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(192 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] The country between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, with the Great  Caucasus, was settled from the 4th millennium BC onwards and until today is distinctively polyethnic. From the late 3rd millennium onwards, C. became a centre of  bronze metallurgy for the Near Easter; at the end of the 2nd millennium beginning of  iron metallurgy. In the 9th-6th cents. C. was affected by the expansion of the  Urarṭu empire; in northern C. lived  Scythian and  Sarmatian tribes. From the 6th cen…


(116 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Σοάνες/ Soánes, Latin Suani). First mentioned in Str. 11,2,14; 11,2,19, which locates them in the western Caucasus together with the Phtheirophagi ('fir-cone eaters') above the Colchi (Colchis) and counts them among the tribes who trade in Dioscurias; they were a war-like people who extracted gold from mountain streams (as also in Plin. HN 6,14; 6,30). In the 6th cent. AD the S. came under the sovereignty of Lazica (Procop. Goth 4,16,14; Agathias 4,30; Men. Protektor fr. 3 [1. 177,1…


(194 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Καυκάσιον ὄρος; Kaukásion óros, Hdt. 3,97; Καύκασον ὄρος; Kaúkason óros, App. praef. 4, App. Mith. 103; καυκάσια ὄρη, Str. 11,2,1; Caucasii/Caucasei montes, Plin. HN 5,98; 6,47; Mela 1,15; 1,19; Geogr. Rav. 2,20). First mentioned at Aesch. PV 422; 719 (πόλισμα καυκάσου, καύκασον); the name has been retained until today. High mountain range (1,100 km long, up to 60 km wide) between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea that separated the world of the northern steppe peoples (Scythians, Sarmatians, Alania…


(64 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Procop. Aed. 3,3; Chorzianene, Procop. Pers. 2,24; Armenian: Xorjean/Xorjayn). Region in Armenia, south of the upper course of the Euphrates on the river Gayl, modern Perisuyu, with Koloberd the capital. Modern Kiĝi in the centre of the Karagöl Daĝları south-west of Theodosiopolis (Erzurum), eastern Turkey. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography R. H. Hewsen (ed.), The Geography of Ananias of Širak, 1991, 19, 154f.


(874 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
(Πέτρα/ Pétra, 'rock') [German version] [1] Capital of the Nabataean Empire This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | India, trade with | Limes | Rome | Rome | Egypt Capital of the Nabataean kingdom (Nabataei) in Edom, about 80 km to the south of the Dead Sea in the Wādı̄ Mūsā (in modern Jordan). The city is first mentioned by Diodorus [18] under the name Pétra (Diod. Sic. 19, 95-98) as the Nabataei's place of refuge and assembly ('High place, rock'). The inscriptionally documented Semitic name of P. is Raqmu. Although the surrounding are…


(43 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] River (Str. 11,3; 11,2; Olazanes, Plin. HN 6,29) that springs from the southern slopes of the central Caucasus mountains and flowed into the  Cyrus (Georgian: Alasani). According to Pliny, the border between  Iberia and  Albania [1]. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)


(56 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Γυμνιάς; Gymniás, Xen. An. 4,7,19). Large, heavily populated and affluent town of the Skythēnoí on the left bank of the Harpasus (modern Çoruh su), at the location of or near modern Bayburt. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography O. Lendle, Kommentar zu Xenophons Anabasis, 1995, 270-272.


(567 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] [1] Country in the centre of southern Caucasia (Ἰβηρία; Ibēría, Str. 11,3,1-6; Ptol. 5,10,1-2; Georgian Kʿartʿli, Parthian Virčan, Armenian Virkʿ). Country in the centre of southern Caucasia, bordering on the Greater  Caucasus in the north, the Likh Range in the west which runs north-south from the Greater to the Lesser Caucasus, the Kura-Aras Lowland in the east and the Lesser Caucasus in the south, especially the southern and western frontiers being fluid; approximately modern eastern Georgia. Unt…


(263 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Christianity | Commerce | Colonization | Patricius (Πιτυοῦς/ Pityoûs: Str. 11,2,14; Ptol. 5,8,10; 5,9,1; Patrum Nicaenorum nomina p. LXII, 113 Gelzer; Zos. 1,32; Theod. Hist. eccl. 9,5,35; Suda 1670; Πιτιῦς/ Pitiûs: Procop. Pers. 2,29,18; Procop. Goth. 8,4,1-6; Procop. Aed. 3,7,8; Pityus: Plin. HN 6,16; Pithiae: Not. Dign. Or. 18,32). Identified with Picunda/Bičvinta in the republic of Abchasia/Georgia (Roman and early Byzantine fort), yet the identification of the town, f…


(320 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
(Ὀρθωσία; Orthōsía). [German version] [1] Carian community in the interior In Hellenistic times it was one of the smaller Carian communities inland with its own mint; in Str. 14,1,47 it is a katoikía (settlement) near Nysa to the north of the Maeander [2] (Büyük Menderes). In the 2nd cent. AD, O. was given Roman municipal status, in the 5th/6th cents. AD it was the seat of a bishopric for the diocese of Caria with Aphrodisias [1] as its metropolitan see. The ruins of O., which are situated near Donduran in Ortas in the mountai…


