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al-Mustakfī

(489 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
bi ’llāh , Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAbd Allāh , ʿAbbāsid caliph, reigned 333-4/944-6, son of the caliph al-Muḳtafī [ q.v.] by a Greek slave concubine called G̲h̲uṣn. When the commander-in-chief of the Turkish soldiery in Bag̲h̲dād, Tūzūn, deposed and blinded al-Muttaḳī b. al-Muḳtadir [ q.v.], he raised to the throne one of the latter’s cousins as al-Mustakfī in Ṣafar 333/September-October 944, al-Mustakfī being then aged 41. The situation in ʿIrāḳ was unpropitious for the new ruler. The caliphs were puppets in the hands of the Turkish troops, whose…

Muẓaffarpur

(223 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town in northern Bihār State of the Indian Union (lat. 26° 7′ N.,85° 24″ E.), and also the name of a District of which it is the administrative centre; the District covers the ancient region of Tirhut between the Ganges and the southern border of Nepal. The region was attacked in the 8th/14th century by the Muslim rulers of Bengal; in the next century it passed to the S̲h̲arḳī rulers of D̲j̲awnpur [ q.v.], and then to Sikandar Lōdī of Dihlī. The town of Muẓaffarpur enshrines the name of its founder, the Emperor Akbar’s commander Muẓaffar Khān, dīwān or head of revenue and finance [see dīwān. v] a…

Si̊r Daryā

(2,001 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bosworth, C.E. | Poujol, C.
, conventional form Syr Darya, a river of Central Asia and the largest in that region. The Turkish element in the name, si̊r , is not actually found before the 10th/16th century; in the following century, the K̲h̲īwan ruler and historian Abu ’l-G̲h̲āzī Bahādur K̲h̲ān [ q.v.] calls the Aral Sea “the Sea of Sir” (Si̊r Teñizi). 1. In the early and mediaeval periods. The Si̊r Daryā flows through the present republics of Kirgizia, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan down from the northwestern slopes of the Tien Shan Mountains to the Aral Sea [ q.v.]. It is formed by the confluence in the e…

Tiflīs

(1,457 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
, the form found in Islamic sources for the capital of Georgia, Tiflis or modern Tbilisi. The city is situated on hilly ground in the Kura river valley [see kur ] (lat. 41° 43′ N., long. 44° 49′ E.), and has a strategic position controlling the routes between eastern and western Transcaucasia which has ensured it a lively history. The city is an ancient one, being founded in A.D. 455 or 458 when the capital of Georgia was transferred thither from nearby Mtsk̲h̲eta. For the subsequent history of the city, from Byzantine and Sāsānid times through the long…

Prester John

(478 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of a mysterious potentate, said to be a Nestorian Christian and inimical to Islam, whom the Christians of medieval Europe placed beyond the Islamic lands in Inner or Far Asia. The name Presbyter Johannes first occurs in the chronicle, called Historia de duabus civitatibus, of the German prelate Otto, Bishop of Freising, in which he describes, on the authority of a meeting in 1145 with the Latin Bishop Hugh of D̲j̲abala (= ancient Byblos, in Lebanon), how Prester John was a monarch, of the lineage of the Magi of the Gospels, living in the Far East ( in extremo oriente) beyond Persia an…

Nihāwandī

(144 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, ʿAbd al-Bāḳī b. Abī Bakr Kurd, Indo-Muslim historian of the Mug̲h̲al period (978-after 1046/1570-after 1637). Of Kurdish origin from D̲j̲ūlak near Nihāwand [ q.v.], he served the Ṣafawids as a tax official and eventually became a wazīr in the administration. But then he fell from grace, and like many Persians of his age, decided to migrate to India, and entered the service of the K̲h̲ān-i K̲h̲ānān [ q.v.] Mīrzā ʿAbd al-Raḥīm, one of Akbar’s generals, subsequently holding official posts in the Deccan and Bihar. The K̲h̲ān-i K̲h̲ānān asked him to write a biography of himself, the Maʾāt̲h̲ir…

Sarwistān

(334 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a small town in the Persian province of Fārs (lat. 29° 16′ N., long 53° 13′ E., alt. ¶ 1,597 m/5,238 ft.), some 80 km/50 miles to the southeast of S̲h̲īrāz on the road to Nayrīz [ q.v.]. It seems to be identical with the K̲h̲awristān of the early Arab geographers, but first appears under the name Sarwistān (“place of cypresses”) in al-Muḳaddasī at the end of the 4th/10th century. It is notable for the tomb and shrine of a local saint, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Yūsuf Sarwistānī, dated by its inscription to 682/1283, and for a nearby mysterious building situated on the S̲h̲īrāz-F…

Kāfiristān

(2,408 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(“land of the unbelievers”), the name of a mountainous region of the Hindu Kush massif in north-eastern Afg̲h̲ānistān, until 1896 very isolated and politically independent, but since the Afg̲h̲ān conquest of that date and the introduction of Islam known as Nūristān (“land of light”). Some older European writers mentioned what might be termed a “greater Kāfiristān”, comprising such regions as Kāfiristān in the restricted sense (see below), Lag̲h̲mān, Čitral, Swāt, Bad̲j̲awr, Gilgit, etc. This cor…

Sawd̲j̲i̊, Sawd̲j̲ī

(670 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of three Ottoman princes. The name would appear to originate in the Old Turkish (especially, Eastern Turkish) word saw “word, piece of discourse, utterance”, found as early as the Ork̲h̲on inscriptions, then in the Turfan Uyg̲h̲ur texts, in the late 5th/11th century Ḳutadg̲h̲u bilig [ q.v.] and up to the 8th/14th century, after which it is not attested as a separate word (Clauson, An etymological diet, of pre-thirteenth century Turkish, 782-3). Cf. also the name of the slave commander of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Alp Arslan, Sāwtigin. Sawd̲j̲i̊ would according…

K̲h̲urāsān

(4,360 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, today the north-easternmost ustān or province of Persia, with its administrative capital at Mas̲h̲had [ q.v.]. But in pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the term “K̲h̲urāsān” frequently had a much wider denotation, covering also parts of what ¶ are now Soviet Central Asia and Afg̲h̲ānistān; early Islamic usage often regarded everywhere east of western Persia, sc. D̲j̲ibāl or what was subsequently termed ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī, as being included in a vast and ill-defined region of K̲h̲urāsān, which might even extend to the Indus Valley …

Sahāranpūr

(518 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a city of northern India in the uppermost part of the Ganges-D̲j̲amnā Doʾāb (lat. 29° 57′ N., long. 77° 33′ E.), now in the extreme northwestern tip of the Uttar Pradesh State of the Indian Union. It was founded in ca. 740/1340, in the reign of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ [ q.v.] and was named after a local Muslim saint, S̲h̲āh Haran Čis̲h̲tī. The city and district suffered severely during the invasion of Tīmūr; in 932/1526 Bābur traversed them on his way to Pānīpat, and some local Mug̲h̲al colonies trace their origin to his followers. Muslim influe…

Maymandī

(465 words)

Author(s): Nazim, M. | Bosworth, C.E.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Aḥmad b. Ḥasan , called S̲h̲ams al-Kufāt "sun of the capable ones", vizier of sultans Maḥmūd and Masʿūd of G̲h̲azna [ q.vv.]. He was a foster-brother of Maḥmūd, and had been brought up and educated with him. His father had been ʿāmil of Bust under Sebüktigin, and apparently stemmed from Maymand in Zābulistān; but on a charge of misappropriation of the revenue, he was put to death. In 384/994, when the Amīr Nūḥ b. Manṣūr the Sāmānid conferred on Maḥmūd the command of the troops of Ḵh̲urāsān, Maḥmūd put …

Sulaymān b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh

(251 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, early ʿAbbāsid prince and uncle of the first ʿAbbāsid caliphs al-Saffāḥ and al-Manṣūr [ q.vv.], d. at Baṣra in D̲j̲umādā II 142/October 759 aged 59 (al-Ṭabarī, iii, 141). He was appointed governor of Baṣra, including also eastern Arabia and western Persia, by al-Saffāḥ in 133/750-1 ( ibid., iii, 73), and remained in this important power base until forced out of the governorship in 139/756. As one of the ʿumūma or paternal uncles, whose position vis-à-vis their nephews the caliphs was ambiguous, Sulaymān sheltered for many years the failed rebel ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlī [ q.v.], until ʿAbd All…

