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Taʾrīk̲h̲

(51,484 words)

Author(s): Blois, F. C. de | Dalen, B. van | Humphreys, R. S. | Marίn, Manuela | Lambton, Ann K. S. | Et al.
(a.), «date, datation, chronologie, ère», puis aussi «annales, histoire». I. Dates et Ères dans le Monde Islamique 1. Avec le sens de «date, datation» etc. 2. Chronologie des ères dans les manuels astronomiques. II. Ecriture Historique 1. Dans le monde arabe. (a) Des origines jusque vers 950. (b) Pays du centre et de l’Est 950-1500. (c) La période 1500-1800. (d) Les XIXe et XXe siècles. (e) En Afrique du nord. (f) Dans al-Andalus. 2. En persan. 3. En turc ottomane et en turc moderne. 4. En Inde musulmane. 5. En Afrique occidentale et en Afrique centrale. 6. En Afrique orientale. 7. En Indonési…

al-Malik al-Muʿaẓẓam

(2,046 words)

Author(s): Humphreys, R.S.
, titre de plusieurs princes ayyūbides, parmi lesquels le plus important est S̲h̲araf al-dīn ʿĪsā b. al-Malik al-ʿĀdil [ q.v.]. Né au Caire en 576/1180, il fut nommé prince de Damas en 594/1198 et le resta jusqu’à sa mort, survenue en 624/1227 par suite de causes naturelles. Sa carrière à Damas, surtout ses six dernières années, illustre avec une clarté extraordinaire la dynamique politique de la phase centrale de la confédération ayyūbide, entre la mort de Ṣalāḥ al-dīn, en 589/1193 et le règne d’al-Ṣāliḥ Ayyūb ap…

Masʿūd b. Mawdūd b. Zangī

(1,331 words)

Author(s): Humphreys, R.S.
, ʿIzz al-dīn, cinquième atābak zangide d’al-Mawṣil (57689/1180-93). Sa carrière publique s’emmêla du début à la fin avec celle de son grand adversaire Ṣalāḥ al-dīn (Saladin), et il est facile de ne le considérer que comme une ombre ennuyeuse sur le chemin de ce dernier. Mais Masʿūd avait une politique positive personnelle: conserver sous sa direction l’héritage de Zangī et de Nūr al-dīn dans la Syrie du Nord et la Ḏj̲azīra. Bien qu’il ne possédāt ni les ressources matérielles ni l’imagination polit…

Munḳid̲h̲

(3,484 words)

Author(s): Humphreys, R.S.
, Banū, clan qui joua un rôle éminent dans les affaires syriennes (et, à un moindre degré, égyptiennes) du milieu du Ve/XIe siècle à la fin du VIe/XIIe. Entre 474 et 552/1081-1157, leur principale possession était la ville fortifiée de S̲h̲ayzar, perchée sur un rocher dominant l’Oronte (al-ʿAṣī [ q.v.] à une quinzaine de km au Nord-ouest de Ḥamāt [ q.v.]). Après la destruction de S̲h̲ayzar et la mort de la majeure partie du clan dans le désastreux tremblement de terre de 552, les membres survivants furent contraints de poursuivre leur carrière au service…

Masūd b. Mawdūd b. Zangī

(1,295 words)

Author(s): Humphreys, R.S.
, ʿIzz al-Dīn , fifth Zangid Atābak of al-Mawṣil (Mosul) (576-89/1180-93). Masʿūd’s public career was entangled from beginning to end with that of his great adversary Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn, and it is easy to regard him as no more than a troublesome shadow in the latter’s path. But Masʿūd had a positive policy of his own—to maintain, under his leadership, the legacy of Zangī and Nūr al-Dīn in ¶ North Syria and the D̲j̲azīra. Though he had neither the material resources nor the political imagination to block Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn’s ambitions altogether, he ne…

Munḳid̲h̲

(3,403 words)

Author(s): Humphreys, R.S.
, Banū , a clan prominent in Syrian (and to a lesser extent Egyptian) affairs from the middle of the 5th/11th century to the end of the 6th/12th century. Between 474/1081 and 552/1157 their principal possession was S̲h̲ayzar. a fortified town perched on a crag overlooking the Orontes (al-ʿĀṣī [ q.v.]) River, some 15 km. northwest of Ḥamāt [ q.v.]. After S̲h̲ayzar was destroyed and most of the clan killed in the disastrous earthquake of 552/1157, its remaining members were compelled to pursue careers in the service of the various princes of Syria and Egy…

al-Muʿaẓẓam

(2,162 words)

Author(s): Humphreys, R.S.
, al-Malik , the title of several Ayyūbid princes. Among these the most important and intriguing figure is doubtless al-Malik al-Muʿaẓẓam S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿĪsā b. al-Malik al-ʿĀdil Abī Bakr b. Ayyūb b. S̲h̲ād̲h̲ī b. Marwān. Born in Cairo in 576/1180, he was made ruler of Damascus in 594/1198, a position which he retained until his death from natural causes in 624/1227. Al-Muʿaẓẓam’s career as prince of Damascus, especially its last six years, illustrates with extraordinary clarity the political dynamics of the Ayyūbid confederation’s middle phase between the death of Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn [ q.v.…

al-Nāṣir

(2,044 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Humphreys, R.S.
, the name of two Ayyūbid sultans. I. al-Malik al-Nāṣir Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Dāwūd b. al-Malik al-Muʿaẓẓam , born in D̲j̲umādā I 603/December 1205) in Damascus. After the death of his father at the end of D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 624/November 1227 Dāwūd succeeded him on the throne of Damascus and the Mamlūk ʿIzz al-Dīn Aybak acted as regent. Dāwūd’s uncle however, covetous of territory, did not leave him long in peace. Al-Malik al-Kāmil [ q.v.] first of all claimed the fortress of al-S̲h̲awbak [ q.v.], and when it was refused him he occupied Jerusalem, Nābulus and other places (625/1228). In t…

Taʾrīk̲h̲

(48,480 words)

Author(s): De Blois, F.C. | Van Dalen, B. | Humphreys, R.S. | Marin, Manuela | Lambton, Ann K.S | Et al.
(a.) “date, dating, chronology, era”, then also “annals, history”. ¶ I. Dates and Eras in the Islamic World 1. In the sense of “date, dating”, etc. i. Etymology . The non-Arabic origin of this word was recognised by the mediaeval philologists, but the often-cited derivation of the participle muʾarrak̲h̲ “dated”, from a supposed Persian compound māh-rōz “month-day”, is naturally fanciful. In fact, it clearly belongs to the common Semitic root for “moon” and “month”; cf. Akkadian ( w) arḫu , Sabaic wrḫ , Ethiopic wärḫ , Mehri wark̲h̲ , or, with the usual Northwe…