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(2,913 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, orthographical sign alif , which is the ¶ first letter of the Arabic alphabet, with numerical value one ; transcribedʾ internally and at the end of words, ignored initially (except in special cases) in the system of the EI. Definition: unvoiced glottal occlusive. For the Arab grammarians, hamza is a ḥarf ṣaḥīḥ defined as: s̲h̲adīda mad̲j̲hūra , having as mak̲h̲rad̲j̲ : aḳṣāl-ḥalḳ “The farthest part of the throat” (like h) (al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī. Mufaṣṣal 2, § 732). For the phonological oppositions of the phoneme hamza, see J. Cantineau, Esquisse , 178; for the incompatibilities, ibid., …

Ḥurūf al-Hid̲j̲āʾ

(3,861 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, “letters of the alphabet”. Al-hid̲j̲āʾ is defined in LA, xx, 228, l. 17, xv, 353b, l. 4-5, as taḳṭīʿ al-lafẓa bi-ḥurūfihā . This follows Ibn Sīda, who in his Muk̲h̲aṣṣaṣ (xiii, 3 end) attributes this definition to the Ṣāḥib al-ʿAyn (al-K̲h̲alīl): “cutting up the word into its ḥurūf”, that is, “spelling”. Contemporary or recent dictionaries of the Arab world ( Muḥīṭ al-Muḥīṭ , al-Bustān , Aḳrab al-mawārid , al-Mund̲j̲id ) define it more precisely as taḅṭīʿ al-lafẓa wa-taʿdīd ḥurūfihā maʿa ḥarakātihā : “cutting up the word and enumerating its ḥurūf with their ḥarakāt”


(529 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, the seventh letter of the Arabic alphabet, here transcribed as k̲h̲. Its numerical value is 600, according to the eastern order [see abd̲j̲ad ]. Definition: voiceless post-velar fricative. According to the Arabic grammatical tradition: rīk̲h̲wa , mahmūsa , mustaʿliya . For the mak̲h̲rad̲j̲ : min adnā ’l-ḥalḳ (from that part of the throat nearest to the mouth) (al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī, Mufaṣṣal2 , ed. Broch, § 732); Ibn Yaʿīs̲h̲ ( S̲h̲arḥ , ed. G. Jahn, 1460, 1. 6) defines it thus: “the k̲h̲āʾ is nearer to the mouth than the g̲h̲ayn ”. The Arabs accordingly placed the k̲h̲aʾ


(1,064 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, “inflection” (verbal noun of fourth form, amāla ), a phonetic phenomenon. It consists in “ alifs tending towards yāʾ and fatḥas tending towards kasra ” (Ibn al-Sarrād̲j̲, Mūzad̲j̲ , 139). Modern phonetics regards it as a palatalization, produced by a rising movement of the tongue towards the prepalatal region. Depending on the extent of this movement, the vowel a shifts from its zone of articulation to that of ę or to that of e (or even to that of i). Arab grammarians distinguish an imāla s̲h̲adīda , “strong” (probably a > e) and an imāla mutawassiṭa , “medium” (probably a > ä

Ibn al-Ḥād̲j̲ib

(1,043 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn abū ʿAmr ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿUmar b. Abī bakr al-Mālikī , Māliki faḳīh and grammarian who owes his popular name to the fact that his father, a Kurd, was chamberlain ( ḥād̲j̲ib ) to the amīr ʿIzz al-Dīn Mūsak al-Ṣalāḥī. He was born at Asnā, a village in Upper Egypt, after, 570/1174-5. He studied the Islamic sciences in Cairo with great success, particularly with al-S̲h̲āṭibī and Muḥammad al-G̲h̲aznawī. After that, at least for some years, he must have lived and taught in Cairo, as is shown by the Amālī dated from that town, the earliest in 609/1212-3,…


(1,700 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, a technical term in Arabic grammar. It is sometimes found translated as “inflexion”, as by G. Flügel ( Die gram. Schulen , 15), who also unjustifiably extended the sphere of this “inflexion”. ¶ Nevertheless in translating thus, one comes up against the way in which the Arab grammarians envisaged this “inflexion”. It should be pointed out, first of all, that these grammarians had no proper term for “declension” and “conjugation”, and no general term for “case” and “mood”. They proceed in a purely formal manner. Taking sounds into consideration, they make the following division: (a) rafʿ =