Nayrīz

(379 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Nīrīz , the name of a mediaeval Islamic region and of a town of Fārs in southern Persia. The Nayrīz plain is essentially a landlocked region in the southern Zagros mountains, drained by the Kūr and Pulwār rivers which rise in the Zagros and flow southeastwards into the shallow lake known in mediaeval Islamic times as the Lake of Nayrīz and in more recent ones as Lake Bak̲h̲tigān [ q.v., and also E. Ehlers, art. Bak̲tagān Lake , in EIr ]; although the lake itself is salt, the plain forms an agriculturally prosperous region, and in ancient times was the…

Ordu

(735 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Morgan, D.O.
(t.), thence in Mongolian, orda , “the royal tent or residence, the royal encampment”, a term which became widespread in the mediaeval Turco-Mongol and then in the Persian worlds, acquiring from the second meaning that of “army camp”. 1. In early Turkish and then Islamic usage The word ordu appears in some of the earliest known texts of Turkish, sc. in the Kül-tigin inscription (Talât Tekin, A grammar of Orkhon Turkish , Bloomington 1968, 237), and may have passed from such an Inner Asian people as the Hsiung-nu into Chinese as wo-lu-to (* oludu = ordu) (G. Doerfer, Türkische und mongolische El…

Muḥammad Farīd Bey

(479 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. Aḥmad Farīd Pas̲h̲a (1284-1338/1867-1919), Egyptian nationalist politician, active in the first two decades of the 20th century. Of aristocratic Turkish birth, he had a career as a lawyer in the Ahliyya courts and then as a supporter of Muṣṭafā Kāmil Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], leader of the nationalist opposition to the British protectorate over Egypt and founder in 1907 of the Nationalist Party ( al-Ḥizb al-Waṭanī ) [see ḥizb. i. In the Arab lands]. When Muṣṭafā Kāmil died at the beginning of 1908, Muḥammad Farīd succeeded him as leader of the party, but being by temperame…

Takrīt

(1,309 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bosworth, C.E.
(popular pronunciation Tikrīt , cf. Yāḳūt), a town of ʿIrāḳ on the right bank of the Tigris to the north of Sāmarrāʾ 100 miles from Bag̲h̲dād divertly, and 143 by river, and at the foot of the range of the D̲j̲abal Ḥamrīn (lat. 34° 36′ N., long. 43° 41′ E., altitude 110 m/375 feet). Geographically, this is the northern frontier district of ʿIrāḳ. The land is still somewhat undulating; the old town was built on a group of hills, on on…

Turkistān

(3,023 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bosworth, C.E. | Poujol, Catherine
, Turkestan , a Persian term meaning “land of the Turks”. 1. As a designation for the Central Asian lands to the north of modern Persia and Afg̲h̲ānistān. This roughly corresponded to the older Transoxania or Mā warāʾ al-nahr [ q.v.] and the steppe lands to its north, although these last were from Mongol times onwards (sc. the 13th century) often distinguished as Mog̲h̲olistān [ q.v.]. To the Persians, of course, only the southern frontier of the land of the Turks, the frontier against Īrān, was of importance and this frontier naturally depended on political conditions. On ¶ their very firs…

Ṭarsūs

(1,483 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the Arabic form of the name of the city of Tarsus in Cilicia, situated on the classical River Cydnus, the Nahr Baradān of early Islamic times and the contemporary Turkish Tarsus Çay, in the rich agricultural plain of the modern Çukurova. The ancient city appears first firmly in history under the Assyrian kings, then as being in the Persians’ sphere of influence, then as disputed by the Seleucids and Ptolemies, being for a while styled Antioch-onthe-Cydnus in honour of Antiochus IV Epiphanes (1…

Pīrī-Zāde

(164 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
Meḥmed Ṣāḥib Efendi (1085-1162/1674-1749), Ottoman S̲h̲eyk̲h̲ al-Islām [ q.v.] in Istanbul and the pioneer translator into Turkish of Ibn K̲h̲aldūn. Ibn K̲h̲aldūn’s Muḳaddima was quite early known in Ottoman Turkey, being cited by e.g. Maḥmūd b. Aḥmed Ḥāfiẓ al-Dīn (d. 937/1550) and by Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī K̲h̲alīfa in his Kas̲h̲f al-ẓunūn . But during the years 1138-43/1725-30 Pīrī-zāde translated the Muḳaddima from the beginning to the end of the fifth chapter, i.e. about two-thirds of the whole, and this was lithographed at Cairo in 1275/1859, with Aḥmed D̲j̲ewdet Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] shortly …

Sulṭān

(6,089 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bosworth, C.E. | Schumann, O. | Kane, Ousmane
(a.), a word which is originally an abstract noun meaning “power, authority”, but which by the 4th/10th century often passes to the meaning “holder of power, authority”. It could then be used for provincial and even quite petty rulers who had assumed de facto power alongside the caliph, but in the 5th/11th century was especially used by the dominant power in the central lands of the former caliphate, the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳs [see sald̲j̲ūḳids. II, III.l], who initially overshadowed the ʿAbbāsids of Bag̲h̲dād. In the Perso-Turkish and Indo-Muslim worlds especially, the feminine form sulṭāna…

Tubbat

(4,701 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bosworth, C.E. | Gaborieau, M.
, Tibbat , Tibat , the most frequent vocalisations in the medieval Islamic sources for the consonant ductus T.b.t denoting the Inner Asian land of Tibet (with Tubbat , e.g. in Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, ii, 10, also preferred by Minorsky in his Ḥudūd al-ʿālam , tr. 92-3, and his edition and tr. of Marwazī, see below). The origin of the name has recently been examined by L. Bazin and J. Hamilton in a very detailed and erudite study, L’origine du nom Tibet , in Wiener Studien zur Tibetologie und Buddhismuskunde , xxvi [1991], 244-62, repr. in Bazin, Les Turcs , des mots, des hommes, Paris 1994. They…

al-Kurd̲j̲

(12,717 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
, Gurd̲j̲ , Gurd̲j̲istān , the names in Islamic sources for the province of Georgia in western Caucasia. Georgia comprises four distinct regions: Mingrelia and Imereti in the north-west; Samtask̲h̲e in the south-west (adjoining the Black Sea coastal region of Lazistān [see laz ], inhabited by a people closely related to the Georgians); Kartli in the north, with the capital Tiflis [ q.v.], Georgian Tbilisi; and Kak̲h̲eti in the east. Topographically, much of Georgia comprises mountains, hills and plateaux, with lowland only on the Black Sea coastal plain an…

Linga

(584 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a minor seaport, modern Bandar-i Linga, on the northern shore of the Persian or Arab Gulf, in lat. 26° 34′ N. and long. 54° 53′ E., to the south of Lāristān [see lār , lāristān ] and facing the islands of Ḳis̲h̲m [ q.v.] and the Ṭūnbs. Linga has a harbour of some depth, allowing traffic by dhows and coastal craft; behind the town lies a salt marsh, and then the Band-i Linga mountains, which rise to 3,900 ft./1,190 m. The population, formerly largely Arab, is now predominantly Persian, but with strong admixtures of Arabs, Baluchis, India…

Sālār

(640 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), commander. From the older Pahlavi sardār there arose as early as the Sāsānid period the form sālār with the well-known change of rd to l and compensatory lengthening of the a (cf. Grundr. d. Iran. Phil ., i,a 267, 274). The synonymous word in modern Persian sardār is not a survival of the ancient sardār, but is a modern formation; indeed, the elements from which the ancient word was composed still exist in the modern language. The old Armenian took over the Pahlavi sālār in the form sałar ; the form sardār which would give * sardar in Armenian is not found in the…

Mawdūd b. Masʿūd

(448 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abu ’l-Fatḥ , s̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn wa ’l-Dawla , Ḳuṭb al-Millā , sultan of the G̲h̲aznawid [ q.v.] dynasty, reigned 432-40/1041-winter of 1048-9. ¶ He was probably born in 401/1010-11 or 402/1011-12 as the eldest son of Masʿūd b. Maḥmūd [ q.v.], and during his father’s reign was closely associated with the sultan on various military expeditions. When Masʿūd was deposed and then killed in D̲j̲umādā I 432/January 1041, Mawdūd made himself the avenger against the rebellious commanders and their puppet, his uncle Muḥammad b. Maḥmūd. He marche…

