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S̲h̲abānkāra

(2,277 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Bosworth, C.E.
, nom d’une tribu kurde et de la région de Perse méridionale qu’elle a occupée au moyen âge islamique. Ibn al-At̲h̲īr l’appelle S̲h̲awānkāra, ¶ et Marco Polo Soncara. Selon Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, la contrée des s̲h̲abānkāra était limitée par le Fārs, le Kirmān et le Golfe Persique. Actuellement, elle se trouve dans l’ ustān ou province du Fars, et il reste deux villages respectivement dans les s̲h̲ahrastāns de Ḏj̲ahrum et de Bū S̲h̲āhr qui portent le nom de S̲h̲abānkāra (Razmārā, éd., Fahrang-i d̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi Īrānzamīn, VII, 139). Mustawfī dit que la capitale était la forteress…

Sīs

(1,930 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, ville de Cilicie, en Anatolie méridionale, appelée aussi Sīsiyya (comme dans Yāḳūt, Buldān, éd. Beyrouth, III, 297-8); en latin médiéval Sisia et Sis; dans les sources françaises médiévales, on trouve aussi Assis et Oussis. Elle devint plus tard la capitale du royaume chrétien d’Arménie cilicienne, puis la ville turque de Ḳōzān, actuellement Kozan. Elle se situe à 37° 27′ de lat. N., à 35° 47′ de long. E. et à 290 m d’altitude, adossée à un mont détaché de la chaīne du Taurus, sur une rivière qui se jette dans le Ḏj̲ayḥān [ q.v.] /Ceyhan. On ne connaīt rien sur cette ville avant le Moyen…

Sālār

(629 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), chef militaire. A partir du pahlavī ancien sardār, il apparut dès l’époque sāsānide la forme sālār, avec le passage bien connu de rd à 1, et l’allongement compensatoire du ā(cf. Grundr. d. Iran. Phil., I, a, 267, 274). Le synonyme en persan moderne sardār n’est pas hérité de l’ancien sardār, mais est une formation moderne; les éléments composant l’ancien mot existent encore dans la forme moderne. L’arménien ancien a repris le pahlavī sālār sous la forme salar; la forme sardār, qui donnerait ‘sardār en arménien n’existe pas dans la langue moderne. Un mot d’emprunt récent …

Saḳsīn

(2,561 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Golden, P.B.
, nom d’une ou plusieurs villes d’Eurasie occidentale. La localisation de cette ville (ou ces villes) n’est toujour pas évidente. Aucune indication à ce sujet n’a été enregistrée dans les ouvrages classiques des géographes musulmans. Maḥmūd al-Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī (trad. R. Dankoff, éd. J. Kelly, Cambridge, Mass. 1982-5, I, 330), qui venait de terminer la rédaction de son Dīwān lug̲h̲at al-Turk, vers 469/1077, mentionne cette ville comme «une cité près de Bulg̲h̲ār. C’est Suwār.» Cette dernière était un nom de tribu (Saviri/Σαβίροι des sources latines et byza…

S̲h̲āpūr

(1,966 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F.
, nom d’un fleuve du Fārs, en Perse méridionale, ainsi que de la ville islamique médiévale de Fārs, qui était le chef-lieu de district du S̲h̲āpūr Ḵh̲ūra. 1. Le fleuve. Il est appelé également le Bis̲h̲āwur (dans Thévenot), Suite du Voyage de Levant, Paris 1674, 295: Bouschavir; 296: Boschavir), et fleuve de Tawwad̲j̲. Il faut l’identifier à l’antique Granis, mentionné par Arien, Indica, 39 et Pline, Hist. Nat., VI, 99. Le cours inférieur, c’est-à-dire le fleuve de Tawwad̲j̲ proprement dit, est formé par la jonction de deux cours d’eau, le S̲h̲āpūr et le Dalakī…

Sālār

(640 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), commander. From the older Pahlavi sardār there arose as early as the Sāsānid period the form sālār with the well-known change of rd to l and compensatory lengthening of the a (cf. Grundr. d. Iran. Phil ., i,a 267, 274). The synonymous word in modern Persian sardār is not a survival of the ancient sardār, but is a modern formation; indeed, the elements from which the ancient word was composed still exist in the modern language. The old Armenian took over the Pahlavi sālār in the form sałar ; the form sardār which would give * sardar in Armenian is not found in the…

S̲h̲āpūr

(1,957 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F.
, the name of a river of Fārs in southern Persia and also of the mediaeval Islamic town of Fārs which was the chef-lieu of the district of S̲h̲āpūr K̲h̲ūra. 1. The river. This is also called the Bis̲h̲āwur (in Thévenot, Suite du Voyage de Levant , Paris 1674, 295: Bouschavir; 296: Boschavir), and river of Tawwad̲j̲. It must be identical with the antique Granis, mentioned by Arrian, Indica , 39; Pliny, Nat . hist., vi, 99. The lower course, the proper river of Tawwad̲j̲, is formed by the junction of two streams, the S̲h̲āpūr and the Dalakī Rūd, rising both in the southwestern border mountains of the ¶ …

