)
[English version] [1] Tochter des Kreon (Μεγάρα, Μεγάρη). Tochter des Kreon [1] von Theben, Gattin des Herakles [1] (Hom. Od. 11,269-270), der sie zum Dank für die Befreiung Thebens vom Tribut an Erginos zur Frau bekommen hat, und Mutter von Herakleidai. Während die Thebaner nach Paus. 9,11,2 vom Kindermord des wahnsinnigen Herakles (sein Wahnsinn schon Kypria p. 40,28f. PEG) ‘nicht anders als Stesichoros (= 230 PMGF) und Panyassis (= fr. 1 PEG)’ erzählten, überliefert Pherekydes (FGrH 3 F 14), daß He…

Philippopolis

(709 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Alexandros | Balkanhalbinsel, Sprachen | Christentum | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia | Roma | Roma | Theater | Thrakes, Thrake, Thraci | Straßen (Φιλιππόπολις, Φιλιπούπολις). [English version] I. Lage und Geschichte bis zur Eroberung durch die Goten Stadt in Thrakia (Thrakes), von Philippos [4] II. in direkter Nähe einer befestigten Siedlung der Bessoi am rechten Ufer des Hebros 341 v.Chr. gegr., wichtiger Straßen- und Flußschiffahrtsknotenpunkt zw. Istros [2], Pontos Euxeinos, Aigaion Pelagos, …

Geoponika

(997 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Christmann, Eckhard (Heidelberg)
[English version] I. Sammelbegriff für landwirtschaftliche Fachliteratur Im weiteren Sinne bezeichnet man mit G. eine durch zahlreiche Schriften vertretene Gattung der Fachliteratur, die eine systematische Darstellung “wiss.” Kenntnisse über alle Arten der Landwirtschaft unternimmt [1; 2; 3. 427ff.]. Das Spektrum des darin verarbeiteten Wissens ist sehr breit: Es reicht von naiver Bauernmagie bis zu spekulativen Systematisierungsversuchen des Bodens, der Nutzpflanzen und -tiere. Da ein Teil der neben E…

Menologion

(123 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[English version] (Μηνολόγιον). Sammlung von Hl.-Viten der orthodoxen Kirche, die nach dem Fest des jeweiligen Hl., dem Kirchenjahr entsprechend (Kalender) angeordnet sind. Im Gegensatz zum Synaxarion, das zu jedem Hl. nur kurze Notizen bietet, und zum Menaion, das in der Regel liturgische Gesänge und Gebete zum Fest des Hl. enthält, sind die βίοι (“Lebensbeschreibungen”) des M. normalerweise länger. Erste Erwähnung vielleicht bei Theodoros Studites [1. Bd. 1, 21], sind die ersten Exemplare aus de…

Greece

(12,206 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Tsakmakis, Antonis (Nicosia ) | Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG)
Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) I. General (CT) [German version] A. Chronology and Delineation (CT) 'Greece' (G.) can be understood in a dual sense: on the one hand, the term is used to refer to the modern Greek state since its foundation (1830); however, 'G.' can also – without immediate reference to questions of statehood - describe the territories of the former Byzantine empire in which the Greek-speaking culture found expression after 1204 or 1453, whether in the context of the Ottoman Empire (OE) or within…

Messana, Messene

(2,692 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] Town in northeastern Sicily This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Socii (Roman confederation) | | Commerce | Italy, languages | Colonization | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Μεσσάνα/ Messána, Ionian Μεσσήνη/ Messḗnē, Lat. Messana). Town in northeastern Sicily, modern Messina. The original name Zancle (Ζάγκλη/ Zánklē = Siculan: ‘sickle’) is derived from the topographically suggestive shape of the natural harbour (Thuc. 6,4,5). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] A. Foundation The site was settled at an early time because of its o…

Epirus

(1,836 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Ἤπειρος; Ḗpeiros, Epirus) [German version] I. Region E. is located at the north-western fringe of the Greek cultural sphere, nowadays comprising northern Greece and southern Albania. From Homer (8th cent. BC) to the late 5th cent., the geographical term ἤπειρος ( ḗpeiros) referred to the mainland north of the Gulf of Ambracia. There is a wide variation in the attribution of individual tribes to E. both in ancient and modern literature, making it impossible clearly to define E.'s geographic expansion [1]. E. was bordered in the west by…

Acts of the Apostles

(235 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[German version] The title (πράξεις [τῶν] ἀποστόλων; práxeis [tôn] apostólōn or acta/actus apostolorum), which was first documented in the late 2nd cent., is almost certainly not its original. Paul is not really considered an apostle by the author. Acts is part of the Lukan historical corpus together with the Gospel designated as πρῶτος λόγος ( prôtos lógos) in 1.1. Repetitions and contradictions (e.g. Lk 24,50-53 and Acts 1,9-11) are explained as a variatio. The structure of Acts is presented in 1,8: spread of the gospel by ‘witnesses’ and the ‘power of the Holy Gh…