(1,614 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, letter of the alphabet, word; Ibn Ḏj̲innī ( Sirr al-ṣināʿa , i, 15-19), examining the etymology of the word, finds an original meaning of ḥadd , “limit”: innamā ḥarf al-s̲h̲ayʾ ḥadduh wa-nāḥiyatuh ; and, in speaking of the ḥurūf al-hid̲j̲āʾ : ḥadd munḳaṭaʿ al-ṣawt wa-g̲h̲āyatuh wa-ṭarafuh (16, lines 6-7), “The limit where the cutting of the ṣawt occurs, its end, its extremity.” This explanation introduces an element from a system which was elaborated much later: the maḳṭaʿ , but it is important because of the use of the word ḥadd, “limit.” The LA contains a long article on ḥarf


(785 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
is the infinitive of the verb aḍmara/ yuḍmiru , “to conceal”. The Arab grammarians use it when speaking about an unexpressed grammatical element, supposedly existent and active; it can thus be translated as “imply”. The opposite is iẓhār , from the verb aẓhara “to reveal”. A good example of the two is supplied by Ch. 50 of Sībawayhi. One can say (i, 107): al-ṣabiyya al-ṣabiyya , “the small boy, the small boy!” with iḍmār of a verb in the d̲j̲azm requiring the naṣb of the substantive, or, with iẓhār of This verb: lā tuwaṭṭiʾ al-ṣabiyya , “do not tread on the small boy”. This verb aḍmara is used thus…

Ibn Mālik

(1,702 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Mālik al-Ṭāʾī al-D̲j̲ayyānī (the name given by al-Maḳḳarī, ii, 421; for his reasons see 427, lines 13-6), Arab grammarian. He was born in Jaen in 600 or 601/1203-4 or 1204-5, according to the most generally accepted date, and was at first a Mālikī. Al-Maḳḳarī (ii, 421) gives the names of four of his teachers in his native town; to them may be added that of Abū ʿAlī ʿUmar al-S̲h̲alawbīnī, in Seville. Very soon he left for the Near…


(678 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, in Arabic grammar, refers to the constituent parts of the nominal phrase, e.g. Zayd un karīm un “Zayd is noble”; here, Zayd, the first term, is mubtadaʾ , and karīm, the second one, is k̲h̲abar. For the verbal phrase, the corresponding terms are fāʿil agent and fiʿl verb. The Arab grammarians, as can readily be seen, recognised two types of phrase, the nominal and the verbal, in their language. They also recognised clearly the necessity of the ʿaḳd , the nexus linking the two terms of these phrases, and they called it isnād “the act of leaning one thing against another”, the linkage between al-mu…


(731 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
(a.), inf. of the verb istafhama “to interrogate”, a technical term in Arabic grammar signifying interrogation. Interrogation can be indicated simply by the intonation of the sentence, particularly in prose that is close to the spoken language. Arabic generally uses two interrogative particles: a- (negative a-lā , a-mā , a-lam), hal . The second ( hal) is more energetic than the first ( a-), but is of more restricted use (Reckendorf, Arabische Syntax , 19, 10). Sībawayhi (i, 434, line 19-435, lines 1-2) represents the difference between a- and hal thus: “if you say: hal taḍribu Zaydan


(700 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, 19th letter of the Arabic alphabet, here transcribed g̲h̲ ; numerical value: 1000. Definition: a voiced postvelar fricative; according to the Arab grammatical tradition: rik̲h̲wa mad̲j̲hūra mustaʿliya . As regards the mak̲h̲rad̲j̲: min adnā ’l-ḥalḳ (from the part of the throat nearest to the mouth). The Arabs thus made g̲h̲ayn (and k̲h̲āʾ ) guttural. They contrasted them with ʿayn and ḥāʾ , min awsaṭ al-ḥalḳ ; and with hāʾ and hamza , min aḳṣā ’l-ḥalḳ (al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī, Muf. 2 § 732). The velaric articulation of g̲h̲ayn is well described by ¶ R. Růžička as “b…


(1,852 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
a technical term in Arabic grammar, translated approximately as “etymology”; s̲h̲aḳḳa ’l-s̲h̲ayʾ “he split the thing”, is̲h̲taḳḳa ’l-s̲h̲ayʾ”he took the s̲h̲iḳḳ , half of the [split] thing” (Lane, Lex ., 1577a): is̲h̲tiḳāḳ , inf. of is̲h̲taḳḳa , in the technical sense of etymology, derives from the first sense, a word being thought of, so to speak, as split open so that the mus̲h̲taḳḳ , the derivative that it contains, may be extracted. Is̲h̲tiḳāḳ in its general sense, in fact, signifies: nazʿ lafẓ min āk̲h̲ar , “taking one word from another”, under certai…