S̲h̲abānkāra

(2,313 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of a Kurdish tribe and of their country in southern Persia during mediaeval Islamic times. Ibn al-At̲h̲īr spells the name S̲h̲awānkāra, whilst Marco Polo rendered it as Soncara. According to Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, the S̲h̲abānkāra country was bounded by Fārs, Kirmān and the Persian Gulf. At present, it falls within the ustān or province of Fārs, and there are still two villages, in the s̲h̲ahrastāns of D̲j̲ahrum and Bū S̲h̲ahr respectively, bearing the name S̲h̲abānkāra (Razmārā (ed.), Farhang-i d̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi Īrānzamīn , vii, 139). Mustawfī says that the capital was…

Tañri̊

(1,848 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Doerfer, G.
(t.), Heaven, God. In the eastern Turkish dialects the vocalisation is usually palatal: Čag̲h̲atay, tengri (written ) and similar forms in the other dialects. The trisyllabic forms in Teleut ( täñärä ) and in the Altai dialect ( täñäri ) are worthy of note; the Kazan Tatar dialect has alongside of tängri (god) a word täri = image of a saint, ikon (we may here mention the proper name Täri-birdi , where täri of course means God). The Og̲h̲uz dialects (Ottoman Turkish, Azerbaijani and Turkmen) have a non-palatal vocalisation, as has Yakut ( tañara ) and Chuvas̲h̲ ( tură < tañri̊ ). For the lexicogr…

Sīs

(2,007 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F.
, a town of Cilicia in southern Anatolia, also called Sīsiyya (as in Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, iii, 297-8), mediaeval Latin Sisia and Sis; in mediaeval French sources the forms Assis and Oussis are also found. In later mediaeval times it became the capital of the Christian kingdom of Cilician Armenia, and subsequently, the Turkish town of Ḳozan, modern Kozan. It lies in lat. 37° 27′ N. and long. 35° 47′ E. at an altitude of 290 m/950 feet against an outlying mountain of the Taurus range, on a river which eventually flows into the D̲j̲ayḥān [ q.v.]/Ceyhan. Before the Middle Ages, nothing is …

Saḳsīn

(2,576 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Golden, P.B.
, the name of one or more cities in Western Eurasia. The location of this city (or cities) is still unclear. It is unrecorded in the classical Islamic geographies. Maḥmūd al-Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī (tr. R. Dankoff and J. Kelly ¶ Cambridge, Mass. 1982-5, i, 330), who finished writing his Dīwān lug̲h̲at al-Turk in ca. 469/1077, notes it as “a city near Bulg̲h̲ār. It is Suwār.” The latter was a tribal name ( Saviri /Σαβίροι of the Latin and Byzantine sources) of one of the constituent elements of the Volga Bulg̲h̲ārs. In this regard, Togan ( Ibn Faḍlān’s Reisebericht , 203-4, cite…

Tañri̊

(1,954 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(t.), Heaven; God. In the eastern dialects the vocalisation is usually palatal: Čag̲h̲atāi, tängri (written ) and similar forms in the other dialects. The trisyllabic forms in Teleut ( täñärä) and in the Altai dialect ( täñäri) are worthy of note; the Kasan dialect has alongside of tängri (god) a word täri = image of a saint, ikon (we may here mention the proper name Täri-birdi, where täri of course means God). Ottoman Turkish has a non-palatal vocalisation ( tañri̊) as has Yakutic which has also in addition a trisyllabic form ( tañara). For the lexicographical material cf. Pavet de Cou…

S̲h̲aman

(953 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(p.), an idolater. The word belongs to the poetical language, and is at present obsolete. In Asadī’s Lug̲h̲at al-Furs (ed. Horn, p. 104), it is explained: „butparast”, while quoting the following verse of Rudakī: „ butparastī girifta īm hama, īn d̲j̲ahān čun but ast u mā s̲h̲aman īm” [„We have all adopted idolatry; this world is like the idol, and we are idolater(s)”, or: „because this world is the idol, etc.”]. The same explanation is given in the Farhang-i S̲h̲uʿūrī (ii., fol. 132 verso) where besides the verse just mentioned (here reproduced in a somewhat altered, seemi…

Turbat-i S̲h̲aik̲h̲-i Ḏj̲ām

(492 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, a place in the north-east of Persia (province of Ḵh̲urāsān), not far from the Afg̲h̲ān frontier; its position is approximately 61° East Long, and 35° N. Lat. It is a stage on the Mas̲h̲had-Herāt road (the distance from Turbat-i S̲h̲aik̲h̲-i Ḏj̲ām to Mas̲h̲had is about 96 miles, roughly half the distance between Mas̲h̲had and Herāt) and lies on a tributary of the Harīrūd. In the first half of the xixth century the number of houses was given at about 200 (Conolly, about 1830); towards the end of the century (1894) Yate put the number at about 250. The last named t…

