Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Kramers, J.H." ) OR dc_contributor:( "Kramers, J.H." )' returned 245 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Sahl b. Hārūn

(1,009 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, an Arab author and poet who flourished at the end of the second and beginning of the third century a. h. (= beginning of the ninth century a. d.). According to the Fihrist, he was of Persian descent and born in Dastmaisān, between Baṣra and Wāṣiṭ. Al-Ḥuṣrī makes him come from Maisān, which is quite near it, and gives him also the kunya Abū ʿAmr (on the margin of the ʿIḳd, ii. 190). The name of his grandfather is variously…

Ḳūṣ

(498 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town in Upper Egypt on the east bank of the Nile. The form Ḳūṣ (Ḳūs in al-Farg̲h̲ānī and Ibn Rusta) comes from the Coptic Kōs (or Kōs Berbir) which a popular etymology later connected with the Coptic verb meaning “to bury”. In the Roman period the town was ¶ called Apollinopolis Parva and sometimes Diocletianopolis. In the early centuries of Islām, Ḳūṣ seems to have been of much less importance than the adjoining town of Ḳifṭ [q.v.]. Some of the early geographers like Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih do not mention it although it is found in the tables of al-Ḵh̲wārizmī (ed. by von Mžik, p. 9) and al-Fa…

Ṣolaḳ

(194 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
was the name, in the old military organisation of the Ottoman Empire, of the archers of the Sulṭān’s bodyguard. The word ṣolaḳ is an old Turkish word meaning “left-handed”. The relation of this meaning to that of archer is not quite clear. The solaks belonged to the Janissaries, of which they formed four orta’s (60th -63rd), each of 100 men under the command of a Ṣolaḳ Bas̲h̲i̊, and two lieutenants ( rekiab ṣolag̲h̲i̊

Kūt al-ʿAmāra

(1,247 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Kelly, J.B.
, a place in al-ʿIrāḳ (lat. 32° 30′ N., long 45° 50′ E.), on the left bank of the Tigris, between Bag̲h̲dād and ʿAmāra, 100 miles south-east of Bag̲h̲dād as the crow flies. Kūt is the Hindustānī word kōt meaning “fortress” [see kōt́wāl ] found in other place-names in al-ʿIrāḳ, like Kūt al-Muʿammir; Kūt al-ʿAmāra is often simply called Kūt. Kūt lies opposite the mouth of the S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Ḥayy, also called al-G̲h̲arrāf, the old canal connecting the Tigris with the Euphrates, which has several junctions with the Euphrate…

al-Ubulla

(758 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, a town of mediaeval ʿIrāḳ situated in the Euphrates-Tigris delta region at the head of the Persian Gulf and famed as the terminal for commerce from India and further east. It lay to the east of al-Baṣra [ q.v.] on the right bank of the Tigris and on the north side of the large canal called Nahr al-Ubulla, which was the main waterway from al-Baṣra in a southeastern direction to ¶ the Tigris and further to ʿAbbādān and the sea. The length of this canal is generally given as four farsak̲h̲ s or two barīd s (al-Muḳaddasī). Al-Ubulla can be identified with ’Απολόγου ’Εμπόριον, mentioned in the Periplus m…

Marzbān-Nāma

(1,081 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de
(also known in the Arabicised form Marzubān-nāma ), a work in Persian prose containing a variety of short stories used as moral examples and bound together by one major and several minor framework stories. It is essentially extant in two versions written in elegant Persian with many verses and phrases in Arabic. They were made from a lost original in the Ṭabarī dialect independently of each other in the early 13th century. The oldest version, entitled Rawḍat al-ʿuḳūl , was completed in 598/1202 by Muḥammad b. G̲h̲āzī al-Malaṭyawī (or Malaṭī) and was …