(198 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Armenian Parskahayk'). In AD 387, Armenia Major was divided up, with about a fifth of the territory being allocated to Rome and the greater eastern area to Iran. After the death of Aršak III (Arsaces [5]), the Roman-Byzantine area was established around AD 390 as the province of Armenia interior, while the entire eastern region, called P. by the Byzantines, remained under the rule of the Sassanids. Following the end of Arsakid rule in AD 428, the Sassanids appointed a governor general ( marzpan) to the new capital city of Dvin (Doubios). The Armenians reacted …


(48 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] Georgian Aragvi (Armenian arag ‘fast’). River (Str. 11,3; 2) with three source rivers (Mtiuleti, Gudamaqari, Psavi) in  Iberia on the southern slopes of the Great Caucasus; the ‘Georgian military road’ ran along the A.; in Mzcheta it flows into the  Cyrus. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)


(173 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] According to Plin. HN 6,129 ( Nikephorio) it was, along with the Parthenius, a major Armenian tributary of the Tigris. According to Tac. Ann. 15,4,2 ( Nikephorius), it flowed through Tigranocerta. Its identification depends on the location of Tigranocerta, which has hitherto been sought at Silvan (Martyropolis/Mayafarikin/Nprkert) [1]. But taking into account an Armenian historical work of the 2nd half of the 5th cent., called Buzandaran Patmut'iwnk' 4,24 [2], it was rather at Arzan [3]. In the former case…


(54 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[English version] Kaukasisches Volk an der nordöstl. Schwarzmeerküste um die Mündung des Koraxes (h. Kodori) südl. der Abaskoi (Plin. 6,14; Arr. per. p. E. 11,3; Prok. BG 4,3; Agath. 2,15; 4,15; Geogr. Rav. 1,17). Im Gebiet der A. lag Dioskurias/Sebastopolis. Der A.- König Iulianus erhielt von Hadrian die Insignien. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)


(46 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[English version] Ort an der Kolchisküste, ca. 20 km nördl. des h. Batumi. Umfangreiche Nekropole aus dem 6.-2. Jh.v.Chr. mit att.-sf. und rf. Keramik; die synchrone griech. Siedlung (Matium? Plin. nat. 6,12) ist bisher nicht nachgewiesen. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography D. Braund, Georgia in Antiquity, 1995, 109-117.


(135 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[English version] (Ἡνίοχοι, Ps.-Skyl. 71). Im 5. Jh. v.Chr. großer Stammesverband an der kaukasischen buchtenreichen und dichtbewaldeten Pontosküste zw. Zygoi und Achaioi im Norden und Sanigai im Süden. Im Gebiet der H. wurde Pityus/Picunda gegr.; die H. trieben Viehzucht, daneben Piraterie mit leichten Booten (Strab. 11,2,14) und wurden gegen E. des 4. Jh. v.Chr. vom bosporanischen König Eumelos [4] unterworfen, der die Seeräuberei im Pontos bekämpfte (Diod. 20,25,2). Im 1. Jh. v.und n.Chr. kam e…


(208 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Christentum | Handel | Kolonisation | Regnum Bosporanum | Schwarzmeergebiet (Πιτυοῦς: Strab. 11,2,14; Ptol. 5,8,10; 5,9,1; Patrum Nicaenorum nomina p. LXII, 113 Gelzer; Zos. 1,32; Theod. hist. eccl. 9,5,35; Suda 1670; Πιτιῦς: Prok. BP 2,29,18; Prok. BG 8,4,1-6; Prok. aed. 3,7,8; Pityus: Plin. nat. 6,16; Pithiae: Not. dign. or. 18,32). Identifiziert mit Picunda/Bičvinta in der Republik Abchasien/ Georgien (röm.-frühbyz. Kastell). Die bei Strabon bzw. Plinius erwähnte Stadt, gegründet…


(36 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[English version] Fluß (Strab. 11,3; 11,2; Olazanes, Plin. nat. 6,29), der am Süd-Hang des Zentralkaukasus entspringt und in den Kyros mündet (georg. Alasani). Bei Plinius Grenze zwischen Iberia und Albania [1]. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)


(180 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[English version] (Pahlevi pāp, bāb, “Vater”). Sohn des armenischen Königs Arsakes' [4] II. und der Pharanjem von Siwnik'. Nach der Gefangennahme seines Vaters floh P. zu Valens, der ihn noch 369 n.Chr. durch den dux Terentius wieder als Herrscher in Armenien einsetzen ließ (Amm. 27,12,9-10). In der Folgezeit gelang es Sapor II., ihn zu antiröm. Maßnahmen zu bewegen: P. sandte dem Perserkönig die Köpfe seiner Minister Kylakes und Artabannes [1] zu (Amm. 27,12,14). Die in den armen. Quellen behauptete Vergiftung des katholikós Nersēh durch den König (z.B. Moses Chorenaci 3…

Portae Caspiae

(77 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[English version] (Plin. nat. 6,30; Πύλαι Κάσπιαι/ Pýlai Káspiai: Hekat. FGrH 1 F 286; Strab. 11,5,4; 11,12,5; Θύραι Κάσπιαι/ Thýrai Káspiai: Ios. ant. Iud. 18,4,4). Der h. Paß von Sirdara im Elbursgebirge ( Caspii montes ), zw. Media und Parthia, 60 km nö von Teheran. Zugleich wurde der Name auch für die Straße von Darband am Westufer des Kaspischen Meeres gebraucht. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography M. Schottky, Parther, Meder und Hyrkanier, in: AMI 24, 1991, 61-135, bes. 123.
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