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(2,386 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H. | MacKenzie, D.N. | Eckmann, J.
, infinitive of the verb aḍāfa ( ilā ) “to unite (with)”, has became a term in Arabic grammar. In the Kitāb of Sībawayhi it has at first a very wide meaning: it is inserted into the theory of the d̲j̲arr (genitive) [the Kūfans say k̲h̲afḍ ] set out in Chapter 100. There we find: “al-D̲j̲arr is found only in nouns that are muḍāf ilayhi” , that is: “that have received an adjunction”, the muḍāf being that which is “added”. It is the iḍāfa , the fact of having united one term with another, that requires the d̲j̲arr ( Mufaṣṣal , § 110), but the “operator” of this putting into the d̲j̲arr, the ʿāmil , is the ḥarf al…


(4,265 words)

Author(s): Haywood, J.A. | MacKenzie, D.N. | Eckmann, J.
(a.), dictionary. 1. Arabic Lexicography The word ḳāmūs/ḳawmas , from the Greek Ωχεανός appeared in Arabic, at the latest at the time of the Prophet, with the meaning of “the bottom, the very deepest part of the sea”. Nevertheless, following Ptolemy, the Arab geographers borrowed the Greek word again, in the form Uḳiyānūs , and applied it to “the mass of water surrounding the earth”, more particularly the Atlantic Ocean, which was called Uḳiyānūs al-muḥīṭ , then more simply al-Ḳāmūs al-muḥīṭ . As this latter term was employed in a metaphorical sense by al-Fīrūzābādī [ q.v.] as the title o…