Saracens

(1,483 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲ahîd, Irfān | Bosworth, C.E.
, a vague term used in the West for the Arabs and, eventually, other Islamic peoples of the Near East, in both pre-Islamic and mediaeval times. 1. Earlier usage. Saracens was one of the many terms that Classical authors and ecclesiastical writers, used for the Arabs, the others being Arabes, Skēnitai, Ṭayyāyē, Ismailitai and Hagarēnoi. It became the most common of all these terms, although it was one that the Arabs did not use in referring to themselves. The term was a coinage composed of *Sarak and the Greek suffix ēnos , and both its etymology and denotation are controversial. Many etyma

Laḳab

(14,791 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.) nickname, and at a later date under Islam and with a more specific use, honorific title (pl. alḳāb ). For suggestions about its etymology, see L. Caetani and G. Gabrieli, Onomasticon arabicum . i. Fonte-introduzione , Rome 1915, 144-5; and for its place in the general schema of the composition of Islamic names, see ism. The laḳab seems in origin to have been a nickname or sobriquet of any tone, one which could express admiration, be purely descriptive and neutral in tenor or be insulting and derogatory. In the latter case, it was often termed nabaz , pl. anbāz , by-form labaz

S̲h̲addādids

(1,405 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
or Banū S̲h̲addād , a minor dynasty of Arrān and eastern Armenia which flourished from the 4th/10th to the 6th/12th century ( ca. 340-570/ ca. 951-1174), with a main line in Gand̲j̲a and Dwīn [ q.vv.] and a junior, subsequent one in Ānī [ q.v.] which persisted long after the end of the main branch under Sald̲j̲ūḳ and latterly Ildeñizid suzerainty. There seems no reason to doubt the information in the history of the later Ottoman historian Müned̲j̲d̲j̲im Bas̲h̲i̊ that the S̲h̲addādids were in origin Kurdish. Their ethnicity was complicated by the fact that…

Sīmd̲j̲ūrids

(183 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a line of Turkish commanders and governors, originally of slave origin, for the Sāmānids in 4th/10th-century K̲h̲urāsān. The founder, Abū ʿImrān Sīmd̲j̲ūr, was the amīr Ismāʿīl b. Aḥmad’s [ q.v.] ceremonial ink-stand bearer ( dawātī ). He became Sāmānid governor of Sīstān [ q.v.] in 300-1/913-14 when the local dynasty of the Ṣaffārids [ q.v.] were temporarily driven out. Thereafter, the family was prominent as governors of K̲h̲urāsān for the amīrs , involved in warfare with the Sāmānids’ rivals in northern Persia such as the Būyids, and they …

Muḳāṭaʿa

(884 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Gerber, H.
(a.), the verbal noun of the form III verb ḳāṭaʿa , with the basic meaning “to come to an agreement on the basis of a certain sum”. This might be in regard to a peace agreement, ṣulḥ , muṣālaḥa , cf. the Glossarium to al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ , 90; or for the collection of taxation, a ḳabāla [ q.v.] contract; or for the carrying-out of a certain piece of work, cf. al-K̲h̲ wārazmī, Mafātīḥ al-ʿulūm , 70, where a special measure, the azala , is the basis of a piecework agreement for the excavation of canals and other irrigation works. In general, see the citations from the sources in Dozy, Supplément, ii, 3…

Lawḥ

(1,051 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J. | Bosworth, C.E.
(a.), board, plank; tablet, table. Both ranges of meaning are found in other Semitic languages such as Aramaic, Hebrew, Syriac and Ethiopie, and Jeffery thought that, whilst the sense “board, plank” might be an original Arabism, the second sense was almost certainly from the Judaeo-Christian cultural and religious milieu (see The foreign vocabulary of the Qur’ān , Baroda 1938, 253-4). The word occurs five times in the Ḳurʾān. The first meaning is found in sūra LIV, 13, where Noah’s ark is called d̲h̲āt alwāḥ . The second meaning is that of lawḥ as writing material, e.g. the tablets of the lawḥ…

Ṭulaḳāʾ

(275 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.), the pl. of ṭalīḳ , which means “a person loosed, set free, e.g. from imprisonment or slavery” (Lane, 1874). The plural becomes a technical term in earliest Islam for denoting the Meccans of Ḳurays̲h̲ who, at the time when Muḥammad entered Mecca in triumph (Ramaḍān 8/January 630), were theoretically the Prophet’s lawful booty but whom he in fact released (al-Ṭabarī, i, 1642-3: ḳāla ’d̲h̲habū fa-antum al-ṭulaḳāʾ . Gf. Glossarium , p. CCCXLII, and Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Nihāya , ed. al-Zāwī and al-Ṭannāḥī, Cairo 1383/1963, iii, 136). It was subsequently used opprobriousl…

Ṣaband̲j̲a

(455 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, modern Turkish Sapanca, a town in northwestern Anatolia, in the classical Bithynia, situated on the southeastern bank of the freshwater lake of the same name and to the west of the Sakarya river (lat. 40° 41′ N., long. 30° 15′ E.). Almost nothing is known of its pre-Islamic history, although there are Byzantine remains; the name may be a popular transformation of Sophon. According to Ewliyā Čelebi, the town was founded by a certain Ṣaband̲j̲ī Ḳod̲j̲a, but this last must be merely an eponymous hero. It seems to appear in history only i…

al-Zaynabī

(405 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, ʿAlī b. Ṭirād (or Ṭarrād ) b. Muḥammad, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim S̲h̲araf al-Dīn, vizier to the two ʿAbbāsid caliphs al-Mustars̲h̲id and al-Muḳtafī [ q.vv.] in the first half of the 6th/12th century, b. 462/1069-70, d. 538/1144. The nisba refers to descent from Zaynab bt. Sulaymān b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-ʿAbbās, and this ʿAbbāsid descent doubtless helped al-Zaynabī’s father Ṭirād or Ṭarrād, called D̲h̲u ’l-S̲h̲arafayn, to secure in 453/1061 the office of naḳīb [see naḳīb al-as̲h̲rāf ] of the Hās̲h̲imī s̲h̲arīf s and also to pursue a career in diplomacy on beha…

al-Nuwayrī

(203 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Muḥammad b. al-Ḳāsim al-Iskandarānī, local historian of his home Alexandria, who lived in the 8th/14th century but whose precise dates are unknown. Between 767/1365-6 and 775/1373-4 he wrote a three-volume history of the city, the K. al-Ilmām fīmā d̲j̲arat bihi ’l-aḥkām al-maḳḍiyya fī wāḳiʿat al-Iskandariyya purporting to describe the calamity of Muḥarram 767/October 1365 when the Frankish Crusaders, led by Pierre de Lusignan, king of Cyprus, descended on Alexandria, occupied it for a week and sacked it (see S. Runciman, A history of the Crusades , London …

al-Muhtadī

(666 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Bosworth, C.E.
bi ’llāh , Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Hārun al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ , ʿAbbāsid caliph, reigned 255-6/869-70. After al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ’s death, a number of officials wished to pay homage to the young Muḥammad, son of the deceased caliph and a Greek slave; instead, however, al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ’s brother al-Mutawakkil [ q.v.] was proclaimed his successor and only after the deposition and murder of the unfortunate al-Muʿtazz ¶ (1 S̲h̲aʿbān 255/15 July 869) did Muḥammad ascend the throne on 7-8 S̲h̲aʿbān/21-2 July with the name al-Muhtadī. His ideal was the Umayyad ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzī…

Ibn Nāẓir al-D̲j̲ays̲h̲

(229 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, Taḳī ’l-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān , ḳāḍī , official and author of the Mamlūk period in Egypt. His precise dates are unknown, but he was apparently the son of another ḳāḍī who had been controller of the army in the time of Sultan al-Nāṣir Nāṣir al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Ḳalāwūn, and he himself served in the Dīwān al-Ins̲h̲āʾ under such rulers as al-Manṣūr Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Muḥammad (762-4/1361-3) and his successor al-As̲h̲raf Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲aʿbān (764-78/1363-76). His correspondence was apparently collected into a mad̲j̲mūʿ , for al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī [ q.v.] quotes four letters from it, to external …

al-K̲h̲uld

(273 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Ḳaṣr , the name of a palace of the early ʿAbbāsids in Bag̲h̲dād, so-called because of its being compared in splendour with the d̲j̲annat al-k̲h̲uld “garden of eternity”, i.e. Paradise. It was built by the founder of the new capital Bag̲h̲dād, al-Manṣūr [ q.v.], in 158/775 on the west bank of the Tigris outside the walled Round City, possibly on the site of a former Christian monastery (al-Ṭabarī, iii, 273; Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, ii, 382). It was strategically placed between the two great military areas of the Ḥarbiyya and al-Ruṣāfa on the eastern side [see al-ruṣāfa. 2.] and adjacent …

