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Muḥammad Ḥākim Mīrzā

(232 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Mug̲h̲al prince and half-brother of the emperor Akbar [ q.v.], b. 960/1553, d. 993/1585. In 973/1566 he was governor of Kābul and eastern Afg̲h̲ānistān for Akbar, but when temporarily forced out of his capital by the Tīmūrids of Badak̲h̲ s̲h̲ān, he retreated towards India, where a group of dissident Özbeg nobles proclaimed him emperor at Ḏj̲awpūr and incited him to invade India. He beseiged Lahore with his forces, but had to retreat to Kābul. For over a decade, he posed a threat on Akbar’s northwestern front…

Kalikat

(935 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, locally Kōĺikōd́u (interpreted in Malayalam as “cock fortress”, see Yule and Burnell,

Is̲h̲kās̲h̲im

(383 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a small settlement in the modern Afg̲h̲ān province, and the mediaeval Islamic region, of Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān [ q.v.]. It lies in lat. 36° 43′ N., long. 71° 34′ E., and should not be confused with Is̲h̲kāmis̲h̲, further westwards in the Ḳunduz or Ḳaṭag̲h̲ān district of Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān. The historic Is̲h̲kās̲h̲im is on the left or southern bank of the Pand̲j̲ or upper Oxus river (only in Soviet times did a smaller settlement on the other side of the river become the chef-lieu of the so-called Is̲h̲kās̲h̲im tuman or district of the Gorno-Badak̲h̲ s̲h̲ān Auton…

Hindū-S̲h̲āhīs

(318 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a native dynasty of northern India who were the first great opponents of G̲h̲aznawid and Islamic expansion into the Pand̲j̲āb. Bīrūnī in his Taḥḳīḳ mā li ’l-Hind describes them as originally Turks from Tibet who ruled in the Kābul river valley; it is possible that these “Turks” were Hinduized epigoni of the Kushans and Kidarites pushed eastwards by the Hephthalites [see hayāṭila ]. During the 4th/10th century these first Hindū-S̲h̲āhīs were replaced by a Brāhmanic line. In the time of the first G̲h̲aznawids Sebüktigīn and Maḥmūd [ qq.v.], the Hindū-S̲h̲āhīs constituted a powerful…

Riḍwān

(643 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
or Ruḍwān b. Tutus̲h̲ b. Alp Arslan…

ʿUtba b. G̲h̲azwān

(316 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. D̲j̲ābir, Abū ʿUbayd Allāh or Abū G̲h̲azwān al-Māzinī, from the Māzin tribe of Ḳays ʿAylān and a ḥalīf or confederate of the Meccan clans of Nawfal or ʿAbd S̲h̲ams, early convert to Islam and one of the oldest Companions of the Prophet. He was called “the seventh of the Seven”, i.e. of those adopting the new faith. He took part in the two hid̲j̲ras to Ethiopia, the battle of Badr and many of the raids of Muḥammad. During ʿUmar’s caliphate, he was sent from Medina to lead raids into Lower ʿIrāḳ, capturing al-Ubulla [ q.v.], killing the marzbān of Dast May…

Ṣaffārids

(2,702 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a dynasty of mediaeval eastern Persia which ruled 247-393/861-1003 in the province of Sid̲j̲istān or Sīstān [ q.v.], the region which now straddles the border between Iran and Afg̲h̲ānistān.…

Ṭunb

(438 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of two small islands (the Greater and the Lesser Ṭunbs) in the Persian Gulf situated to the west of the Straits of Hurmuz (lat. 26° 15′ N., long. 55° 17′ E.), whose modest history has been linked in recent times with that of the island of Abū Mūsā to their southwest (lat. 25° 52′ N., long. 55° 00′ E.). All three islands have been the subject of disputes between the ruling power in Persia to the north and the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ s of the Arab shores of the Gulf, those now forming the United Arab Emirates [see al-imārāt al-ʿarabiyya al-muttaḥida, in Suppl.]. The Ṭunbs are mentioned by the Portuguese author Duarte Barbosa in his description of the Inner Gulf ( ca. 1518) as Fomon (read Tomon = Ṭunb) as amongst those islands dependent on the nominal Arab ruler in Hurmuz [ q.v.]. Persia had a shadowy historical claim to the islands, but with the appearance of British naval power in the Gulf from the late 18th century onwards [see al-ḳaw…

Nuṣratābād

(266 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the more recent name for the town of eastern Persia known in mediaeval Islamic times as Isfīd̲h̲, Sipih, Safīd̲j̲ (written in al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī and Ibn Ḥawḳal as Sanīd̲j̲, for *Sabīd̲j̲/Safīd̲j̲). It lay on what was the highway from Kirmān to Sīstān [

Maḥmūd Yalawač

(422 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, minister in Central Asia and China of the Mongol K̲h̲āns in the 13th century A.D. Barthold surmised ( Turkestan3 , 396 n. 3) that Maḥmūd Yalawač was identical with Maḥmūd the K̲h̲wārazmian mentioned by Nasawī as one of the leaders of Čingiz’s embassy of 1218 to the K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āh ʿAlāʾ al-Dīh Muḥammad [see k̲h̲wārazm-s̲h̲āhs…

Kötwāl

(1,220 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(Persian orthography, k.w.twāl ), commander of a fortress, town, etc. The word is used throughout mediaeval times in the Iranian, Central Asian and Muslim Indian worlds, and has spread we…