Peloponnesus

(1,127 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(ἡ Πελοπόννησος/ hē Pelopónnēsos, Doric Πελοπόννασος/ Pelopónnasos). [German version] I. Geography Peninsula in southern Greece (21,439 km²), connected to the mainland (Attica, Boeotia) by the Isthmus of Corinth. It is predominantly mountainous (cf. Cyllene [1], Erymanthus [1], Lycaeum, western Messenian massif with Ithome [1], Taygetus, Parnon) and highly fragmented (cf. the numerous small rivers, particularly in Achaea, e.g. Alpheus [1], Pamisus, Eurotas, Inachus [2]; also the many small coastal plains a…

Ragusa

(458 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[German version] (Lat. Ragusium, Greek Ῥαούσιον/ Rhaoúsion, Slavic Dubrovnik; regarding the name cf. [1]), city on the Dalmatian coast. The beginnings of the trading city that was to become so famous a rival of Venice on the Adriatic Sea were hazy already for the historians of R. at the time of Humanism so that they arrived at different legends of its origin reminiscent of the type of ancient aetiology (cf. the depictions in [2; 3; 4]). The report by Constantinus [1] Porphyrogennetus (Const. de administ…

Menologion

(151 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[German version] (Μηνολόγιον; Mēnológion). A collection of the lives of Saints of the Orthodox Church, arranged according to the feast-day of the corresponding saint, in accordance with the ecclesiastical year ( calendar). In contrast to the Synaxarion, which provides only brief notices for each saint, and to the Menaion, which usually contains liturgical songs and prayers for the saint's festival, the βίοι/ bíoi (‘lives’) of the Menologion are normally longer. It may have been mentioned first in Theodoros Studites [1. vol. 1, 21], yet the first preserved …

Megara

(2,675 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
[German version] [1] Daughter of Creon (Μεγάρα/ Megára, Μεγάρη/ Megárē). Daughter of Creon [1] of Thebes, wife of Heracles [1] (Hom. Od. 11,269-270), who had received her hand in thanks for the liberation of Thebes from tribute to Erginus, and mother of some of the Heraclidae. Whereas the Thebans according to Paus. 9,11,2 tell of the insane Heracles' infanticide (on his insanity Cypria p. 40,28f. PEG) as nothing other than what Stesichorus (= 230 PMGF) and Panyassis (= fr. 1 PEG) relate, the version of P…

Italia [I-II]

(5,411 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Mastrocinque, Attilio (Verona) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
I. Geography and history [German version] A. The name and its development The name I. acquired its modern meaning during the Augustan period; it originally described the kingdom of the Oenotrian ruler Italus, comprising the Bruttian peninsula from Sila to Scylletium (Antiochus FGrH 555 F 5; according to Hecat. FGrH 1 F 41,51-53, Medma, Locris, Caulonia, and Krotalla were in I.). Hellanicus links I. with the term vitulus (‘calf’) and the legend of the calf of  Geryoneus which had run away from Hercules (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,35); Timaeus associates the name wit…

Diglossia

(373 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] The term ‘diglossia’ (not to be confused with  bilingualism) was already used late in the 19th cent. to characterize the Greek language situation. However, it only became a central concept in sociolinguistics with Ch. Ferguson's essay [1] in which he developed the canonical definition using Swiss German, (Modern) Greek, Arabic and Haitian Creole as examples. It considers diglossia to be a language situation in which the spoken primary language (which Ferguson labelled ‘L’ as in ‘Low’; in the Greek language area this was the δημοτική, dhimotikí), whether regionally…

Slavs, Slavonization

(1,120 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[German version] The S. (Σκλαβηνοί/ Sklabēnoí since the 6th cent. AD; Lat. Sclaveni in Iordanes [1], from the early Slavic slověne; Σκλάβος/ Sklábos first in the High Middle Ages, from which 'slave', Arabic ṣaqāliba) are the youngest of the major linguistic groups of Europe; they first appear on the horizon of the Graeco-Roman culture in Late Antiquity. To date, the study of this process and the multifaceted acculturation processes between the S. and the ancient Mediterranean cultures, which occurred after c. AD 500, has been determined by the initial conditions of Slavic…

Thraci, Thracia

(5,334 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Boroffka, Nikolaus | Z.H.A.
(Θρᾷκες/ Thrâikes, Θρῇκες/ Thrêikes; Θρᾴκη/ Thrâikē, Θρῄκη/ Thrêikē): the 'Thracians' and the country 'Thrace' settled by them; Lat. Thraci, Thracia. [German version] I. Name Thraci (Th.) is a Greek collective term, based on linguistic and cultural homogeneity, for the population of the northern Balkan Peninsula from the north coast of the Aegean (Aegean Sea, also called the 'Thracian Sea': Str. 1,2,20) to the Danube (Ister, Istrus [1]; ancient authors often include the territory as far as the northern Carpathians), an…

Patrae

(956 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Coloniae | Dark Ages | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles | Peloponnesian War | Pilgrimage (Πάτραι/ Pátrai, ethnicon usually Πατρεύς/ Patreús, Latin Patrae, ethnicon Patrensis). [German version] I. Topography Town in western Achaea, with an important harbour, still known as P. today (on the name see [1]), created by synoikismós from seven villages (δῆμοι/ dḗmoi) (Str. 8,3,2; [2. 89-95, 120f.; 3; 4]). Unlike the modern town, P. was not on the coastal plain, but on the first, low rise above it…
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