Muṣṭafā I

(523 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the fifteenth Ottoman sultan (1026-7/1617-18 and 1031-2/1622-3), was born in the year 1000/1591 as son of Meḥemmed III [ q.v.]. He owed his life to the relaxation of the ḳānūn authorising the killing of all the brothers of a new sultan, and was called to succeed his brother Aḥmed I [ q.v.] at the latter’s death on 23 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 1026/22 November 1617. But his weakmindedness —which is said to have him made escape death on account of superstitious fear of Aḥmed— made him absolutely incapable of ruling. Aḥmed’s son ʿOt̲h̲mān, who felt himself e…

S̲h̲us̲h̲tar

(1,602 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bosworth, C.E.
, S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tar , Arabie form Tustar , a town of southwestern Persia in the mediaeval Islamic province of Ahwāz [ q.v.] and the modern one ( ustān ) of K̲h̲ūzistān (lat. 32° 03’ N., long. 48° 51’ E.). It stands on a cliff to the west of which runs the river Kārūn [ q.v.], the middle course of which begins a few miles north of the town. This position gives the town considerable commercial and strategic importance and has made possible the construction of various waterworks for which the town has long been famous. The main features of these construct…

Salamīya

(1,750 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a small town in Syria in the district east of the Orontes, about twenty-five miles S. E. of Ḥamā and thirty-five (a day’s journey) N. E. of Ḥimṣ (for the exact situation cf. Kiepert’s map in Oppenheim, Vom Mittelmeer zum Persischen Golf, i. and part ii. 401). It lies in a fertile plain 1500 feet above sea level, south of the Ḏj̲abal al-Aʿlā and on the margin of the Syrian steppe. The older and more correct pronunciation was Salamya (al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, B. G. A., i. 61; Ibn al-Faḳīh, B. G. A., v. 110) but the form Salamīya is also found very early (al-Muḳaddasī, B.G.A., iii 190; Ibn Ḵh̲ordād̲h̲beh, B.G.A.…

Mudīr

(205 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, title of the governors of the Egyptian provinces, called mudīrīya. The use of the word mudīr in this meaning is no doubt of Turkish origin. The office was created by Muḥammad ʿAlī, when, shortly after 1813, he reorganised the administrative division of Egypt, instituting seven mudīrīyas; this number has been changed several times [s. k̲h̲edive]. At the present day there are 14 mudīrīyas. The chief task of the mudīr is the controlling of the agricultural administration and of the irrigation, as executed by his subordinates, viz. the maʾmūr, who administers a markaz and the nāẓir who cont…

Muḥammad V

(614 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
Res̲h̲ād, thirty-fifth Ottoman Sulṭān, was born on November 2, 1844 as a son of Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd. During the reign of his brother ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II he lived in seclusion; his very existence inspired ʿAbd al-Hamid with such terror that even the mentioning of persons with the name Res̲h̲ād had to be avoided ¶ in his presence (cf. Snouck Hurgronje, Verspreide Geschriften, iii. 232). He was a man of mild character, who owed his accession to the throne (April 27, 1909) only to the victory of the Young Turks; moreover he was the first constitutional ruler…

Ṣart

(534 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, small village in Lydia in Asia Minor, the ancient Sardes (αἱ ΣάρδειΣ of the classical authors, which makes Sāmī write Sārd), capital of the Lydian Kingdom, situated on the eastern bank of the Ṣart Čai (Pactolus) a little southward to the spot where this river joins the Gedīz Čai (Hermus). Although in the later Byzantine period Sardes had lost much of its former importance (as a metropolitan see) and been outflanked by Magnesia (Turkish Mag̲h̲nīsā) and Philadelphia (Ālā S̲h̲ehr, q. v.), it still was one of the larger towns, when the Seld̲juḳ Turks, in the xith century, made incursions int…

Muḥammad I

(855 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, according to the current view, the fifth Sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire, reigned, after the Empire’s restoration in 1413, as sole acknowledged ruler until his death in 1421. Like many details of the first century of Ottoman history, the year of the birth of this Sulṭān is unknown; Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, i. 66 gives 781 or 791 (1379 or 1389). It is commonly agreed, that he was the youngest of the six sons of Bāyazīd I, which probably has made von Hammer accept the later date. At the time of Timur’s invasion, Muḥammad resided at Amasia, but he w…

