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Taḳī al-Dīn

(415 words)

Author(s): Blois, F.C. de
Muḥammad b. S̲h̲araf al-dīn ʿAlī al-Ḥusaynī al-Kās̲h̲ānī, appelé généralement Taḳī Kās̲h̲ī, érudit perse du Xe-XIe/XVIe-XVIIe siècles. Il fut élève du poète Muḥtas̲h̲am Kās̲h̲ī, dont il édita le dīwān. Il est célèbre pour son recueil monumental de poésie persane Ḵh̲ulāṣat al-as̲h̲ʿār wa-zubdat al-afkār, dont la première version fut achevée en 993/1585 et la seconde version étendue en 1016/1607-8. Il rassembla des notices sur beaucoup plus de 600 poètes depuis le Ve/XIe siècle jusqu’aux contemporains de l’auteur, avec pour chacun une biographie détaillée, suivie d…

Sīmurg̲h̲

(570 words)

Author(s): Blois, F. C. de
(p.), nom d’un oiseau mythique. Deux passages de l’ Avesta font allusion à l’«oiseau Saēna-» ( marayō saēnō; Yaišt, 14/41) ou à l’«arbre de Saēna-» ( vanam yam saēnahe; Yašt, 12:17). Ce dernier passage spécifie que cet arbre se tient au milieu du lac Vourukasa, que son nom est «Tous-remèdes» et qu’il porte les semences de toutes les plantes. Le mot saēna- est étymologiquement identique au sanskrit śyēiá-, «aigle, faucon». Mais il ne ressort pas clairement des deux passages avestiques qu’il désigne une espèce déterminée d’oiseau (encore que Saēnaapparaisse ailleurs dans l’ Avesta comme …

Tard̲j̲ama

(12,912 words)

Author(s): Eickelman, D.F. | Gutas, D. | Blois, F.C. de | Sadgrove, P.C. | Afshar, Iradj | Et al.
(a., pl. tarād̲j̲im), le nom verbal du verbe tard̲j̲ama «interpréter, traduire, écrire la biographie de quelqu’un ( lahu)». Pour ce qui concerne la fonction d’interprète, voir Tard̲j̲umān. I. En littérature. II. Traductions du grec et du syriaque. III. Traductions du moyen-perse (pehlevi). IV. Traductions modernes en arabe. (a) Au XIXe siècle. (b) Au XXe siècle. V. En persan. VI. En turc. I. En littérature. Elle peut faire partie du titre d’une biographie, ou, dans l’Afrique du Nord contemporaine, former la biographie (ou l’autobiographie) elle-même. Le ʿilm al-tarād̲j̲im est don…

Ṣābir b. Iamāʿīl al-Tirmid̲h̲ī (s̲h̲ihāb al-dīn), connu habituellement sous le nom d’adĪb Ṣābir

(394 words)

Author(s): Blois, F. C. de
, poète persan de la première moitié du VIe/XIIe siècle. Son dīwān, qui a été publié deux fois (éd. ʿAlī Ḳawira, Téhéran 1331 S̲h̲./1952-3, et éd. M. ʿA. Nāṣiḥ, Téhéran 1343, S̲h̲./1964) consiste presque entièrement en panégyriques à la louange du sultan ¶ sald̲j̲ūk Sand̲j̲ar (511-52/1118-57), du Ḵh̲wārazms̲h̲āh Atsi̊z (521-68/1127-72) et de divers personnages dans leurs cours respectives, notamment le raʾīs-i Ḵh̲urāsān pour le compte de Sand̲j̲ar, Mad̲j̲d al-dīn ʿAlī b. Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Mūsawī, principal mécène du poète. La rivalité entre ses deux maîtres pri…

Taʾrīk̲h̲

(51,484 words)

Author(s): Blois, F. C. de | Dalen, B. van | Humphreys, R. S. | Marίn, Manuela | Lambton, Ann K. S. | Et al.
(a.), «date, datation, chronologie, ère», puis aussi «annales, histoire». I. Dates et Ères dans le Monde Islamique 1. Avec le sens de «date, datation» etc. 2. Chronologie des ères dans les manuels astronomiques. II. Ecriture Historique 1. Dans le monde arabe. (a) Des origines jusque vers 950. (b) Pays du centre et de l’Est 950-1500. (c) La période 1500-1800. (d) Les XIXe et XXe siècles. (e) En Afrique du nord. (f) Dans al-Andalus. 2. En persan. 3. En turc ottomane et en turc moderne. 4. En Inde musulmane. 5. En Afrique occidentale et en Afrique centrale. 6. En Afrique orientale. 7. En Indonési…

Wāw

(817 words)

Author(s): Blois, F. C. de
, 27e lettre de l’alphabet arabe (ou 26e, si le hāʾ est placé après le wāw), ayant pour valeur numérique 6. Il a deux fonctions principales dans l’orthographe de l’arabe, représentant soit la semi-voyelle w soit la voyelle longue ū. La grammaire arabe traditionnelle réduit ces deux fonctions à une seule en analysant le ū comme un u bref ( ḍamma) plus un wāw. Le wāw sert également (comme le alif et le yāʾ) de «support» au hamza [ q.v.] médian ou final, ce qui reflète la situation, selon l’avis le plus communément admis, dans l’ancien dialecte de La Mecque, où le ʾ semble être devenu un w dans certaine…

