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Petrus Cantor

(202 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] (1. Hälfte 12.Jh. Hosdenc bei Beauvais – 1197 Zisterzienserabtei Longpont bei Soissons). Nach Studien an der Domschule von Reims vor 1173 Kanoniker und Magister, seit 1183 auch Cantor an Notre-Dame von Paris. Die Wahl zum Bf. von Paris 1196 nahm P. nicht an. 1197 zum Dekan des Domkapitels von Reims gewählt, starb er auf der Reise dorthin. Von seiner Lehrtätigkeit zeugen zahlreiche, z.T. noch ungedruckte Werke: Glossen zum AT und NT; »Distinctiones« oder »Summa Abel« (Lexikon bibl…

Scholastik

(2,722 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] I. Zu Begriff und Wertung Das Subst. »Sch.« wird seit dem Aufkommen einer hist. Erforschung des MA im 19.Jh. als Sammelbegriff für eine bestimmte Art wiss. Arbeitens (bes. in Philosophie [: II.] und Theol. des MA) gebraucht. Das zugrundeliegende Adj. »scholastisch« (sch.) hat eine bis zu Aristoteles (pol., e.N.) zurückreichende Gesch. Die für den modernen Gebrauch von Sch. entscheidende Konzentration von griech. σχολαστικο´ς/lat. scholasticus auf den Bereich von Unterricht und Wiss. (»zur Schule gehörend«, »gebildet« u. ä.) vollzog sich s…

Observanten

(290 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] . Als O. (observantes, fratres de observantia u. ä.) werden seit dem späten 14.Jh. jene reformwilligen Gruppen oder Richtungen im Mönchtum (: III.,4., b), v.a. in den Bettelorden und hier wieder bes. bei den Franziskanern, bez., die sich in internen Auseinandersetzungen um die rechte Lebensform gegen eingetretene Regelmilderungen und andere Arten der Anpassung (Konventualen) wandten und die strikte Befolgung der rigoros ausgelegten Regeln und anderer Vorschriften forderten (obser…

Sentenzenwerke

(862 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] . Sätze von inhaltlicher Bedeutung und autoritativem Charakter (griech. γn̆ω´μη/gnō´mē [seit Sophoc. Aias 1091] neben spezielleren Begriffen; lat. sententia [seit Cicero]) wurden schon in vorchristl. Zeit in lit.-rhetorischer Funktion verwendet und später zu bequemerem Gebrauch gesammelt (Gnomologion, verwandt mit Anthologia [Florilegium], z.B. Μεn̆α´n̆δρου γn̆ω˜μαι μοn̆ο´στιχοι/Menándrou gnō´mai monóstichoi [wohl im 2.Jh. v.Chr. begonnen und bis in byz. Zeit fortgeführt] oder Σε´ξτου γn̆ω˜μαι/Séxtou gnō´mai [um 200 n.Chr.]). In den trin…

Valdes

(142 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] (gest. ca.1205/1218). Die spärliche Überlieferung erlaubt nur wenige sichere Aussagen über V.; ein Taufname (Petrus) wird nicht vor der 2. Hälfte des 14.Jh. genannt. Der wohlhabende Bürger aus Lyon scheint ca.1176/77 durch die Alexius-Legende oder in die Volkssprache übers. Bibeltexte zu einem apostolischen Leben bekehrt worden zu sein. Ob dabei dem Armutsideal oder dem Wunsch nach Predigttätigkeit Priorität zukommt, ist umstritten. Nach Versorgung seiner Frau und seiner beiden T…

Patrozinien

(938 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] . Patrozinium ist das in der Regel durch eine Weihehandlung begründete geistl. Eigentums- und Herrschaftsverhältnis sowie die daraus folgende Schutzfunktion eines Patrons (meist eines Heiligen) über eine Kirche oder einen Altar, ein Land, eine Stadt oder ein Bistum, eine Personengruppe (sozialer Stand, adelige Familie, Beruf, Zunft, Bruderschaft, Universität, Kloster, Orden u. ä.) oder über eine einzelne Person. Als Gegenleistung für seinen Schutz wird dem Patron durch die Gläubi…