Gūmāl

(525 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, Gomal , a river of the Indus valley system and the North-West Frontier region of the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. It rises in eastern Afg̲h̲ānistān some 40 miles/62 km. east of the Āb-i Istāda lake. Flowing eastwards, it is joined from the south by the Kundar and Z̲h̲ōb rivers, and forms the southern boundary of the South Wazīristān tribal agency of the former North-West Frontier Province of British India (now Pakistan). Below the settlement of Murtaḍā, it leaves the mountains and enters the lower-lying lands of the Dēra Ismāʿīl Ḵh̲ān district [see dērad̲j̲āt ], …

K̲h̲ērla

(342 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a fortress of mediaeval India, lying to the south of Mālwa and east of K̲h̲āndes̲h̲ [ q.vv.], and in the extreme northern part of Berār [ q.v.], just to the south of the headwaters of the Tāptī River. It is in fact some 50 miles west of modern Deogaŕh; in British India it fell within the Central Provinces, now Madhya Pradesh. The foundation of the fortress is attributed to a Rād̲j̲put rād̲j̲ā , the last of whose line is said to have been killed by a commander of the Dihlī Sultans, perhaps in the time of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī; but the fortre…

Tukarōʾī

(102 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
or Mug̲h̲almārī , a place near Midnapūr in the southern part of West Bengal, the site of a battle in 982/1574 between Akbar’s finance minister and commander Rād̲j̲ā T́ōd́ar Mal [ q.v.] and the young ruler of Bengal, Dāwūd K̲h̲ān Kararānī [ q.v.], who had repudiated Mug̲h̲al suzerainty. Dāwūd K̲h̲ān was beaten by a ruse [see ḥarb. vi, at Vol. III, 202b] and forced to flee, allowing Akbar formally to annex Bihar, Bengal and Orissa. (C.E. Bosworth) Bibliography See that to dāwūd k̲h̲ān kararānī, and also J.F. Richards, The Mughal empire (= The New Comb. hist, of India, I. 5), Cambridge 1993, 33.

Ilek-K̲h̲āns or Ḳarak̲h̲ānids

(4,341 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a Turkish dynasty which ruled in the lands of Central Asia straddling the T’ien-s̲h̲an Mountains, scil . in both Western Turkestan (Transoxania or Mā warāʾ al-Nahr) and in Eastern Turkestan (Kās̲h̲g̲h̲aria or Sin-kiang), from the 4th/10th to the early 7th/13th centuries. 1. Introductory. The name “Ilek-K̲h̲āns” or “Ilig-K̲h̲āns” stems from 19th century European numismatists. The element Ilek/Ilig (known in Hunnish, Magyar and Uyg̲h̲ur Turkish onomastic) is commonly found on the dynasty’s coins, but is by no means general. The complete phrase Ilek-K̲h̲ān/Ilig-K̲h̲ān

Malik-S̲h̲āh

(2,908 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of various Sald̲j̲ūḳ rulers. 1. Malik-S̲h̲āh I b. Alp Arslan , D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla Muʿizz al-Din Abu ’l-Fatḥ , Great ¶ Sald̲j̲uḳ sultan, born in 447/1055, reigned 465-85/1072-92. During his reign, the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire reached its zenith of territorial extent—from Syria in the west to K̲h̲urāsān in the east—and military might. Alp Arslan [ q.v.] had made Malik-S̲h̲āh his walī ’l-ʿahd or heir to the throne in 458/1066, when various governorships on the eastern fringes were at this same time distributed to several members o…

Thānā

(225 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town of western peninsular India, 21 km/15 miles from the Arabian Sea coast and 32 km/20 miles to the north-north-east of Bombay (lat. 90° 14′ N., long. 73° 02′ E.; see the map in gud̲j̲arāt , at Vol. II, 1126). Thānā was in pre-Muslim times the centre of a great Hindu kingdom, but was conquered in 718/1318 by the Sultan of Dihlī Mubārak S̲h̲āh K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī It soon afterwards became an outpost of the Bahmanid sultanate of the Deccan, but was at times disputed by the Sultans of Gud̲j̲arāt, who seized it, e.g. in 833/1430 (see hind, iv, at Vol. III, 418b). By 1529 it was tribute to the Por…

Ṣofta

(315 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(t., orthography ṣ.w.f.t.h ), a name given to students of the theological, legal and other sciences in the madrasa [ q.v.] system of Ottoman Turkey. A parallel form is sūk̲h̲te , in Persian literally “burnt, aflame (i.e. with the love of God or of learning)”, which seems to be the earlier form; the relationship between the two words, if any, is unclear (see S̲h̲. Sāmī, Ḳāmūs-i turkī , Istanbul 1318/1900-1, ii, 839 col. 3; Redhouse, Turkish and English dict., 1087, 1192). The term ṣofta was applied to students in the earlier stages of their education; when a student became qualified to act as a muʿ…

Pādis̲h̲āh

(646 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), the name for Muslim rulers, especially emperors. The Persian term pād-i s̲h̲āh , i.e. (according to M. Bittner, in E. Oberhummer, Die Türken und das Osmanische Reich , Leipzig 1917, 105) “lord who is a royalty” in which the root pad is connected with Sanskrit patis , lord, husband, fern, patni , Greek πότνια and δεσ-πότης, Lat. potens (G. Curtius, Griech . Etymol ., 377), was originally a title reserved exclusively for the sovereign, which in course of time and as a result of the long intercourse of the Ottomans with the states of…

Zūn

(443 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Z̲h̲ūn , the name of a deity of the district of Zamīndāwar [ q.v.] in eastern Afg̲h̲ānistān, whose shrine there figures in historical accounts of the Arabs’ and Ṣaffārids’ penetration of the region. In 33/654-5 ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Samura, governor of Sīstān for ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿĀmir [ q.v.], raided into Zamīndāwar and attacked the “hill of Zūn” ( d̲j̲abal al-Zūn ), entered the shrine and partially despoiled the idol there, telling the local marzbān that his sole object was to demonstrate the idol’s impotence (al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ , 394). Over two centuries late…

Rustāḳ

(308 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Arabised form of M. Pers. rōstāg , meaning “rural district, countryside”, and given the broken pl. rasātīḳ . (1) In the mediaeval Islamic usage of the Arabic and Persian geographers and of the Arabic writers on finance and taxation, rustāḳ is used both as a specific administrative term and in a more general sense. Thus, reflecting the more exact usage, in Sāsānid and early Islamic ʿIrāḳ, each kūra [ q.v.] or province was divided into ṭassūd̲j̲ s or sub-provinces, and these last were in turn divided into rustāḳs, districts or cantons, centred on a madīna or town. According to Hilāl al-Ṣābiʾ, K.…

Terken K̲h̲ātūn

(448 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of the wives of various Turkish rulers of the eastern Islamic world in mediaeval (essentially pre-Mongol) times. In old Turkish, terken was a royal title, often but not invariably applied to females, and in these cases being roughly equivalent to “queen”. It may be a loan word in Turkish, being found, according to G. Doerfer, amongst the Kitan or Western Liao, the later Ḳara K̲h̲itay [ q.v.] of Central Asian Islamic history (see his Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen , Wiesbaden 1963-7, ii, 495-8 no. 889; Sir Gerard Clauson, An etymological dictionary of pre-…

Naṣr b. Aḥmad b. Ismāʿīl

(439 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Sāmānid amīr of Transoxania and K̲h̲urāsān (301-31/914-43), given after his death the honorific of al-Amīr al-Saʿīd (“the Fortunate”). Naṣr was raised to the throne at the age of eight on the murder of his father by the Turkish g̲h̲ulāms of the army, with a regency of the vizier Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad D̲j̲ayhānī [see al-d̲j̲ayhānī in Suppl.]. The early years of his reign were seriously disturbed by rebellions at Samarḳand, at Nīs̲h̲āpūr and in Farg̲h̲āna by various discontented members of the Sāmānid family, and the amīrate was not at peac…