Tāʾ et Ṭāʾ

(499 words)

Author(s): Blois, F. C. de
, troisième et seizième lettres de l’alphabet arabe, avec les valeurs numériques dans le système d’ abd̲j̲ad correspondant à 400 et 9 respectivement. Dans la prononciation standard moderne, la première représente une occlusive sourde, dentale (ou dento-alvéolaire), légèrement aspirée, la seconde une occlusive sourde, dentale (dento-alvéolaire), non-aspirée vélarisée, c’est-à-dire avec le dos de la langue tendu vers le palais mou. Sībawayh et ses successeurs qualifient le ṭāʾ de mad̲j̲hūr, ce que certains modernes interprètent par «sonore» [voir Ḥurūf al-Hid̲j̲āʾ], mais le…

Zindīḳ

(3,842 words)

Author(s): Blois, F.C. De
1. The word. Zindīḳ , pl. zanādiḳa , abstract/collective noun zandaḳa , is an Arabic word borrowed (at least in the first instance) from Persian, and used in the narrow and precise meaning “Manichaean” (synonym: Mānawī , or the quasi-Aramaic Manānī ), but also loosely for “heretic, renegade, unbeliever”, in effect as a synonym for mulḥid , murtadd or kāfir . The earliest attestation of the word, in any language, is in the Middle Persian inscription of the Zoroastrian high priest ¶ Kirdīr on the so-called Kaʿba-yi Zardus̲h̲t, from the end of the 3rd cent…

Tard̲j̲ama

(12,376 words)

Author(s): Gutas, D. | Eickelman, D.F. | Blois, F.C. de | Sadgrove, P.C. | Afshar, Iradj | Et al.
(a., pl. tarād̲j̲im ), verbal noun of the verb tard̲j̲ama “to interpret, translate, write the biography of someone ( lahu )”. For the function of interpreter, see tard̲j̲umān . ¶ 1. In literature. Here, it may form part of the title of a biography, or, especially in contemporary North Africa, the biography (or autobiography) itself. Hence ʿilm al-tarād̲j̲im is a branch of historical research, sometimes equated by the Twelver S̲h̲īʿa with ʿilm al-rid̲j̲āl [ q.v.]. The term dates to at least the early 5th/11th century, where it appears in the titles of three works by al…

S̲h̲ahristan

(501 words)

Author(s): Blois, F.C. de
(p.) “province”, “provincial capital”, “[large] town”. The word continues Middle Persian s̲h̲ahrestān , which has the same meanings, though it is certainly possible that it goes back even further to an unattested Old Persian * xšaça-stāna- . In any case, it is derived from s̲h̲ahr [ q.v.]—or its ancestor—and -stāna “place” (in compounds); a s̲h̲ahristān is thus literally a “place of kingship”, i.e. the seat of the local representative of royal power (the provincial capital) and then also the region over which that representati…

Yāʾ

(817 words)

Author(s): Blois, F.C. de
, the 28th letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value 10. It stands for the semivowel y and for the long vowel ī , which the grammarians analyse as short i ( kasra ) plus yāʾ . For the shortening of final before hamzat al-waṣl , see wāw . ϒāʾ is also used, like alif and wāw, as a “support” for medial or final hamza [ q.v.], reflecting presumably the ancient Ḥid̲j̲āzī dialect loss of hamza in certain positions with concomitant glides. In word-final position, alif maḳṣūra (that is to say: long ā not followed by hamza) is written sometimes with alif and sometimes with yāʾ. In the latter c…

Sūzanī

(295 words)

Author(s): Blois, F.C. de
(better Sōzanī), Muḥammad b. ʿAlī (or Masʿūd?) al-Samarḳandī, Persian satirical poet of the 6th/12th century. A native of Nasaf (Nak̲h̲s̲h̲ab), he eulogised several of the Ḳarak̲h̲ānid rulers of Samarḳand, from Arslān S̲h̲āh Muḥammad II (495- ca. 523/1102- ca. 1129) up to Ḳi̊li̊č Ṭamg̲h̲āč K̲h̲ān Masʿūd II ( ca. 556-74/ ca. 1161-78), but also several of the Burhānid ṣadr s of Buk̲h̲ārā [see ṣadr . 1], the Sald̲j̲ūḳid Sand̲j̲ar [ q.v.] and others. Dawlats̲h̲āh, who appears to have seen Sūzanī’s grave in Samarḳand, says that he died in 569/1173-4, and adds that bef…

Ṣābiʾ

(2,588 words)

Author(s): Blois, F.C. de
(a.), or, with the usual weakening of final hamza , Ṣābī , plural Ṣābiʾūn , Ṣābiʾa , Ṣāba , in English “Sabian” (preferably not “Sabaean”, which renders Sabaʾ [ q.v.]), a name applied in Arabic to at least three entirely different religious communities: (1) the Ṣābiʾūn who are mentioned three times in the Ḳurʾān (II 62, V 69, XXII 17) together with the Christians and Jews. Their identity, which has been much debated both by the Muslim commentators and by modern orientalists, was evidently uncertain already shortly after the time of Muḥamma…

al-Ṭug̲h̲rāʾī

(841 words)