Observanz

(431 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] . I. Der Begriff observantia bez. im klassischen Latein die rücksichtsvolle Verehrung von Mitmenschen, bes. von solchen, die uns an Alter, Weisheit und Würde überragen (Cic., De inventione 2,66.161), in der kaiserzeitlichen Latinität zudem die Beachtung von Bräuchen und Gesetzen (zur Verwandtschaft mit religio vgl.2Makk 6,11 Vulgata). Seit dem Früh-MA wurde der Begriff v.a. auf ein als Befolgung göttlicher Gebote verstandenes rel. Verhalten angewandt: einerseits allg. auf die Einh…

Jerusalem, the Heavenly

(818 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] The notion of a new Jerusalem, an eschatological city of God on Mount Zion is already developed in the Old Testament (Zion Pss; Isa 28:16; 54:11f.; Ezek 40:2; 48:30–35; etc.); it was further nurtured by early Judaism (Qumran; 4 Ezra; etc.). The tendency to separate the heavenly Jerusalem from the earthly one, already apparent in the OT texts, became stronger, especially after the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus in 70 ce. Thus 2 Bar. 4:2–6 states that the true Jerusalem intended by God is not the visible city; it is instead the preexistent Jerusalem, …

Leclercq, Jean

(248 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (Jan 31, 1911, Avesnes, France – Oct 27, 1993, Clervaux, Luxembourg), a Benedictine monk, was one of the most prolific medievalists of the second half of the 20th century. Having studied in Rome and Paris, he also lectured in various places (esp. in Rome). In 1941, after conducting research on the Scholasticism of the 13th to 15th centuries, Leclercq turned to the partly still unpublished monastic literature of the Middle Ages, especially of the 11th and 12th centuries. His extens…

Kilwardby, Robert

(246 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (died Sep 10, 1279, Viterbo). The first reliable date from his life is his election as provincial master of the English Dominicans in September 1261. Working back, earlier dates may be deduced: studies at the Parisian faculty of arts in the 1230s, M.A. around 1237, lectureships in Paris until the mid-1240s, then return to England and entry into the Order of Preachers, theological studies in Oxford (c. 1252–1254 ¶ lecturer on the Sentences), Magister regens of theology in 1254. Having been elected archbishop of Canterbury in 1272, Robert Kilwardby t…

Scholasticism

(2,856 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Terminology and Assessment Ever since the emergence of medieval studies in the 19th century, the noun Scholasticism has been used as a collective term for a particular kind of scholarly method, especially in medieval philosophy (II) and theology. The adjective scholastic, on which it is based, has a history going back to Aristotle ( Politica, Ethica Nicomachea). The focus of Greek σχολαστικός and Latin scholasticus on the realm of academic instruction (“related to schools,” “educated,” etc.), central to the modern use of scholasticism, had already taken place…

Canterbury

(535 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] Seat of a bishopric in the county of Kent, England. Situated at an important road junction during the Roman period, Canterbury became the main settlement of the Cantiani in the first century ce and shows evidence of Christianization from the beginning of the 4th century. The conquest of Britain by the Anglo-Saxons dealt a severe blow to the development of the city. King Ethelbert made it the capital of the kingdom of Kent, while the Roman monk Augustine of Canterbury, a missionary dispatched by Pop…

Bonus, John

(101 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (1168, Mantua? – 1249, Budriolo, Romagna). A layperson who led a life of penitence as a hermit beginning in 1209 in the small village of Budriolo on the northern margins of the Apennines. He founded a hermit community named after him in 1217, at the earliest; it lived according to the Augustinian Rule (Augustine, rule of) and became an order active in pastoral care in northern Italy which was incorporated in 1256 into the order of the Augustinian Hermits. Ulrich Köpf Bibliography K. Elm, “Italienische Eremitengemeinschaften des 12. und 13. Jh.,” in idem, Vitasfratrum, 199…

