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ʿIrāḳ

(20,765 words)

Author(s): Miquel, A. | Brice, W.C. | Sourdel, D. | Aubin, J. | Holt, P.M. | Et al.
, É t a t de religion musulmane et en majeure partie arabophone, situé à l’extrémité orientale du Croissant fertile. ¶ I. — Géographie. La structure du pays ʿiraḳien tire, paradoxalement, son originalité de son appartenance à un grand ensemble géographique. De la table désertique arabosyrienne, qu’il regarde sur son flanc Sud-ouest, il a le faciès et le climat. Tout au long de ses frontières sur le Nord-est, il participe au contraire de l’orientation et du relief des chaînes plissées de l’Asie occidentale, qui lui donn…

Abū Saʿīd b. Muḥammad b. Mīrāns̲h̲āh b. Tīmūr

(1,300 words)

Author(s): Aubin, J.
, sultan tīmūride. Dès 853/1449, âgé de vingt-cinq ans, Abū Saʿīd, profitant de la situation désespérée d’Ulug̲h̲ Beg, à la cour duquel il vivait, tentait sa chance en Transoxiane. Un siège de Samarḳand ¶ (1449), puis un soulèvement à Buk̲h̲ārā (mai 1450) furent deux échecs. Peu après il s’empara de Yasī (Turkistān) et s’y maintint contre les troupes de ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibrahīm Sulṭān b. S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲. En d̲j̲umādā 1er 855/juin 1451, il chassait ce dernier de Samarḳand grâce au concours du k̲h̲ān özbeg Abū l-Ḵh̲ayr. Au printemps 858/1454, Abū Saʿīd franchit l’Oxus e…

Abū Saʿīd b. Muḥammad b. Mīrāns̲h̲āh b. Tīmūr

(1,398 words)

Author(s): Aubin, J.
, Tīmūrid sultan. In 853/1449, at the age of twenty-five, Abū Saʿīd, taking advantage of the desperate situation of Ulug̲h̲ Beg, at whose court he lived; tried his fortune in Transoxiana. A siege of Samarḳand (1449), then a rising at Būk̲h̲ārā (May 1450) both ended in failure. Not long afterwards he seized Yasi̊ (Turkistān), and held it against the troops of ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibrāhīm Sulṭān b. S̲h̲āhrūk̲h̲. In Ḏj̲umādā I 855/June 1451 he drove the latter out of Samarḳand with the help of the Özbeg k…

ʿIrāḳ

(21,303 words)

Author(s): Miquel, A. | Brice, W.C. | Sourdel, D. | Aubin, J. | Holt, P.M. | Et al.
, a sovereign State, of the Muslim religion, for the most part Arabic-speaking, situated at the eastern end of the Fertile Crescent. i.—Geography The structure of ʿIrāḳ paradoxically derives its originality from the fact that it forms part of a large geographical block of territory. From the Arabo-Syrian desert tableland which it faces along its south-western flank, it takes its general aspect and its climate. All along its frontiers on the North-East, on the other hand, it shares the orientation and ¶ relief of the folded mountain-chains of western Asia, which give it its t…