S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī Yazdī

(314 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Persian historian and poet of the Tīmūrid period, born at Yazd, died in 858/1454. He was a favourite of the Tīmūrid ruler S̲h̲āh Ruk̲h̲ [ q.v.] and of his son Mīrzā Abu ’l-Fatḥ Ibrāhīm Sulṭān, governor of Fārs, and in 832/1429 became tutor to the captured young Čingizid Yūnus K̲h̲ān. to whom he dedicated many poems. He was then in the service of the Tīmūrid prince Mīrzā Sulṭān Muḥammad in ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī or western Persia, and narrowly escaped death when that prince rebelled in 850/1447. After S̲h̲āh Ruk̲h̲’s death he …

al-Wāt̲h̲iḳī

(243 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUt̲h̲mān, poet and political claimant of the second half of the 4th/10th and the first years of the 5th/11th centuries, who claimed descent from the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ [ q.v.]. His younger contemporary al-T̲h̲aʿālibi gives specimens of his verses plus biographical information ( Yatīma , ed. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd, iv, 192-3). Al-Wāt̲h̲iḳī began his career in ʿIrāḳ and al-D̲j̲azīra as a court witness and preacher, but became involved in political intrigues. He fled eastwards to the Transoxanian lands of the Ḳarak̲h̲ānids [see ilek-k̲h̲āns …

D̲j̲irga

(567 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
(Pas̲h̲to; cf. H.G. Raverty, A dictionary of the Puk̲h̲to , Pus̲h̲to , or language of the Afg̲h̲āns , London 1867, 330b), an informal tribal assembly of the Pafhàns in what are now Afg̲h̲ānistān and Pakistan, with competence to intervene and to adjudicate in practically all aspects of private and public life among the Pat́hāns. In the course of his abortive mission to S̲h̲āh S̲h̲u-d̲j̲āʿ and the Durrānī court of Kabūl in 1809 [see Afg̲h̲ānistān . v. History (3) (A)], Mountstuart Elphinstone described the d̲j̲irga system as alive and vital, with assemblies…

Ispahsālār, Sipahsālār

(2,764 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Digby, S.
, Persian, “army commander”, Arabized form isfahsalār , iṣbahsalār : the title given to commanders-in-chief and general officers in the armies of many states of the central and eastern mediaeval Islamic world. On the component sālār and its Middie Persian origins, see sālār. The compound spāhsālār is already attested in Pāzand (i.e. Middle Persian transcribed from Pahlavi into Avestan script), e.g. in the 9th century ¶ S̲h̲kand-gumānik vičār (Hübschmann, Armenische Grammatik , 235). i. The Islamic world excepting India The Ispahsālār as a military leader appears to be the …

Rūd̲h̲rāwar

(253 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a rural district ( rūstāḳ , nāḥiya ) of the mediaeval Islamic province of D̲j̲ibāl [ q.v.], sc. western Persia. The geographers describe it as a fertile plain below the Kūh-i Alwand, containing 93 villages and producing high-quality saffron which was exported through the nearby towns of Hamad̲h̲ān and Nihāwand. The chef-lieu of the district, in which was situated the d̲j̲āmiʿ and minbar , was known as Karad̲j̲-i Rūd̲h̲rāwar, characterised in the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam , tr. 132, § 31.8-9, as prosperous and the resort of merchants. The site of this seems…

Salm b. Ziyād b. Abīhi

(448 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū Ḥarb, Umayyad commander and governor, the third of the many sons of Abū Sufyān’s bastard son Ziyād b. Abīhi [ q.v.], d. 73/692. The family of Ziyād already had a firm grip on the East in the later years of Muʿāwiya’s caliphate, and when Yazīd I came to the throne, he appointed Salm as governor of Ḵh̲urāsān (61/681), and the latter nominated another of his brothers, Yazid b. Ziyād, as his deputy in Sīstān. Salm proved himself a highly popular governor with the Arab troops in Ḵh̲urāsān. largely on account of his mil…

Samrū

(522 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Digby, S.
or Sumrū , Bēgam , the originally Muslim Indian wife of the European adventurer Walter Reinhardt Sombre or Samrū, who held the pargana [ q.v.] of Sardhanā [ q.v.] in northwestern India under the later Mug̲h̲al Emperor S̲h̲āh ʿAlam II [ q.v.]. On Reinhardt’s death in 1778, Bēgam Samrū kept up what was virtually a petty principality of Sardhanā, with an army which included some 300 European and half-breed mercenaries, and in 1792 married a French soldier of fortune Levassault. Toppled from control of Sardhanā in 1793 by a son of ¶ Reinhardt’s, Ẓafar-yāb Ḵh̲ān, in w…

Ḳul

(277 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, an old Turkish word which came, in Islamic times, to mean “slave boy, male slave”, defined by Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī, Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-Turk , ed. Kilisli Rifʿat Bilge, i, 282, tr. Atalay, i, 336-7, as ʿabd . However, the original meaning of ḳul in Orkhon Turkish was rather “servant, vassal, dependent” (the masculine counterpart of kün “female servant, etc.”, the two words being linked in the Kültegin inscription, text references in Talât Tekin, A grammar of Orkhon Turkish, Bloomington, Ind. 1968, 347), since slavery in the Islamic juridical sense did not exist among the ancient Turks. The…

ʿUmān

(4,126 words)

Author(s): Smith G.R. | Bosworth C.E. | Smith, G.R. | C. Holes
, conventionally Oman, a sultanate situated in the south-eastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula, with a second area, separated from the first by parts of the United Arab Emirates, at the tip of the Musandam peninsula. The country, with a population of some 2,000,000 inhabitants, occupies some 312,000 km2 in all, and has a coastline along the Gulf of Oman and the Indian Ocean of about 1,700 km/1,060 miles in length. The head of state is Sultan Ḳābūs b. Saʿīd, the fourteenth ruler of the Āl Bū Saʿīd dynasty [ q.v.]. The country is divided ethnically and culturally into two: the Ibāḍī …

Sārangpur

(203 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a small town in Central India, before Partition in the Native State of Dewās, now in the Shajapur District of the state of Madhya Pradesh in the Indian Union (lat. 23° 34′ N, long. 76° 24′ E). It is essentially a Muslim town, founded by the sultans of Mālwā [ q.v.], but on an ancient site. It was reputedly the location of a battle in 840/1437 when Maḥmūd K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī I of Mālwā was defeated by the forces of Mēwāŕ [ q.v.], and, of more certain historicity, it was captured in 932/1526 from Maḥmūd II of ¶ Mālwā by Rāṇā Sāṇgā [ q.v.] of Čitawr. Then in 968/1561 it was seized by Akbar from the local…

Zarang

(1,264 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Arabised as Zarand̲j̲, the main town of the early Islamic province of Sīstān. Its ruins lie a few miles north of what was in the late 19th and early 20th centuries the administrative centre of Persian Sīstān, Nuṣratābād or Nāṣirābād, modern Zābul. Its remaining traces are visible within the vast ruined site known as Nād-i ʿAlī, to the east of the present course of the Hilmand river [ q.v.] before it peters out in the Hāmūn depression [see zirih ] just inside Afg̲h̲an Sīstān; the site has, however, been much depleted by periodic flooding and the re-us…

Simnān

(1,048 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town of northern Persia (long. 53° 24′ E., lat. 35° 33′ N., alt. 1,138 m/3,734 ft.), in mediaeval Islamic times coming within the province of Ḳūmis [ q.v.] and lying on the great highway connecting Rayy with the administrative centre of Ḳūmis, sc. Dāmg̲h̲ān [ q.v.], and K̲h̲urāsān. To its north is situated the Elburz Mountain chain and to its south, the Great Desert. 1. History. Simnān comes within what was the heartland of the Parthians (whose capital almost certainly was at S̲h̲ahr-i Ḳūmis, southeast of Dāmg̲h̲ān on the Simnān road), but nothing is known o…

al-ʿUtbī

(688 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of a family settled in K̲h̲urāsān, of Arab descent, which provided secretaries and viziers for the Sāmānids and early G̲h̲aznawids [ q.vv.] in the 4th/10th and early 5th/11th centuries (from which of the ʿUtbas of early Islamic times they were descended does not seem to be specified in the sources). 1. Abū d̲j̲aʿfar ( ism and nasab variously given), vizier under the Sāmānid amīr ʿAbd al-Malik I b. Nūḥ I, from 344/956 to 348/959 and again, in company with Abū ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Balʿamī [ q.v.], under his successor Manṣūr I b. Nūḥ I, a few years later. His policy aimed at s…