Marzubān

(423 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Arabic form of the title of provincial governors in the Sāsānian empire, especially of the “wardens of the marches”, the “markgraves”. The word is derived from marz which still means in Persian a frontier district (Horn, Grundriss der neupersischen Etymologie, p. 218) and is found in Pehlevi in the form maržpān (in the Kār-nāmak; cf. H. S. Nyberg, Hilfsbuch des Pehlevi, i., Upsala 1928, p. 54) which suggests a north Īrānian origin (cf. Lentz, Z. I. I., iv. 255, 295), as we find alongside of marz also mard̲j̲ in Persian (Horn, loc. cit.). The ¶ title is not found, however, before the Sās…

K̲h̲āḳānī

(300 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a Turkish poet of the second half of the xvith century. His proper name was Muḥammad Bey and he was a descendant of Āyās Pas̲h̲a [q. v.] who was Grand Wazīr under Suleimān I. His life was not eventful; according to Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī he was mutafarriḳa and sand̲j̲āḳ-bey. Ḵh̲āḳānī owes his fame to a not very long māt̲h̲namī called Ḥilya-i S̲h̲arīfa, written in a tripodic ramal-metre. This poem is a paraphrase of an Arabic text known as al-Ḥilya al-Nabawīya containing a traditional account of the prophet’s personal appearance; each of the enumerated features is comment…

Talk̲h̲īṣ

(87 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, an Arabic maṣdar meaning to make a précis, means in the official language of Turkey a document in which the most important matters are summed up for presentation to the Sulṭān. The officials who had these papers prepared and presented them to the Sulṭān were the grand vizier and the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām. On account of its change of significance, talk̲h̲īṣ is included among the g̲h̲alaṭāt-i mas̲h̲hūra, cf. Muḥammad Hafīd, al-Durar al-muntak̲h̲abāt al-mant̲h̲ūra fī Iṣlāḥ al-G̲h̲alaṭāt al-mas̲h̲hūra (1221 a. h., p. 115). (J. H. Kramers)

Ḳismet

(171 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(a., t.); this word, the Arabic meaning “distribution” of which is a synonym of iḳtisām later came to mean lot, portion and developed as a third meaning “the lot which is destined for every man°. It is this meaning of the Turkish that is best known. In Turkish however ḳismet is not so much an expression of theological doctrines concerning predestination (cf. ḳadar) as of a practical fatalism which accepts with resignation the blows and vicissitudes of fate. The same sentiment is often expressed among Persian and Turkish poets by the words falak and čark̲h̲ to express the irrational and i…

Sulṭān

(2,943 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(a.), 1. a title which first appears in the fourth (xith) century in the sense of a powerful ruler, an independent sovereign of a certain territory. The word is of frequent occurrence in the Ḳurʾān, most often with the meaning of a moral or magical authority supported by proofs or miracles which afford the right to make a statement of religious import. The prophets received this sulṭān from Allāh (cf. e. g. Sūra xiv. 12, 13) and the idolators are often invited to produce a sulṭān in support of their beliefs. Thus the dictionaries (like the Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs, v. 159) explain the word as synony…

Skanderbeg

(850 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
is the name by which the national hero of Albania is generally known in Europe. It is based on an Italianised or Latinised form of the name Iskandar Beg, which was given him in his youth when he was serving at the Ottoman court; the name contains an allusion to that of Alexander the Great. His real name was George Kastriota, of the family of the Kastriotas of Serbian origin, who had once ruled Epirus and Southern Albania. Born about 1404, he and his three elder brothers were given as hostages to Sulṭān Murād II, so that he was brought up in the Muslim religion as ič og̲h̲lan. His ability won him the …
▲   Back to top   ▲