Genoa

(297 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] Genoa is the capital of the Liguria region and a major Italian port on the Gulf of Genoa, on the southern escarpment of the Ligurian Apennines (1998: 642,000 inhabitants). Settled since the 5th century bce by the Ligurians, then a Roman municipium, whose first Christian bishop is attested in 381 ce (it belonged to Milan until 1133, since then an archdiocese). Already a center of trade in the 6th century, the now wealthy Genoa came in the 11th century into competition with Pisa, emerging victorious, after a long struggle, in 1284.…

Alfonso X, the Wise

(158 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (Nov 26, 1221, Toledo – Apr 4, 1284, Seville), king of Castile and Leon from 1252 to 1284. As the grandson of Philip of Swabia, he claimed the Hohenstaufen throne and embarked on an imperialistic policy embracing the entire Mediterranean region. His political ambitions came to nothing; he was more important as a lawgiver who sought to create a uniform code of law for Castile, historian (he wrote or directed the writing of a history of Spain, Estoria de España, and a universal history, Grande e general estoria), and promoter of astronomy, music, and poetry (427 Cantigas de S.…

Ludolf of Saxony

(180 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (c. 1300, northern Germany – Apr 10, 1378, Straßburg). Initially a Dominican, he was a Carthusian after c. 1340 (Straßburg, Coblenz [Prior], Mainz, Straßburg). His major work is the Vita Jesu Christi, a work based on the gospel harmony of Zacharias of Besançon (Chrysopolitanus, first half of the 12th cent.), early church authors and medieval, meditative and historicizing Jesus literature. It does not simply recount Jesus' life, but seeks, in individual sections (structured according to the scheme of lectio, meditatio and oratio and enriched by introductions an…

Angela of Foligno

(166 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (1248/1249, Foligno – Jan 4, 1309, Foligno). Influenced by the Franciscans at an early age, as a wife and mother Angela experienced a conversion to a life of asceticism and charity during a pilgrimage to Assisi in 1285. In 1291, after her immediate family had died, she joined the Franciscan Third Order. She lived with a female companion; a Franciscan who was related to her served as her confessor. At times a loose circle of disciples (including Ubertino of Casale) gathered about the magistra theologorum. Her confessor translated her ve…

Peter Comestor

(237 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (Petrus; Manducator; early 12th cent., Troyes – 1178/1179, Paris). After studies in Troyes (where he became dean of the cathedral in 1147 and a canon of the abbey of St. Loup), Tours, and Paris, in 1159 he succeeded his teacher Peter Lombard at the cathedral school in Paris. In 1168 he became chancellor of Notre-Dame. During his last years, he lived in the Augustinian abbey of St. Victor. From his time as a teacher, many works have survived, mostly never published in print: glosses (Glossa ordinaria) on the Gospels, a commentary on the Psalms and (the first) on the Sentences of…

William of Hirsau

(260 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (1026, Bavaria – Jul 5, 1091, Hirsau), who was of noble birth, was entrusted by his parents as an oblate (I) to the Benedictine abbey of St. Emmeram in Regensburg, where he was taught by Otloh of St. Emmeram. While still in Regensburg, he wrote two works on the quadrivium in dialogue form: De astronomia and De musica. In 1069 he was called to Hirsau as abbot (consecrated in 1071). He initially reformed the abbey after the model of St. Emmeram, which had adopted the reforms of Gorze Abbey; after 1076, however, Hirsau came under the influ…

Recluses/Hermits

(442 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] Recluses or hermits are men and women who do penance by shutting themselves (or having themselves shut) into a cell, either for a specific period (usually at the beginning of their lives as ascetics) or for the rest of their lives. This extreme form of asceticism surfaced in the Early Church in all regions of the East where there were monastic settlements (e.g. in Egypt, John of Lycopolis; esp. common in Syria) and came to the West in the 6th century, but it reached its climax in …
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