Ṭabas

(557 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of two places in eastern Persia, denoted in the early mediaeval Islamic sources by the dual form al-Ṭabasāni (e.g. in al-Samʿānī, Ansāb , ed. Ḥaydarābād, ix, 45, and Yāḳūt, Buldān, ed. Beirut, iv, 20) and distinguished as Ṭabas al-Tamr “Ṭ. of the date-palms” and Ṭabas al-ʿUnnāb “Ṭ. of the jujube trees”, later Persian forms Ṭabas Gīlakī and Ṭabas Masīnān respectively. Ṭabas al-Tamr lay to the west of Ḳuhistān [ q.v.] in the central Great Desert at a junction of routes between the Das̲h̲t-i Lūt in the south and the Das̲h̲t-i Kawīr in the north and west. Ṭab…

D̲j̲and

(1,880 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, a mediaeval town on the lower reaches of the Si̊r Daryā in Central Asia, towards its debouchure into the Aral Sea, in what is now the Kazakhstan SSR; its fame was such that the Aral Sea was often called “the Sea of D̲j̲and”. D̲j̲and is first mentioned by certain Muslim geographers of the mid-4th/10th century, in particular, by Ibn Ḥawḳal, and following him, by the anonymous author of the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam (wrote 372/982). Ibn Ḥawḳal mentions three settlements on the lower Si̊r Daryā amongst the Og̲h̲uz Turks of that region: D̲j̲and; the “New Se…

Ḳut̲h̲am b. al-ʿAbbās

(737 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib al-Hās̲h̲imī , Companion of the Prophet, son of the Prophet’s uncle and of Umm al-Faḍl Lubāba al-Hilāliyya, herself Muḥammad’s sister-in-law. Although the Sīra brings him into contact with Muḥammad by making him one of the inner circle of the Hās̲h̲imī family who washed the Prophet’s corpse and descended into his grave, and although his physical resemblance to the Prophet is also stressed, he was obviously a late convert to Islam, doubtless following his father al-ʿAbbās [ q.v.] in this after the conquest of Mecca. Nothing is heard of him during the reigns of t…

Naṣr b. Muzāḥim

(228 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl al-Minḳarī al-Tamīmī, early S̲h̲īʿī historian (though probably not, as Sezgin rightly observes, the first one) and traditionist; his date of birth is uncertain, but he died in 212/827. He lived originally in Kūfa but later moved to Bag̲h̲dād; amongst those from whom he heard traditions was Sufyān al-T̲h̲awrī [ q.v.]. His own reputation as an ak̲h̲bāri and muḥaddit̲h̲ was, however, weak, and he was regarded by some Sunnī authors as a fervent ( g̲h̲ālī ) S̲h̲īʿī. He is best known for his Kitāb Waḳʿat Ṣiffīn (this has been reconstructed, from the p…

al-Maybudī

(321 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the nisba of two scholars from the small town of Maybud [ q.v.] near Yazd in Persia and also of a vizier of the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳs. 1. ras̲h̲īd al-dīn abu ’l-faḍl aḥmad b. muḥammad , author of an extensive Ḳurʾān commentary in Persian, begun in 520/1126, the Kas̲h̲f al-asrār waʿuddat al-abrār , extant in several mss. Bibliography Storey, i, 1190-1 Storey-Bregel, i, 110-11 and on the nisba in general, al-Samʿānī, Ansāb, f. 547b. 2. mīr ḥusayn b. muʿīn al-dīn al-manṭiḳī , pupil of D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn al-Dawānī [ q.v.], ḳāḍī and philosopher, author of several works on…

Mārdīn

(3,772 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
(written in Arabic as Māridīn, in Greek as Μάρδης, Μάργδις, in Syriac as Mardē and in modern Turkish as Mardin), a town in what was in mediaeval Islamic times Upper Mesopotamia or al-D̲j̲azīra, in the region of Diyār Rabīʾa [ q.v.] lying on a slope rising to an altitude of 3780 ft./1152 m. in lat. 37° 18′ N. and long. 40° 44′ E. The modern town, in southeastern Turkey near the Syrian border, is the chef-lieu of the il (formerly vilayet ) of the same name. Position. In Upper Mesopotamia, the watershed between the Tigris and Euphrates is formed by the heights …

Siyāsa

(3,181 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Netton, I.R. | Vogel, F.E.
(a.), verbal noun from the root s-w-s “to tend, manage”, etymologically connected with Biblical Hebrew sūs “horse”, originally used in Bedouin society for the tending and training of beasts, hence sāʾis “manager or trainer of horses, camels, etc.” (this last appearing, via Hindi, in the Anglo-Indian word syce “groom”, Fr. çais ; see Yule-Burnell, Hobson-Jobson , a glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and phrases 2, London 1903, 885-6). 1. In the sense of statecraft, the management of affairs of state and, eventually, that of politics and political policy. ¶ …

Nīs̲h̲āpūrī

(240 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Ẓahīr al-Dīn , Persian author who wrote a valuable history of the Sald̲j̲ūḳs during the reign of the last Great Sald̲j̲ūḳ of Persia, Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l (III) b. Arslan [ q.v.]; he must have died ca. 580/1184-5. Nothing is known of his life except that Rāwandī [ q.v.] states ( Rāḥat al-ṣudūr , ed. M. Iqbál, 54) that he had been tutor to the previous sultans Masʿūd b. Muḥammad [ q.v.] and Arslan b. Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l (II). His Sald̲j̲ūḳ-nāma was long believed lost, but was known as the main source for Rāwandī’s information on the Sald̲j̲ūḳs up to the latter’s own time (see Rāḥat al-ṣudūr, Preface, pp. XXVI, XXI…

Ḳandahār

(3,156 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a city in southeastern Afg̲h̲ānistān (in modern times giving its name to a province) situated in latitude 31°27′ N. and longitude ¶ 65°43′ E. at an altitude of 3,460 ft. (1,000 m.), and lying between the Arg̲h̲andāb and S̲h̲orāb Rivers in the warmer, southern climatic zone ( garmsīr ) of Afg̲h̲ānistān. Hence snow rarely lies there for very long, and in modern times the city has been favoured as a winter residence for Kābulīs wishing to avoid the rigours of their winter (see J. Humlum et al., La géographie de l’Afghanistan , étude d’un pays aride , Copenhagen 1959, 14…

al-Rūd̲h̲rāwarī

(352 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, abū s̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ muḥammad b. al-ḥusayn , zaḥīr al-dīn , vizier to the ʿAbbāsid caliphs and adīb (437-88/1045-95). He was actually born at Kangāwar [see kinkiwar ] in D̲j̲ibāl, but his father, a member of the official classes, stemmed from the nearby district of Rūd̲h̲rāwar [ q.v.]. Abū S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Muḥammad served al-Muḳtadī as vizier very briefly in 471/1078-8 after the dismissal of ʿAmīd al-Dawla Ibn D̲j̲ahīr [see d̲j̲ahīr , banū ] ¶ and then for a longer period, S̲h̲aʿbān 476 Ṣafar or Rabīʿ I 484/December 1083 to January 1084-April or May 1091, after the second …

Nūḥ

(307 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(I) b. Naṣr b. Aḥmad , Sāmānid amīr of Transoxania and Khurāsān (331-43/943-54), given after his death the honorific of al-Amīr al-S̲h̲āhīd (“the Praiseworthy”). ¶ Continuing the anti-S̲h̲īʿī reaction which marked the end of the reign of Nūḥ’s father Naṣr [ q.v.], the early years of the new reign were dominated by the vizierate of the pious Sunnī faḳīh Abu i-Faḍl Muḥammad Sulamī, but very soon, ominous signs of decline began to appear in the state. There were revolts in the tributary kingdom of K̲h̲wārazm [ q.v.] and in K̲h̲urāsān under its governor Abū ʿAlī Čag̲h̲ānī, whom Nūḥ a…

K̲h̲ōst

(523 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Arabic spellings K̲h̲.w.st or K̲h̲.wāst, the name of various places in Afg̲h̲anistān. The most likely etymology for the name is that given by G. Morgenstierne in his An etymological vocabulary of Pashto , Oslo 1928, 98: that it is an Iranised form * hwāstu , cf. Skr. suvāstu- “good site” (which became the place-name Swāt [ q.v.] in the North-West frontier region of Pakistan). The mediaeval Arabic and Persian geographers mention what appear to be two places of this name in northern Afg̲h̲anistān. Those of the 4th/10th century mention K̲h̲as̲h̲t as a town on …