Author(s): Blois, F.C. de
, Muʾayyid al-Dīn Abū Ismāʿīl al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī al-Muns̲h̲iʾ al-Iṣbahānī, secretary, Arabic poet and alchemist. He was born in 453/1061 at Iṣfahān, and his poems give ample testimony of his lasting attachment to his native town. He entered the service of Sald̲j̲ūḳs at the time of Malik S̲h̲āh and went on to become chief secretary under that ruler’s son, Muḥammad I, with the tides muns̲h̲iʾ , mutawallī dīwān al-ṭug̲h̲rāʾ and ṣāḥib dīwān al-ins̲h̲āʾ ; in short, he was the second most senior official (after the wazīr ) in the civil administration of the Sald̲j̲…

Sald̲j̲ūḳids

(46,928 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Hillenbrand, R. | Rogers, J.M. | Blois, F.C. de | Darley-Doran, R.E.
, a Turkish dynasty of mediaeval Islam which, at the peak of its power during the 5th-6th/11th-12th centuries, ruled over, either directly or through vassal princes, a wide area of Western Asia from Transoxania, Farg̲h̲āna, the Semirečye and K̲h̲wārazm in the east to Anatolia, Syria and the Ḥid̲j̲āz in the west. From the core of what became the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire, subordinate lines of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ family maintained themselves in regions like Kirmān (till towards the end of the 6th/12th century), Syria (till the opening years of…

Sīmurg̲h̲

(597 words)

Author(s): Blois, F.C. de
(p.), the name of a mythical bird. There are two passages in the Avesta referring to the “bird Saēna-” ( mərə γ ō saēnō ; Yašt 14: 41) or the “tree of Saēna-” ( vanam yam saēnahe ; Yašt 12: 17); the latter specifies that this tree stands in the middle of Lake Vourukaša, that its name is “all-remedies” and that it bears the seeds of all plants. The word saēna is etymologically identical with Sanskrit śyēná- , “eagle, falcon”, but it is not clear from the two Avestan passages whether it designates a species of bird (though the fact that Saēna- is used…

Wīs u Rāmīn

(510 words)

Author(s): Blois, F.C. de
, a long narrative poem in Persian by Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Asʿad Gurgānī [ q.v.], written not long after 441/1050 and dedicated to Abū Naṣr b. Manṣūr, the governor of Iṣfahān on behalf of the Sald̲j̲ūḳids. The story, which is set in the distant and unspecified past, deals with the love affair between Wīs, the wife of King Mōbad of Marw, and Rāmīn, her husband’s younger brother. It tells of how the two lovers meet, how they are eventually discovered, and how Rāmīn rises in rebellion against his brother, in the end …

Taḳī al-Dīn

(413 words)

Author(s): Blois, F.C. de
Muḥammad b. S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī al-Ḥusaynī al-Kās̲h̲ānī, commonly called Taḳī Kās̲h̲ī , Persian scholar of the 10th-11th/16th-17th centuries. He was a pupil of the poet Muḥtas̲h̲am Kās̲h̲ī, whose dīwān he edited. His fame rests on his monumental compendium of Persian poetry K̲h̲ulāṣat al-as̲h̲ʿār wa-zubdat al-afkār , of which the first version was completed in 993/1585 and the enlarged second version in 1016/1607-8. It contains notices of well over 600 poets from the 5th/11th century up to the author’s own contempora…

Sid̲j̲ill

(7,408 words)

Author(s): Blois, F.C. de | Little, D.P. | Faroqhi, Suraiya
(a.). 1. Ḳurʾānic and early Arabic usage. Sid̲j̲ill is an Arabic word for various types of documents, especially of an official or juridical nature. It has long been recognised (first, it seems, by Fraenkel) that it goes back ultimately to Latin sigillum , which in the classical language means “seal” (i.e. both “sealmatrix” and “seal-impression”), but which in Mediaeval Latin is used also for the document to which a seal has been affixed; it was borrowed into Byzantine Greek as σιγίλλ(ι)ον, “seal, treaty, imperial edict”, and then, via Aramaic (e.g. Syriac sygylywn

Tansar

(425 words)

Author(s): Blois, F.C. de
, Kitāb , “the Letter of Tansar”, a political treatise from Sāsānid Persia, known in the Islamic world through an Arabic translation, probably by Ibn al-Muḳaffaʿ [ q.v.], from a lost original in Pahlavi. It was ostensibly written by “Tansar” (a misreading, in Pahlavi script, for Tusar, perhaps an abbreviation of * Tus-artēs̲h̲tār , Avestan Tusa-raθaēštar- “T. the warrior”), the chief priest of the first Sāsānid king, Ardas̲h̲īr I ( ca. 224-40), to Gus̲h̲tāsp, the king of Ṭabaristān, encouraging him to submit to Ardas̲h̲īr and, more generally, justifying the Sāsāni…
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