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Makka

(28,107 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery | Wensinck, A. J. | Bosworth, C. E. | Winder, R. B. | King, D. A.
, La Mekke (dans l’usage courant: La Mecque; Mecca en anglais), ville sainte par excellence de l’Islam où le Prophète Muḥammad vécut près de 50 ans et où se trouve la Kaʿba [ q.v.]. I. — Période pré-islamique et premières années de l’Islam. Description géographique. La Mekke (21° 27′ N., 39° 49′ E) est située à l’intérieur du Ḥid̲j̲āz, à 72 km environ du port, sur la mer Rouge, de Djedda (Ḏj̲udda [ q.v.]); c’est aujourd’hui le cheflieu de la province ( manāṭiḳ idāriyya) de Makka, en Arabie saʿūdite. Sa population est, en temps normal, de 2 à 300 000 âmes, mais elle peut attein…

al-Madīna

(13,695 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery | Winder, R.B.
(usually Medina in English, Médine in French), residence of the Prophet Muḥammad after the ḥid̲j̲ra and one of the sacred cities of Islam. Medina is situated in the Ḥid̲j̲āz province of Saʿūdī Arabia in latitude 24° 28′ N, longitude 39° 36′ E, about 160 km. from the Red Sea and about 350 km. north of Mecca. It has developed from an oasis on relatively level ground between the hill of Uḥud on the north and that of ʿAyr on the south. East and west are lava flows (in Arabic ḥarra [ q.v.] or lāba ). There are several wādī s or watercourses which cross the oasis from south to…

Makka

(45,581 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery | Wensinck, A.J. | Bosworth, C.E. | Winder, R.B. | King, D.A.
(in English normally “Mecca”, in French “La Mecque”), the most sacred city of Islam, where the Prophet Muḥammad was born and lived for about 50 years, and where the Kaʿba [ q.v.] is situated. 1. The pre-Islamic and early Islamic periods Geographical description. Mecca is located in the Ḥid̲j̲āz about 72 km. inland from the Red Sea port of Jedda (D̲j̲udda [ q.v.]), in lat. 21° 27′ N. and long. 39° 49′ E. It is now the capital of the province ( manātiḳ idāriyya ) of Makka in Suʿūdī Arabia, and has a normal population of between 200,000 and 300,000, which …