Miẓalla

(4,558 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Holt, P.M. | Chalmeta, P. | Andrews, P.A. | Burton-Page, J.
(a.), lit. “an instrument or apparatus for providing shade, ẓill ,” apparently synonymous with the s̲h̲amsa , s̲h̲amsiyya , lit. “an instrument or apparatus for providing shelter from the sun”, probably therefore referring to the sunshade or parasol born on ceremonial occasions and processions [see mawākib ] over early Islamic rulers. 1. In the ʿAbbāsid and Fāṭimid caliphates. The historical sources provide a few references on practice in the ʿAbbāsid caliphate. Thus the official Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Malik al-Zayyāt [see ibn al-zayyāt ] was responsible in al-Muʿtaṣim’s time fo…

Naṣr b. Sayyār

(743 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
al-Layt̲h̲ī al-Kinānī , the last ¶ governor of K̲h̲urāsān under the Umayyads, d. 131/748. Naṣr’s whole career seems to have been spent in K̲h̲urāsān and the East. In 86/705 he campaigned in the upper Oxus region under Ṣāliḥ, brother of the governor of K̲h̲urāsān Ḳutayba b. Muslim [ q.v.], and received a village there as reward. Then in 106/724 he was campaigning in Farg̲h̲āna under Muslim b. Saʿīd al-Kilābī, and served as governor of Balk̲h̲ for some years. Hence on the death of the governor of the East Asad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḳasrī [ q.v.], the caliph His̲h̲ām was advised to appoint as hi…

Ik̲h̲s̲h̲īd

(340 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
the title given to local Iranian rulers of Sog̲h̲dia and Farg̲h̲āna in the pre-Islamic and early Islamic period. Although Justi ( Iranisches Namenbuch , 14 ), Unvala ( The translation of an extract from Mafâtîh al-ʿUlûm of al-K̲h̲wârazmî , in J. of the . Cama Ins xi (1928), 18-19) and Spuler ( Iran , 30-1, 356) derive it from O. Pers. k̲h̲s̲h̲aeta- ‘shining, brilliant’, an etymology from O. Pers. k̲h̲s̲h̲āyat̲h̲iya- ‘king, ruler’ (M. Pers. and N. Pers. s̲h̲āh ) is more probable (Christensen, and Bosworth and Clauson, see below). This O. Pers. term k̲h̲s̲h̲āyat̲h̲iya- penetrated beyond T…

Munād̲j̲āt

(256 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.), the verbal noun of the form III verb nād̲j̲ā “to whisper to, talk confidentially with someone”, which is used in Ḳurʾān, LVIII, 13, in this sense, and in the reciprocal form VI in LVIII, 9, 10, of the murmurs of discontent amongst the Prophet’s followers, probably after the Uḥud reverse (see Nöldeke-Schwally, G des Q, i, 212-13). Munād̲j̲āt becomes, however, a technical term of Muslim piety and mystical experience in the sense of “extempore prayer”, as opposed to the corporate addressing of the deity in the ṣalāt (see Hughes, A dictionary of Islam, 420), and of the Ṣūfīs’ communio…

Muṣṭafa Pas̲h̲a, Bayraḳdār

(858 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bosworth, C.E.
or ʿAlemdār , Ottoman Turkish grand vizier in 1808, was the son of a wealthy Janissary at Rusčuḳ, born about 1750. He distinguished himself in the war with Russia under Muṣṭafā III, and acquired in these years the surname of bayraḳdār “standard-bearer”. After the war he lived on his estates near Rusčuḳ, and acquired the semi-official position of aʿyān [ q.v.] of Hezārgrād and later of Rusčuḳ. With other aʿyans he took part in an action against the government at Edirne, but became finally a reliable supporter of the government. Having already received the honorary offices of ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊ bas̲…

Eličpur

(611 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, Iličpur , modern Ačalpur , a town of the mediaeval Islamic province of Berār [ q.v.] in southern Central India, lying near the headwaters of the Purnā constituent of the Tāptī River in lat. 21° 16ʹ N. and long. 77° 33ʹ E. Up to 1853, Eličpur was generally regarded as the capital of Berār, after when Amraotī became the administrative centre. The pre-Islamic history of Eličpur is semi-legendary, its foundation being attributed to a Jain Rād̲j̲ā called Il in the 10th century. By Baranī’s time (later 7th/13th century), it could be described as one of the fam…

Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam

(604 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, “The limits of the world”, the title of a concise but very important anonymous Persian geography of the world, Islamic and non-Islamic, composed towards the end of the 4th/10th century in Gūzgān [ q.v.] in what is now northem Afghānistān. The work exists in a unique manuscript of the 7th/13th century (the “Toumansky manuscript”) which came to light in Buk̲h̲ārā in 1892. The Persian text was first edited and published by W. Barthold at Leningrad in 1930 as Ḥudūd al-ʿālem , rukopisi̊ Tumanskago , with an important preface (this last reprinted in his Sočineny̲a̲ , vii…

Rāfiʿ b. Hart̲h̲ama

(153 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a soldier of fortune who disputed control of K̲h̲urāsān with other adventurers and with the Ṣaffārid Amīr ʿAmr b. al-Layt̲h̲ [ q.v.] in the later 3rd/9th century, d. 283/896. Rāfiʿ had been in the service of the Ṭāhirids [ q.v.], and after the death in 268/882 at Nīs̲h̲āpūr of the previous contender for power in K̲h̲urāsān, Aḥmad al-K̲h̲ud̲j̲istānī, he set himself up as de facto ruler of K̲h̲urāsān, subsequently securing legitimisation from the ʿAbbāsid caliphs when al-Muwaffaḳ [ q.v.] broke with the Ṣaffārids. By 283/896, however, ʿAmr managed to defeat Rāfiʿ and to dri…

Sāsān

(554 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Banū , the blanket designation in mediaeval Islamic literature for the practitioners of begging, swindling, confidence tricks, the displaying of disfiguring diseases, mutilated limbs, etc., so that sāsānī has often become a general term in both Arabic and Persian for “beggar, trickster”. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī K̲h̲alīfa uses sāsānī in the sense of “pertaining to magic or slight-of-hand”, with the ʿilm al-ḥiyal al-sāsāniyya denoting “the science of artifices and trickery”. In his treatise warning the general public against trickery in all forms, al-Muk̲h̲tār min kas̲h̲f al-asrār

Lālā

(477 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Lala (p.), a term found amongst the Turkmen dynasties of Persia and, especially, amongst the Ṣafawids, with the meaning of tutor, specifically, tutor of royal princes, passing also to the Ottoman Turks. Under the Aḳ Ḳoyunlu [ q.v.], both atabeg [see atabak ] and lālā are found, but after the advent of the Ṣafawids (sc. after 907/1501), the latter term becomes more common, with the Arabic term muʿallim “instructor” also found. Such persons were already exalted figures in the state. The lālā of S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl I’s second son Sām Mīrzā was the īs̲h̲īk-āḳāsī [ q.v.] or Grand Marshal of the great dī…

al-Malik al-ʿAzīz

(194 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū Manṣūr K̲h̲usraw-Fīrūz , eldest son of D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla S̲h̲īrzīl. Būyid prince (407-41/1016 or 1017-1049). In the lifetime of his father D̲j̲alal al-Dawla [ q.v.], ruler of Bag̲h̲dād, he was governor of Baṣra and Wāsiṭ and latterly heir to the throne, but when his father died in S̲h̲aʿbān 435/March 1044, K̲h̲usraw-Fīrūz was away from the capital in Wāsiṭ, and superior financial resources enabled his more forceful cousin ʿImād al-Dīn Abū Kālīd̲j̲ār Marzubān [ q.v.] to secure the loyalty of the Būyid troops in Bag̲h̲dād and to establish himself firmly in ʿIrāḳ. …

Marw al-S̲h̲āhid̲j̲ān

(4,173 words)

Author(s): Yakubovskii, A.Yu. | Bosworth, C.E.
or simply Marw , the city which dominated the rich but notoriously unhealthy oasis region of classical and mediaeval Islamic times along the lower course of the Murg̲h̲āb river on the northeastern fringes of Persia, also called “Great Marw”. Formerly within the historic province of K̲h̲urāsān [ q.v.], the seat of pre-Islamic wardens of the marches and often of provincial governors in Islamic times, its site (“Old Merv”) and the nearby modern settlement of Bairam Ali (see below) fall today within the Turkmenistan SSR. The name Marw al-S̲h̲āhi…