(1,718 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, Abu ’l-Ṭāhir Muḥammad b. YaʿḲūb b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm Mad̲j̲d al-Di̊n al-S̲h̲āfiʿī al-S̲h̲īrāzī , from his father’s town Fīrūzābād, was born at Kāzarūn, a town near S̲h̲īrāz (Īrān) in Rabīʿ II or D̲j̲umādā II 729/February or April 1329. From the age of eight he was educated in S̲h̲īrāz. then in Wāsiṭ and, in 745/1344, in Bag̲h̲dād. In 750/1349 he was attending the classes of Taḳī al-Dīn al-Subkī in Damascus (Brockelmann, II, 106). His long life can be divided into three main periods, spent in Jerusalem, Mecca and in the Yemen. In the same year 750 he accompanied al-Subkī to Jerusal…


(1,161 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, Abū Ibrāhīm Isḥāḳ b. Ibrāhīm , lexicographer. The early sources are sparse in regard to him. Only Yāḳūt gives him a whole notice ( Udabāʾ , vi, 61-5 = Irs̲h̲ād , ii, 226-9); al-Suyūṭī reproduces a few extracts from this adding nothing ( Bug̲h̲ya , i, 437-8); and al-Ḳifṭī speaks of him only incidentally in his Inbāʾ (i, 52-3), in his notice on Abu ’l-ʿAlāʾ al-Maʿarrī. His date of birth is unknown, but he probably died in 350/961 (the date given by Brockelmann, 12, 133, and Kraemer, 212). He was the maternal uncle of al-Ḏj̲awharī, author of the Ṣiḥāḥ (d. ca. 400/1009 [ q.v.]), which keeps al-Fārāb…


(621 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
in its original usage indicates a separative: “a pearl ( k̲h̲araza ) which effects a separation between two other pearls in the stringing of the latter” when a necklace or piece of jewellery is being made (see Lane s.v.); fāṣila , with this sense of separative, has received two technical usages, one in Arabic prosody, the other in Ḳurʾānic terminology. In Arabic prosody ( ʿarūḍ [ q.v.]), fāṣila denotes a division in the primitive feet, meaning three ḥurūf mutaḥarrika followed by one ḥarf sākin , e.g.: ḳatalat ( al-fāsila al-ṣug̲h̲rā ), or else four ḥurūf mutaḥarrika followed by one ḥarf sākin,…


(721 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, the 23rd letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed as l; numerical value 30 [see abd̲j̲ad ]. Definition: fricative , lateral , voiced . It is called a liquid (H. Fleisch, Traité , i, § 3 b) because of the fluidity of its emission. This act of emission comes ¶ normally from the two corners of the mouth, l bilateral; it can be made from one side only, with unchanged acoustic results, l unilateral (M. Grammont, 71 penult. This last was probably the case with the ḍād (a lateralised consonant [see Ḍād ]), called al-ḍaʾīfa , which was made from the right or left side of…

Ibn al-Sarrād̲j̲

(584 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. al-Sarī al-Sarrād̲j̲ (“the saddle-maker”) al-Naḥwī al-Bag̲h̲dādī , Arab grammarian. The date of his birth is unknown, but he lived in Bag̲h̲dād. He was the youngest pupil of Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Mubarrad, who for that reason devoted particular attention to him. For a time he allowed himself to be led away from grammatical studies in favour of logic and music, but then returned to them resolutely. He taught in Bag̲h̲dād, and some famous grammarians were included amon…


(2,805 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, “action”, is regarded as a noun derived from the verb faʿala yafʿal inf. faʿl , “to do” (Lane, vi, 2420a, b). This noun is the technical term in Arabic grammar for denoting the verb. Where traditional English grammar distinguishes between eight “parts of speech”, the grammar of the Arabs established only three principal divisions: ism , fiʿl , ḥarf . This tripartite division into noun , verb and particle came to the Arabs from Aristotelian logic and not from the grammar of the Greeks; this fact seems ¶ sufficiently established (see Arabica , iv, 14-5 and Traité , 23-4…

D̲h̲ū, D̲h̲ī, D̲h̲ā

(462 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, demonstrative forms based on the demonstrative element d̲h̲ . The variety of their uses precludes these forms from being regarded as a single declined word; thus: D̲h̲ū was the relative pronoun, invariable, of the Ṭayyiʾ; corresponding to the Hebrew , the poetic form of the relative pronoun. Ḏh̲ī forms part of the masc. relative pronoun allad̲h̲ī ; but allatī in the feminine. The opposition d̲h̲/ t marks the gender. Corresponding to d̲h̲ī are the Aramaic biblical relative, invariable, ( de in syr.), the Geez masc. demonstrative ze, acc. za. D̲h̲ā masc. sin…
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