Rūs̲h̲anī, Dede ʿUmar

(272 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Turkish adherent of the Ṣūfī order of the K̲h̲alwatiyya [ q.v.] and poet in both Persian and Turkish. He was born at an unspecified date at Güzel Ḥiṣār in Aydi̊n, western Anatolia, being connected maternally with the ruling family of the Aydi̊n Og̲h̲ullari̊ [see aydi̊nog̲h̲lu ] and died at Tabrìz in Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān in 892/1487. Dede ʿUmar was the k̲h̲alīfa of Sayyid Yaḥyā S̲h̲īrwānī, the pīr-i t̲h̲ānī or second founder of the Ḵh̲alwatī order, and as head of the Rūs̲h̲anī branch of the order engaged in missionary work in northern Ād̲h̲a…

Subayta

(201 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Isbayta , the Arabic name for a settlement in the Negev [see al-nakb ] region of southern Palestine, which had the Nabataean name, rendered in Greek sources as Sobata (whence the Arabic one), Hebrew Shivta. Its ruins lie 43 km/27 miles to the southwest of Beersheba at an altitude of some 350 m/1,150 feet. First described by E.H. Palmer in 1870, it has been extensively excavated since the 1930s. The town flourished in Late Nabataean, Late Roman and Byzantine times as an unwalled, essentially agricultural centre, it being away from the main trade routes. The exact date of the coming of the Muslim Arabs is unknown, but was probabl…

Rūznāma

(148 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), literally “record of the day”, hence acquiring meanings like “almanac, calendar, daily journal” etc. 1. As a mediaeval Islamic administrative term. In the ʿAbbāsid caliphate’s financial departments, the rūznāmad̲j̲ was the day-book ( kitāb al-yawm) in which all the financial transactions of the…

Ḳuld̲j̲a

(1,365 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
or G̲h̲uld̲j̲a , modern Hi or I-ning, a town in the fertile and mineral-rich upper valley of the Ili river [ q.v.] in Central Asia. For the mediaeval history of the district in which modern Ḳuld̲j̲a lay, see almali̊g̲h̲ . The town of Ḳuld̲j̲a (“Old Ḳuld̲j̲a”) was probably a new foundation in 1762 by the Chinese after their vic…

K̲h̲uldābād

(178 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town in the northwestern part of the former Ḥaydarābād state, now in Maharashtra state of the Indian Union, and situated in lat. 20° 1′ N. ¶ and long. 75° 12′ E; it is also known as Rauza (sc. Rawḍa). It is 14 miles from Awrangābād and 8 from Dawlatābād [ q.vv.], and a particularly holy spot for Deccani Muslims, since it contains the tombs of several Muslim saints and great men, including the Niẓām-S̲h̲āhī minister Malik ʿAnbar [ q.v.]; Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf D̲j̲āh, founder of Ḥaydarābād state [ q.v.]; and above all, of the Mug̲h̲al Emperor Awrangzīb [ q.v.], who died at Aḥmadnagar in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 1118/March 1707 and was buried at the rawḍa or shrine of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Zayn al-Ḥaḳḳ, and of his son Aʿẓam S̲h̲āh. After Awrangzīb’s burial, the place was called K̲h̲uldābād, the monarch’s posthumous name being K̲h̲uld-maḳām “he whose abode is eternity” (see Cambridge hist. of India, iv, 302). (C.E. Bosworth) Bibliography Gazeteer of Aurangabad District, Bombay 1884 Imperial gazeteer of India 2, xv, 285 Murray’s Handbook to India, Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon 21, London 1968, 59-61.

Rohtak

(189 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of a region and a town of northwestern India, now in the Hariyana State of the Indian Union. The region is not mentioned in the earliest Indo-Muslim sources, but from the Sultanate period onwards, its history was often linked with that of nearby Dihlī, to its southeast. In the 18th century, it was fought over by commanders of the moribund Mug̲h̲als and the militant Sikhs [

Koyl, Koil

(337 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town of northern India situated 75 miles south-east of Dihlī and coming within the United Provinces in British India, now Uttar Pradesh in the Indian Union. The more modern town of ʿAlīgaŕh [ q.v.] has expanded out of a suburb of Koyl. In 590/1194 the commander of the G̲h̲ūrids, Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Aybak [ q.v.], captured Koyl on a raid from Dihlī, and henceforth there were usually Muslim governors over local Rād̲j̲put rulers, such as Kučuk ʿAlī under Bābur (932/1526) ( Bābur-ndma , tr. Beveridge, 176). Ibn Baṭṭūṭa visited Koyl on his way southwards from Dihl…

Lāhīd̲j̲ān

(2,406 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
1. A town in the Caspian coastal province of Gīlān [ q.v.] in north-western Persia, in long. 50° 0′ 20″ E. and lat. 37° 12′ 30″ N. It is situated on the plain to the east of the lower reaches of the Safīd-Rūd and to the north of the Dulfek mountain, and on the small river Čom-k̲h̲ala or Purdesar, but at some 14 miles/20 km. from the Caspian Sea shore. Lāhīd̲j̲ān does not seem to have been known as such to the earliest Arabic geographers, though legend was to attribute its foundation to Lāhīd̲j̲ b. Sām b. Nūḥ. It does, however, appear in the Persian Ḥudūd al-ʿālam (372/982) as L…
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