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S̲h̲ams

(4,027 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T. | Dalen, B. van | Milstein, Rachel
(a.), the sun (f). 1. In Pre-Islamic Arab lore. This was a divinity worshipped in the Semitic world, especially in Assyria-Babylonia (cf. its attributes in K. Tallqvist, Akkadische Götterepitheta , Helsinki 1938, 453 ff.) and in South Arabia, where the plurals s̲h̲ums (for s̲h̲umūs ) given by Yāḳūt (ed. Beirut, iii, 362) for this ṣanam or idol, ʾs̲h̲ms and the dual s̲h̲msy (G. Ryckmans, Les noms propres sudsémitiques , Louvain 1934-5, i, 33; A. Jamme, Le panthéon sud-arabe préislamique d’après les sources épigraphiques , in Muséon , lx [1947], 101 ff.) ¶ denote the titulary divinities of a certain individual or ethnic group or clan or territory. For Yāḳūt, it was “an idol of the Banū Tamīm; it had a sanctuary and was worshipped by all the sections of the Banū Udd (sc. the grandfather of Tamīm), sc. Ḍabba, Taym, ʿAdī, T̲h̲awr and ʿUkl. Its custodians ( …