Pahlawān

(742 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), from Pahlaw , properly “Parthian”, ¶ acquired in pre-modern Persian and thence in Turkish, the sense of “wrestler, one who engages in hand-to-hand physical combat”, becoming subsequently a general term for “hero, warrior, champion in battle”. From this later, broader sense it is used as a personal name in the Persian world, e.g. for the Eldigüzid Atabeg [see ilden̄izids ] Nuṣrat al-Dīn D̲j̲ahān-Pahlawān (reigned in ʿĀd̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. d. 581 or 582/1186 [see pahlawān , muḥammad b. ilden̄iz ; and see Justi, Iranisches Namenbuch, 237, for other bearers of this name]. The w…

Muḥammad b. Hindū-S̲h̲āh

(212 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
Nak̲h̲čiwānī , S̲h̲ams al-Dīn, Persian official and littérateur of the 8th/14th century and apparendy the son of Hindū-S̲h̲āh b. Sand̲j̲ar Gīrānī or al-D̲j̲īrānī, author of an Arabic adab work (Brockelmann, II2, 245, S II, 256) and of a Persian version of Ibn al-Ṭiḳṭaḳā’s Fak̲h̲rī , the Tad̲j̲ārib al-salaf (see Storey, i, 81, 1233; Storey-Bregel, i, 326-7). Muḥammad was a chancery secretary under the Il-K̲h̲ānids. He wrote a Persian-Persian glossary, Ṣiḥāḥ al-Furṣ , dedicated to his superior G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn, son of the great vizier for the Mongols, Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn Faḍl Allāh [ q.v.…

Tālis̲h̲

(917 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Yarshater, E.
, a district on the southwestern shores of the Caspian Sea, originally wholly within Persia until the Gulistān Treaty of 12/24 October 1813 between Russia and Persia awarded to ¶ Russia the greater part of Tālis̲h̲, that north of the Astārā river. This last part has successively been ruled by Imperial Russia, the Soviets and (since 1991) the Azerbaijan Republic. The part of the Iranian Tālis̲h̲ī people remaining within Persia occupies an area of the modern province ( ustān ) of East Azerbaijan to about 50 km/30 miles south of the Astārā river. 1. Geography and history. The region comprises …

al-Subkī

(1,777 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J. | Bosworth, C.E.
, the nisba from the name of two small towns of Lower Egypt, in the mediaeval district of Manf [ q.v.], now in the Manūfiyya mudīriyya or province, in the southwestern part of the Nile Delta. See ʿAlī Mubārak, al-K̲h̲iṭaṭ al-d̲j̲adīda , Būlāḳ 1305/1887-8, xii, 6-7; Muḥammad Ramzī, al-Ḳāmūs al-d̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfī li ’l-bilād al-miṣriyya , Cairo 1953-68, ii/2, 217. ¶ A. The mediaeval Subk known as Subk al-Ḍaḥḥāk (modern Subk al-T̲h̲alāt̲h̲) was the place of origin of a celebrated family of S̲h̲āfiʿī ʿulamāʾ which flourished in Mamlūk times and of which the most outstanding figures were the S̲h̲ayk…

Naṣīḥat al-Mulūk

(4,755 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.), literally “advice for rulers”, a phrase under which may conveniently be considered the genre of pre-modern Islamic literature which consists of advice to rulers and their executives on politics and statecraft ( siyāsa [ q.v.] or tadbīr al-mulūk ); the ruler’s comportment towards God and towards the subjects or raʿiyya [ q.v.] whom God has entrusted to his charge; the conduct of warfare, diplomacy and espionage; etc. All these themes correspond to the genre of mediaeval European literature known as that of “mirrors for princes” or Fürstenspiegel (see on this, Dict . of the Middle Age…

Ṭāhir b. al-Ḥusayn

(465 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. Muṣʿab b. Ruzayḳ, called D̲h̲u ’l-Yamīhayn (? “the ambidextrous”), b. 159/776, d. 207/822, the founder of a short line of governors in K̲h̲urāsān during the high ʿAbbāsid period, the Ṭāhirids [ q.v.]. His forebears had the aristocratic Arabic nisba of “al-K̲h̲uzāʿī”, but were almost certainly of eastern Persian mawlā stock, Muṣʿab having played a part in the ʿAbbāsid Revolution as secretary to the dāʿī Sulaymān b. Kat̲h̲īr [ q.v.]. He and his son al-Ḥusayn were rewarded with the governorship of Pūs̲h̲ang [see būs̲h̲and̲j̲ ], and Muṣʿab at least apparently governed Harāt also. …

al-Sīrad̲j̲ān

(600 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Sīradtān , one of the principal cities of mediaeval Persian Kirmān and that province’s capital during the first three Islamic centuries. Only from Būyid times onwards (4th/10th century) did Bardasīr or Guwās̲h̲īr (perhaps originally a ¶ Sāsānid foundation, *Weh Ardas̲h̲īr) become the administrative capital, known in the sources also as s̲h̲ahr -i Kirmān [see kirmān, at vol. V, 150]. Sīrad̲j̲ān now exists as the name of a district in the western part of Kirmān province and as a name recently revived and given to the present town of Saʿīdābād on the S̲h̲…

Sāmānids

(5,984 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Crowe, Yolande
, a Persian dynasty which ruled in Transoxania and then in Ḵh̲urāsān also, at first as subordinate governors of the Ṭāhirids [ q.v.] and then later autonomous, virtually independent rulers (204-395/819-1005). ¶ 1. History, literary life and economic activity. The early history of the Sāmānid family is obscure. They may have stemmed either from Sog̲h̲dia or, perhaps more likely, from Ṭuk̲h̲āristān south of the Oxus, probably from the petty landowners of the Balk̲h̲ area. It was not possible to connect the Sāmānids with a noble Arab tr…

Miyāna

(446 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, in the early Islamic souces more usually Miyānid̲j̲, a town of Persia situated on the Ḳizil-Üzen [ q.v.] affluent of the Safīd-Rūd which drains southeastern Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān [ q.v.]. The modern town lies in lat. 37°20′ N. and long. 47°45′ E. at an altitude of 1,100 m./3,514 ft. Being at the confluence of several rivers on the section of the Ḳizil-Üzen known in mediaeval Islamic times as the “river of Miyānid̲j̲” (cf. Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, Nuzha , 224, tr. 216), Miyāna (literally, “middle place”, cf. Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, v, 240) was in mediaeval times …

Īd̲h̲ad̲j̲

(1,007 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
or Māl-Amīr , town of western Persia, situated on a tributary of the upper reaches of the Dud̲j̲ayl or Kārūn river, in southern Luristān, at 49° 45′ E. and 31° 50′ N. In mediaeval times it was generally reckoned to be part of the province of al-Ahwāz or K̲h̲ūzistān [ q.v.], and under the ʿAbbāsids was the capital of a separate administrative district or kūra . It lay on a plain at an altitude of 3,100 feet, and though reckoned by the geographers to be in the garmsīr or hot zone, the nearby mountains gave it a pleasant and healthy climate; the winter snow from…

Ṭahmūrat̲h̲

(602 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, generally accounted the second king of the Pīs̲h̲dādid dynasty [ q.v.] in legendary Iranian epic history, coming after the first world-king Kayūmart̲h̲ or Gayōmard and the founder of the Pīs̲h̲dādids, Hūs̲h̲ang [ q.v.]. Certain Islamic sources make him the first king of his line, and the length of the reign attributed to him—such figures as an entire millennium or 600 years are given—shows the importance attached to him. His name appears in the Avesta as Tak̲h̲mō urupa azinavε̇a , with the first element tak̲h̲ma , meaning “strong, courageous” (cf. the name Rustam/Rustahm) and urupi . azi…

Sarak̲h̲s

(916 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town of northern K̲h̲urāsān, lying in the steppe land to the north of the eastern end of the Köpet Dag̲h̲ mountain chain. It was situated on the right or eastern bank of the Tad̲j̲ant (modern Ted̲j̲en) river, whose uncertain flow received the waters of the Harī Rūd before finally petering out in the Ḳara Ḳum desert [ q.v.]. According to the mediaeval Islamic geographers, the river bed only contained water at the time of floods, i.e. winter and early spring. Various channels were taken off the river for irrigation, but scantiness of water supply alwa…
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