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Ören Ḳalʿe

(1,321 words)

Author(s): Rogers, J.M.
, in Russian Orenkale, a site in the southern part of the modern Azerbaijan Republic, in the mediaeval Islamic province of Arrān [ q.v.]. It lies in lat. 39° 50ʹ N., long. 47° 30ʹ E. above the confluence of the Kur and Araxes rivers, close to an ancient canal, the Gyaur Ark̲h̲ [see mūḳān , at Vol. VII, 498b]. The site marks the mediaeval Islamic ¶ town of Baylaḳān [ q.v.] conclusively established by the discovery of wasters of spheroconic vessels, stamped with the inscription ʿamal Faḍlūn bi ’l-Baylaḳān

al-Ḳāhira

(22,495 words)

Author(s): Rogers, J.M. | J. M. Rogers | J. Jomier
, capital of Egypt and one of the most important centres of religious, cultural and political life in the Muslim world. The city is situated on both banks on the Nile, at 30°6′ Lat. N. and 31°26′ Long. E. respectively, at ca. 20 km. south of the delta where the Muḳaṭṭam Mountain almost comes down to the river. This strategical point dominating the access to Lower Egypt had been inhabited since early times, but became of primary importance during the arab invasion in 22/643, when ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣ established the foundations of a permanent encampment at al-Fusṭāṭ. The…

Lāranda

(6,428 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de | Reed, H.A. | Rogers, J.M.
, Larende or Karaman in modern Turkish usage, earlier Turkish Ḳaramān or Dārende, a provincial town in Anatolia, is the seat of one of the thirteen districts of Ḳonya [ q.v.]. The district of Karaman is the largest (4,647 km 2) ilçe in Turkey. The town lies outside the earthquake zone at lat. 37° N, long. 33° 10′ E, at an elevation of 1,038 m., on the plateau at the northern end of the pass leading through the Taurus Mts. to the Göksü (ancient Kalykadnos, or Saleph) river valley. The main roa…

Ḳubbat al-Hawāʾ

(523 words)

Author(s): Rogers, J.M.
, “the Dome of the Winds”, a popular appellation for isolated monuments situated on rocky spurs, for example, the (undated) domed tomb of a s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ on the west bank of the Nile (cf. Murray’s Handbook for travellers in Upper and Lower Egypt