ʿUnṣurī

(1,898 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ḥasan b. Aḥmad al-ʿUnṣurī of Balk̲h̲, a Persian poet. The year of his birth is unknown and that of his death is variously given, the most probable date being 441 (1049—1050). Very little is known of his life. The matter, mainly anecdotes, recorded by the Persian literary historians is of very little value. According to a very late source, Riḍā Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān’s Mad̲j̲maʿ al-Fuṣaḥāʾ (Ṭeherān 1295, i. 355), he was captured by robbers while on a trading journey in his youth and deprived of all his goods. He was later brought by Amīr Naṣr, brother of Maḥ…

Mad̲j̲ūs

(4,160 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(a.), the Zoroastrians. The Greek word μάγοΣ (which itself renders an Īrānian word, cf. old-Persian magus̲h̲, new-Persian mug̲h̲) passed into Arabic through an Aramaic medium. According to the Arabic lexicographers, Mad̲j̲ūs is a collective like Yāhūd; in the singular Mad̲j̲ūsī is to be used; the religion of the Mad̲j̲ūs is called al-Mad̲j̲ūsīya. The lexicographers cite from the root a iind form ( mad̲j̲d̲j̲asa) and a vth ( tamad̲j̲d̲j̲asa). In a poem, cited in the Lisān and the Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs the phrase nār mad̲j̲ūsa is found; if we only could be sure, that this poem is rea…

Yazdān

(612 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(p.), God. This word comes from the sphere of Zoroastrian ideas (cf. Avestan yazata, Sanskrit yajata = “worthy of reverence”, a Vedic epithet of gods, e. g. Agni, Indra, Savitar, and also of objects). Old Persian used for “god” the word baga (cf. Avestan bag̲h̲a, Sanskrit bhaga, Pahlavl bag̲h̲). The Avestan yazata as an adjective means “worthy of reverence” and as a substantive “god”; it is used of Ahuramazda himself (he is called the “Greatest of the yazatas”) as well as of the divine beings subordinate to him, like Mit̲h̲ra, Sraos̲h̲a etc. (cf. Bartholomae, Altiran. Wörterbuch, col. 1279 s…

Ḳaṭrān B. Manṣūr

(980 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, a Persian poet. ʿAwfī calls him Ḳaṭrān al-ʿAḍudī al-Tabrīzī; according to Dawlats̲h̲āh, he was born in Tirmid̲h̲. Others say he was born in Ḏj̲abal-i Dailam; Ḏj̲abalī is also found as his nisba. Dawlats̲h̲āh says that he spent some time in Balk̲h̲ and later lived in the ʿIrāḳ. The period of his literary activity lies about the middle of the eleventh century a. d. Nāṣir-i Ḵh̲usraw mentions in the Safarnāma that he met Ḳaṭrān in Tabrīz in 438 (1046); a wellknown poem by Ḳaṭrān commemorates the earthquake in Tabrīz in 434 (1042/43). According to a tad̲h̲kira quoted in Rieu, Supplement, p. 140,…

K̲h̲ulm

(1,104 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, name of a place, situated 2 marḥala (xo farsak̲h̲) to the East of Balk̲h̲, on the road to the frontier of Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān. Ibn Ḵh̲urdādbih calls the station halfway between Balk̲h̲ and Ḵh̲ulm Walārī. A. Burnes reckons a distance of 40 miles from Ḵh̲ulm to the ancient city of Balk̲h̲; the mediaeval geographers give the following distances from Ḵh̲ulm to Simind̲j̲ān, Waralīz (or Warwālīz) and Bahār respectively: 2 days (Iṣṭak̲h̲rī and Muḳaddasī; ace. to Yāḳūt: 5 days); 2 days; 6 farsak̲h̲ (Ibn Ḵh̲urdādbih; the extract from Ibn Ḏj̲aʿfar’s Kitāb al-Ḵh̲arād̲j̲ gives 7 farsak̲h̲, and notes …

Kās̲h̲if

(558 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, Muḥammad S̲h̲arīf b. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn, with the tak̲h̲alluṣ Kās̲h̲if-i Kumait, a Persian man of letters of the xith (xviith) century. What is known of his life comes mainly from the Ḵh̲ātima of his Ḵh̲azān u Bahār. The author’s father, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad, also known as S̲h̲amsā-i S̲h̲īrāzī, was living at Karbalā when his son Muḥammad was born and left it for Iṣfahān in 1006 (1597/98) to escape persecution from the Sunnīs. Muḥammad, the son, was then three years old so that he was born in 1003 (1594/95). In 1008 (1599—1600) S̲…
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